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Residual effect of six acaricides on the two spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) females on cucumber under plastic houses conditions in three upper lands regions in Jordan.

Introduction

Two-spotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is a polyphagous, parenchyma cell feeding spider mite with over 200 host plant species. It has recently become a serious problem because of the extensive use of acaricides, resulting in resistance among the mite populations [2,13]. The development of resistance is also known to be accelerated under confined environmental conditions such as plastichouses [15]. Thus, most commercial acaricides have been often proved to be ineffective to control the field mite populations [11,1,4]. It is quite possible that TSSM susceptibility to acaricides would differ from one location to another of cucumber cultivation in Jordan. This study showed the results of laboratory-based tests that determined the response of three field populations (Al-Ramtha, Baq'a and Zyzya) and one susceptible strain of T. urticae to six common acaricides. These acaricides were abamectin, amitraz, bifenazate, chlorfenapyr, milbemectin and spiromesifen.

In 2009, the total number of plastic-houses in Jordan, which were planted with vegetables, was about 66,000. More than fifty percent of them were planted with cucumber (36,000). The other fifty percent were planted with tomato, pepper, eggplant, beans and other crops [7].

The Jordanian farmers rely heavily on acaricides to control the two-spotted spider mite. Therefore, they have increased the rate of application, applied a mixture of acaricides and applied acaricides more frequently than they should. They have complained about unsatisfactory results in controlling T. urticae [9]. The total quantity of acaricides imported to Jordan in 2009 was 120,000 liters and/or kilograms. The imported acaricides belong to 18 active ingredients, the most important imported active ingredients were abamectin 44,000 liters followed by propargite 22,500 liters, amitraz 9000 liters, chlorfenapyr 8,000 liters, spiromesifen 2,000 liters, cyflumetofen (last registered acaricide) 2,000 liters, bifenazate 1,100 liters, and 500 liters milbemectin [7]. In addition to imported acaricides, there are 15 local agrochemical factories that produce different formulations of active ingredients.

Although TSSM represents a real threat to cucumber plantation under plastic-houses in Jordan, few toxicological studies on this pest have been conducted [8,9]. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the residual effects of the six tested acaricides on four different populations of the two spotted spider mite collected from cucumber under plastic houses in three main regions in the upper lands for cucumber cultivation in Jordan.

Materials and Methods

Populations of T. urticae:

Three T. urticae populations were collected from cucumber plants grown under plastic houses conditions in different regions of Jordan. These geographical regions include Al-Ramtha (100 Km north west of Amman), Baq'a (20 Km north west of Amman), Zyzya (30 Km South of Amman). These regions are considered the main area for cucumber production in the upper lands of Jordan. A susceptible strain of T. urticae was obtained from Lattakia Center for Rearing and Production of Biological Agents (LCRPBA) in Syria. This strain was reared in (LCRPBA) for 5 years without the application of acaricides.

Production of bean plants:

Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Bronco) was chosen for rearing and for the toxicological tests of the (TSSM) because it is one of the mite's favorite host, and for its ease of producing transplants. Seeds of bean (Bronco, Asgrow, USA) were directly sowed inside 10 cm. pots. Potting media used was Peatmoss and Perlite with 3:1 ratio. Plants were infested with SSS T. urticae when they reached the true leaf stage. These plants were irrigated and replaced as needed. No pesticides were applied on the plants except for acaricide tests. These plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in the campus of University of Jordan.

Rearing of the Syrian susceptible strain:

Rearing of the Syrian susceptible strain (SSS) was done inside special insectaria in University of Jordan at Al Jubaiha area (at temperature between 27 [+ or -] 5 [degrees] C and 57 [+ or -] 8% relative humidity and fit period of L 16:8D. The Syrian TSSM was reared and maintained on Phaseolus vulgaris plants under greenhouse conditions. The bean plants were irrigated and replaced as needed.

Tested acaricides:

Six of the most common used acaricides for the control of TSSM on cucumber production in Jordan were evaluated for their residual effects towards T. urticae. These acaricides (14) were:

1. Abamectin 1.8 W/V, EC (Vertimec[R]). It was produced by Merck Sharp and Dohme Agvet (now Syngenta AG) in 1985, with higher recommended rate of 7.2 mg/L H2O. Its Molecular formula is C49H74O14.

2. Amitraz 20% W/V, EC (Mitac[R]). Produced by Bayer Crop Science in 1975, with higher recommended rate of 500 mg/L H2O. Its Molecular formula is C19H23N3.

