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Research productivity of pepper from 2005-2014: a bibliometric analysis.

1. Introduction

Pepper is widely used in traditional Indian medicine and as a home remedy for relief from sore throat, throat congestion, and cough. Pepper is a native of South and South East Asia. It is referred as "Black Gold" and used as a form of Commodity Money. Pepper was grown particularly in Southern Thailand, Malaysia and Kerala. The study is confined to a period of ten years from 2005 to 2014 covered in the database PubMed only. The key word "Black pepper" or "Piper nigrum" or pepper is used to download the results. The results 2475 were saved in the text file format. The data were analysised with the toolbox named as Bibexcel. This is developed by Olle Persson. This software is very useful for analysing bibliographic data. S Aswathy and A.Gopikittan are analysis the "Journal of Space graft and Rockets". It covers various parameters like growth pattern, authorship pattern, distribution with regard to subject, year, institution and geographical area. (1)

2. Need for the Study

Pepper is a Dravidian word. Peppercorns are often classified on their place of origin. Two types come from India's Malabar Coast and Tellicherry. "Journal of Chemical Information and Computer Sciences (JCICS) was found out the apex journal in this subsection for the last 30 years.In the subject of chemical information and computer sciences (CICS) bibliometric approach was used to survey the state-of-the-art of research." (2) C.Baskaran examined the research growth, relative growth rate and doubling time of publications, institution wise and ranking of authors in research productivity of Graph Theory during 2004-2011. (3) Plants modulate defense signaling networks in response to different biotic stresses. The study evaluated the effect of a phloem-sucking aphid on plant defense mechanisms in pepper during subsequent pathogen attacks on leaves and rhizosphere bacteria on roots. The findings of this study show that aphid feeding elicits plant resistance responses and attracts beneficial bacterial populations to help the plant cope with subsequent pathogen attacks. (4) A valuable source of information for improving our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms by which pepper leaves become symptomless following infection with geminiviruses. The identification of ortho logs for the majority of genes differentially expressed in recovered tissues in two major solanaceous crop species provides the basis for future comparative analyses of the viral recovery process. (5) Crop cultivation provides critical ecosystem services in arid lands with the plant root system acting as a "resource island" able to attract and select microbial communities endowed with multiple PGP traits that sustain plant development under water limiting conditions. (6) Kochujang is a traditional Korean fermented food that is made with red pepper, glutinous rice, salt, and soybean. Kochujang is fermented by naturally occurring microorganisms through which it obtains various health-promoting properties. (7)

3. Objectives

R Kumaragurupari, Pamela Sieving and Prajna Lalitha were conduct a bibliometric analysis of Indian ophthalmic papers published from 2001 to 2006 in the peer-reviewed journals, to assess productivity, trends in journal choice, publication types, research funding, and collaborative research. (8) On that basis pepper analysis also done. Dried ground pepper has been used since antiquity for both its flavour and as a medicine. Oil can be extracted from the crushing of the pepper. This oil is used for Ayurvedic massage and beauty products. The major objectives of this study are:

* Find out the Quantum of research done

* Find out the Distribution of Research Productivity according to Country

* Find out the research by Language

* Find out the Publication Types and Authorship Pattern

* Find out the keyword and Co-word analysis

* Application of Bradford Law of Scattering in Pepper Research Publications

* Application of Zipf Law in the Pepper Research Publications

* Find out individual Authors Pepper Research, RGR and DT

3.1 Quantum of literature published on Pepper during 2005-2014:

The literature has been classified in Table 1 according to year of publication. It is found that there is a gradual growth of literature in the subject of study by year after year. There is a gradual growth for research in Pepper.

3.2 Distribution of Research Productivity according to Country

Distribution of contributions of Pepper by country and year wise is presented in Table 2. It is seen from the table that United States has produced 842 records ranking in the first position, England (564) in the second position and Netherland (210) third positions respectively. Indian contributions (45) have been ranked in the 9th position.

3.3 Distribution of Research Production by Language

The below table shows the dissemination of Pepper literature by language. The scholarly communication is effected through English language in