3. Bifenazate 24% W/V, SC (Floramite[R]). Produced by Uniroyal Chemical Co., Inc. (now part of Crompton Corp.) in 2000, with higher recommended rate of 96 mg/LH2O. Its Molecular formula is C17H20N2O3.

4. Chlorfenapyr 24% W/V, SC (Pirate[R]). Produced by American Cyanamid Co (now BASF AG) in 1998, with higher recommended rate of 120 mg/LH2O. Its Molecular formula is C15H11BrClF3N2O.

5. Milbemectin 1%W/V, EC (Milbecknock[R]). Produced in Japan by Sankyo Co. Ltd in 1990, with higher recommended rate of 12.5 mg/LH2O. Its Molecular formula is C63H90O14.

6. Spiromesifen 24SC (240 W/V) (Oberon[R]). Produced by Bayer Crop Science 2002, with higher recommended rate of 180 mg/LH2O. Its Molecular formula is C23H30O4.

Except abamectin and milbemectin, all the used acaricides are of different groups and have different mode of actions [3].

Residual effect of acaricides on T. urticae females:

The residual effects of different acaricides used on adult females of T. urticae were evaluated under room temperature conditions. Using a hand sprayer, acaricides were applied on cotyledon leaves of bean at their higher recommended label rates (abamectin 7.2mg/L, amitraz 500 mg/L, bifenazate 96mg/L, chlorfenapyr 120mg/L, milbemectin 12.5 mg/L, and spiromesifen 180mg/L) until run-off. Cotyledon leaves were removed at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 days after application. Removed leaves of each treatment were placed in Petri dishes lined with cotton wool [10]. Each leaf was occupied with 25 adult female of T. urticae. The number of dead and alive mites for each treatment was reported 48 hours after contact with the treated cotyledons, except for spiromesifen in which the number of alive and dead mites was counted after 96 hours after mite release because it was noticed from the preliminary studies that adult females treated with spiromesifen usually die 96 hours after applying the acaricide.

Statistical analysis:

The layout of the residual effect experiment was Complete Randomize Design (CRD) with 7 treatments (one concentration for each acaricide) and 4 replications. Obtained data were subjected to analysis using the SAS programme [12]. Prior to analysis, arcsine-transformation of data was done [5]. Obtained results from this experiment had been constructed in tables to facilitate comparison.

Results:

Residual effect of acaricides on T. urticae adult females of Al-Ramtha population:

The residual effect of the tested acaricides against T .urticae females is shown in Table (1). Bifenazate, chlorfenapyr and spiromesifen induced 99%, 95% and 94% mortality, respectively, 1 day after application. Meanwhile, they induced 85%, 73% and 69% mortality, respectively 9 days after application. However, abamectin, amitraz and milbemectin induced 15%, 16% and 20% mortality, respectively, 1 day after application meanwhile they induced 10%, 10% and 12.0% mortality, respectively, 9 days after treatment. At the same time there were no significant differences among abamectin, amitraz and milbemectin mortalities at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days after applications. While there were significant differences between bifenazate and all the other tested acaricides for all the intervals. Furthermore, there were no significant differences between chlorfenapyr, and spiromesifen for all the intervals after treatment.

Residual effect of acaricides on T. urticae adult females of Baq'a population:

Table (2) shows that abamectin, amitraz, and milbemectin induces 10%, 10% and 12.0% mortality of adult T. urticae at day 9 after treatment, respectively, while bifenazate, chlorfenapyr and spiromesifen caused the greatest mortality in mite population which were estimated to 96%, 86%, and 76%, respectively, for the same interval. Mortality percentage estimated after 15 days of application shows that bifenazate caused 90% mortality compared to acaricides used. The rate of T. urticae survival tended to increase slowly with time prior to treatment, especially for bifenazate, chlorfenapyr and spiromesifen at day 6, bifenazate, chlorfenapyr and spiromesifen, remained more effective towards T. urticae populations collected from Baq'a longer than other acaricides resulting in 98%, 88% and 85% mortality, respectively. At the same time, bifenazate, chlorfenapyr and spiromesifen remained the most effective acaricides against T. urticae 15 days after application which caused 90%, 68% and 63% mortality, respectively. spiromeifen and chlorfenapyr caused 59% and 48% mortality for the same period. Bifenazate, spiromesifen, and chlorfenapyr remained effective for several days longer than other acaricides with mortality reached 91%, 86% and 76%, respectively 6 days after treatment .Estimated mortality tabulated in Table 3 shows that abamectin, milbemectin and amitraz induced 24% mortality 1 day after application. Furthermore, this mortality went down to reach 10% as maximum mortality 12 days after application. Meanwhile bifenazate, chlorfenapyr and spiromesifen induced 100%, 92% and 95% mortality, respectively 1 day after application and 76%, 58 and 64% mortality, respectively 12 days after application.

Residual effect of acaricides on T. urticae adult females of Syrian Susceptible Strain:

Table (4) shows comparative residual effects of abamectin, amitraz, bifenazate, chlorfenapyr, milbemectin, and spiromesifen when used at their higher recommended application rates against the SSS strain. Bifenazate maintained at least 89.0% mortality of adult T. urticae, followed by chlorfenapyr and spiromesifen (63%), milbemectin (52%), abamectin (51%) and amitraz (37%) for 15 days after application. Mortality percentage of the tested acaricides against the SSS strain 6 days after treatment was as follows: 98% for bifenazate, 90% for spiromesifen, 86 % for chlorfenapyr, 85% for abamectin, 82% for milbemectin and 70% for amitraz. It was revealed that the SSS strain was susceptible to all tested acaricides when used at their higher recommended rate.

Discussion:

Tables from 1-4 show comparative residual effects of the six tested acaricides (abamectin, amitraz, bifenazate, chlorfenapyr, milbemectin, and spiromesifen) when used at their higher recommended labeled rates against the four tested populations of TSSM (three local field populations and one Syrian susceptible strain). Results showed that abamectin, amitraz and milbemectin had very low residual effect on all the TSSM field populations, while they were active against the SSS. These results ensure the fact that the TSSM field populations developed resistance against these chemicals. The highest mortality percentage among the field populations of TSSM was 26% for milbemectin followed by 24% for both abamectin and amitraz after 24 hours of application, while against the susceptible strain milbemectin caused 97% mortality followed by abamectin 96% and amitraz 91% mortality, 24 hours after application. After 15 days of acaricides application, the mortality percentages caused by abamectin, milbemectin and amitraz against the TSSM field populations decreased to reach 7% meanwhile, against the SSS the mortality percentage reached 52% for milbemectin, 51% for abamectin and 37 % for amitraz.

The residual effect of bifenazate, spiromesifen and chlorfenapyr acaricides against the field populations of TSSM was very high and the mortality percentage ranged from 99%-100% for bifenazate, 88%-98% for spiromesifen and 75%-98% for chlorfenapyr 24 hours after application. These results agreed with the fact that these acaricides are relatively new products, and belong to different chemical groups with different modes of action. In Japan, Ochiai et al. [10] studied the toxicity of bifenazate against the TSSM and concluded that bifenazate is a novel acaricide with high toxicity to all life stages of T. urticae. They added that there were no cross-resistance between bifenazate and other classes of acaricides, such as etoxazole, dicofol and spiromesifen. They also concluded that bifenazate remained effective for long time with only 10% loss of efficacy on T. urticae after one month of application on apple trees. Marcic et al. [6] from Serbia concluded that spiromesifen considerably affected the fecundity and population growth rate of TSSM treated females. The females treated with 180 ppm laid no eggs and most died within a few days. These results agreed with the residual effect results obtained in the present study.

In conclusions, laboratory tests of the six against three cucumber field populations of the two-spotted spider mite as well as SSS strain revealed the following conclusions: All the tested field populations were resistant to abamectin. At its high recommended field rate abamectin was ineffective in controlling T. urticae. It had no residual effect except against the SSS strain. Amitraz was ineffective in controlling the T. urticae at the same time it showed very low residual effect against the tested populations except the SSS strain.The tested field populations were moderately resistant to milbemectin. Like abamectin, it had weak residual effect against T. urticae when used at its high recommended field rate. Bifenazate was a very useful acaricide giving a high efficacy, long lasting effect against T. urticae even when it was used with concentrations less than its recommended application rate. Spiromesifen and chlorfenapyr was an effective acaricide. since it had a good residual effect.

However, in order to have safe and high quality and quantity of cucumber product and to manage resistance development by T .urticae to acaricides, the following are recommended. Regular monitoring should be carried out to detect the extent of resistance to the pesticides used. Restricting the use of acaricides to which the magnitude of resistance is high like abamectin and amitraz. Applying acaricides that have different active ingredients and different mode of action like bifenazate, spiromesifen and chlorfenapyr. Training of growers on alteration of acaricides based on mode of action to facilitate long term sustainable spider mite management for agriculture in Jordan. Adoption of a mode of action labeling scheme of pesticides that were registered and for those which will be registered in future by Ministry of Agriculture in Jordan. In addition, studying the mechanisms of resistance to acaricides is very important to prevent cross resistance between closely related groups.

Acknowledgments

Thanks are extended to the Deanship of Research at University of Jordan and to Agricultural Materials Company administration for financial support. Thanks are also to the staff at the lattakia Center for Rearing and Production of Biological Agents in Syria for providing us the sensitive strain of the spider mite.

References

1. El Kady, G.A., H.M. El-Sharabasy, M.F. Mahmoud and I.M. Bahgat, 2007. Toxicity of two potential bio-insecticides against moveable stages of Tetranychus urticae Koch. Journal of Applied Science Research, 3(11): 1315-1319.

2. Gough, N., 1990. Evaluation of miticides for the control of two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch on field roses in southern Queensland. Crop Protection, 9: 119-127.

3. IRAC, Insecticide Resistance Action Committee, 2010. MOA Classification Scheme. September: Version 7. www.irac-online.org.

4. Koh, S.H., Y.J. Ahn, J.S. Im, C. Jung, S.H. Lee and J.H. Lee, 2009. Monitoring of acaricide resistance of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) from Korean apple orchards. Journal of Asia Pacific Entomology, 12: 15-21.

5. Little, T. and F. Hills, 1972. Transformations in Statistical Methods in Agricultural Research. University of California, pp: 103-119.

6. Marcic, D., I. Ogurlic, S. Mutavdzic and P. Peric, 2009. The effect of spiromesifen on the reproductive potential of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). Pestic. Phytomed. (Belgrade), 24(3): 203-209.

7. Ministry of Agriculture, 2009. Annual Agricultural Statistics. The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Amman, Jordan.

8. Nazer, I.K., 1982. Susceptibility of the spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch.) to certain acaricides. Dirasat, 9: 71-77.

9. Nazer, I.K., 1985. Response of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch.), collected from the Jordan Valley, to certain acaricides. Dirasat, 12: 143-150.

10. Ochiai, N., M. Mizuno, N.T. Miyake, M. Dekeyser, L.J. Canlas and M. Takeda, 2007. Toxicity of bifenazate and its principal active metabolite, diazene, to Tetranychus urticae and Panonychus citri and their relative toxicity to the predaceous mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis and Neoseiulus californicus. Exp. Appl. Acarol., 43: 181-197.

11. Ramasubramanian, T., K. Ramaraju and A. Regupathy, 2005. Acaricide resistance in Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) Global Scenario. Journal of Entomology, 2(1): 33-39.

12. SAS Institute, 2002. SAS version 9.0 Cary, NC.

13. Sokeli, E., R. Ay and I. Karaka, 2007. Determination of the resistance level of two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) population in apple orchards in Isparta Province against some pesticides. Ankara University Ziraat Fakultesi, 13(4): 326-330.

14. Tomlin, C.D., 2005. The Electronic Pesticide Manual, 13th edition. Crop Protection Publications. British Crop Protection Council. Farnham, Surrey, UK.

15. Zhang, Z.Q., 2003. Mites of Greenhouses: Identification, Biology and Control. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK, xii+244.

(1) Tawfiq M.AL-Antary, (2) Mohammad Raed" K. Al-Lala and (3) Marwan I. Abdel-Wali

(1) Prof. of Pesticides, Plant Protection Dept., Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jordan, Amman 11942.

(2) Ph.D student.

(3) Ph.D in pesticides toxicology, National center of Agric. Res. And Extension, Ministry of Agriculture, Amman 11942, Jordan.

Corresponding Author:

Tawfiq M.AL-Antary, Prof. of Pesticides, Plant Protection Dept., Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jordan, Amman 11942. E-mail: Jordan. tawfiqm@yahoo.com
Table (1): Residual effect of six acaricides against T. urticae
adult females of Al-Ramtha population

Acaricides Concentration % Mortality after days (d) of
 (mg/l) application [+ or -] SE

 1d 3d

Abamectin 7.2 15 [+ or -] 1.0c 12 [+ or -] 1.6c
Amitraz 500 16 [+ or -] 1.6c 13 [+ or -] 1.0c
Bifenazate 96 99 [+ or -] 1.0a 97 [+ or -] 1.0a
Chlorfenapyr 120 95 [+ or -] 1.9b 89 [+ or -] 1.0b
Millbemectin 12.5 20 [+ or -] 1.6c 18 [+ or -] 2.6c
Spiromesifen 180 94 [+ or -] 1.2b 87 [+ or -] 1.9b
Control Tap Water 5 [+ or -] 1.0d 5 [+ or -] 1.0d

Acaricides % Mortality after days (d) of
 application [+ or -] SE

 6d 9d

Abamectin 11 [+ or -] 1.9c 10 [+ or -] 1.2c
Amitraz 12 [+ or -] 1.6c 10 [+ or -] 1.2c
Bifenazate 89 [+ or -] 1.9a 85 [+ or -] 1.9a
Chlorfenapyr 77 [+ or -] 2.5b 73 [+ or -] 2.5b
Millbemectin 14 [+ or -] 1.2c 12 [+ or -] 1.6c
Spiromesifen 78 [+ or -] 2.6b 69 [+ or -] 1.9b
Control 5 [+ or -] 1.0d 4 [+ or -] 0.0d

Acaricides % Mortality after days (d) of
 application [+ or -]SE

 12d 15d

Abamectin 9 [+ or -] 1.0c 9 [+ or -] 1.0c
Amitraz 7 [+ or -] 1.0c 7 [+ or -] 1.0cd
Bifenazate 75 [+ or -] 3.4a 64 [+ or -] 1.6a
Chlorfenapyr 60 [+ or -] 3.3b 50 [+ or -] 2.6b
Millbemectin 11 [+ or -] 1.9c 7 [+ or -] 1.0cd
Spiromesifen 58 [+ or -] 2.6b 52 [+ or -] 4.3b
Control 5 [+ or -] 1.0c 4 [+ or -] 0.0d

Means within the same column with the same letter are not
significantly different after arcsine transformation using
LSD at 0.05 probability level.

Table 2: Residual effect of six acaricides against T. urticae adult
females of Baq'a population

Acaricides Concentration % Mortality after days (d) of
 (mg/l) application [+ or -] SE

 1d 3d

Abamectin 7.2 19 [+ or -] 1.0d 9 [+ or -] 1.0f
Amitraz 500 19 [+ or -] 1.0d 15 [+ or -] 1.0e
Bifenazate 96 100 [+ or -] 0.0a 100 [+ or -] 0.0a
Chlorfenapyr 120 98 [+ or -] 1.2b 95 [+ or -] 1.0b
Millbemectin 12.5 26 [+ or -] 1.2d 20 [+ or -] 1.6d
Spiromesifen 180 92 [+ or -] 1.6c 90 [+ or -] 2.6c
Control Tap water 5 [+ or -] 1.0e 4 [+ or -] 0.0g

Acaricides % Mortality after days (d) of
 application [+ or -] SE

 6d 9d

Abamectin 12 [+ or -] 1.6c 10 [+ or -] 1.2d
Amitraz 11 [+ or -] 1.0c 10 [+ or -] 1.2d
Bifenazate 98 [+ or -] 1.2a 96 [+ or -] 1.6a
Chlorfenapyr 88 [+ or -] 1.6b 86 [+ or -] 1.2b
Millbemectin 14 [+ or -] 2.6c 12 [+ or -] 1.6d
Spiromesifen 85 [+ or -] 1.9b 76 [+ or -] 1.6c
Control 3 [+ or -] 1.0d 4 [+ or -] 0.0e

Acaricides % Mortality after days (d) of
 application [+ or -] SE

 12d 15d

Abamectin 8 [+ or -] 1.6cd 7 [+ or -] 1.0d
Amitraz 9 [+ or -] 1.0c 7 [+ or -] 1.0d
Bifenazate 93 [+ or -] 1.9a 90 [+ or -] 1.2a
Chlorfenapyr 70 [+ or -] 1.6b 68 [+ or -] 1.6b
Millbemectin 11 [+ or -] 1.0c 9 [+ or -] 1.0d
Spiromesifen 70 [+ or -] 1.2b 63 [+ or -] 1.0c
Control 5 [+ or -] 1.0d 4 [+ or -] 0.0e

Table 3: Residual effect of six acaricides against T. urticae adult
females of Zyzya Population.

Acaricides Concentration % Mortality after days (d) of
 (mg/l) application [+ or -] SE

 1d 3d

Abamectin 7.2 24 [+ or -] 1.6c 20 [+ or -] 1.6c
Amitraz 500 24 [+ or -] 1.6c 16 [+ or -] 1.6c
Bifenazate 96 100 [+ or -] 0.0a 98 [+ or -] 1.2a
Chlorfenapyr 120 92 [+ or -] 1.6b 88 [+ or -] 1.6b
Millbemectin 12.5 23 [+ or -] 1.0c 16 [+ or -] 1.6c
Spiromesifen 180 95 [+ or -] 2.5b 90 [+ or -] 1.2b
Control Tap water 5 [+ or -] 1.0d 4 [+ or -] 0.0d

Acaricides % Mortality after days (d) of
 application [+ or -] SE

 6d 9d

Abamectin 16 [+ or -] 1.6d 14 [+ or -] 1.2d
Amitraz 13 [+ or -] 1.0d 9 [+ or -] 1.0e
Bifenazate 91 [+ or -] 1.0a 86 [+ or -] 1.2a
Chlorfenapyr 76 [+ or -] 1.6c 69 [+ or -] 1,9c
Millbemectin 13 [+ or -] 1.0d 10 [+ or -] 1.2e
Spiromesifen 86 [+ or -] 1.2b 77 [+ or -] 1.9b
Control 5 [+ or -] 1.0e 5 [+ or -] 1.0f

Acaricides % Mortality after days (d) of
 application [+ or -] SE

 12d 15d

Abamectin 10 [+ or -] 1.2c 8 [+ or -] 1.6c
Amitraz 8 [+ or -] 1.6cd 7 [+ or -] 1.0c
Bifenazate 76 [+ or -] 1.6a 63 [+ or -] 1.9a
Chlorfenapyr 58 [+ or -] 2.6b 48 [+ or -] 1.6b
Millbemectin 9 [+ or -] 1.0cd 7 [+ or -] 1.0c
Spiromesifen 64 [+ or -] 2.8b 59 [+ or -] 1.9a
Control 5 [+ or -] 1.0d 5 [+ or -] 1.0c

Means within the same column with the same letter are not
significantly different after arcsine transformation using
LSD at 0.05 probability level.

Table 4: Residual effect of six acaricides against T. urticae adult
females of Syrian susceptible strain.

Acaricides Concentration % Mortality after days (d) of
 (mg/l) application [+ or -] SE

 1d 3d

Abamectin 7.2 96 [+ or -] 0.0bc 92 [+ or -] 1.6b
Amitraz 500 91 [+ or -] 1.0c 82 [+ or -] 2.6d
Bifenazate 96 100 [+ or -] 0.0a 100 [+ or -] 0.0a
Chlorfenapyr 120 98 [+ or -] 1.2ab 95 [+ or -] 1.0b
Millbemectin 12.5 97 [+ or -] 1.9ab 88 [+ or -] 1.6c
Spiromesifen 180 98 [+ or -] 1.2ab 94 [+ or -] 1.2b
Control Tap water 5 [+ or -] 1.0d 5 [+ or -] 1.0e

Acaricides % Mortality after days (d) of
 application [+ or -] SE

 6d 9d

Abamectin 85 [+ or -] 1.9bc 76 [+ or -] 2.8bc
Amitraz 70 [+ or -] 1,2d 61 [+ or -] 1.9d
Bifenazate 98 [+ or -] 2.0a 94 [+ or -] 1.2a
Chlorfenapyr 86 [+ or -] 1.2bc 76 [+ or -] 1.6bc
Millbemectin 82 [+ or -] 1.2c 71 [+ or -] 2.5c
Spiromesifen 90 [+ or -] 1.2b 81 [+ or -] 1.9b
Control 4 [+ or -] 0.0e 3 [+ or -] 1.0e

Acaricides % Mortality after days (d) of
 application [+ or -] SE

 12d 15d

Abamectin 64 [+ or -] 2.8c 51 [+ or -] 1.9c
Amitraz 48 [+ or -] 1,6d 37 [+ or -] 1.9d
Bifenazate 92 [+ or -] 1.6a 89 [+ or -] 1.9a
Chlorfenapyr 70 [+ or -] 1.2b 63 [+ or -] 1.9b
Millbemectin 60 [+ or -] 1.6c 52 [+ or -] 1.6c
Spiromesifen 73 [+ or -] 1.9b 63 [+ or -] 1.9b
Control 5 [+ or -] 1.0e 5 [+ or -] 1.0e

Means within the same column with the same letter are not
significantly different after arcsine transformation using
LSD at 0.05 probability level.
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Title Annotation:ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Author:Antary, Tawfiq M. Al-; Lala, Mohammad Raed" K. Al-; Abdel-Wali, Marwan I.
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7JORD
Date:Oct 1, 2012
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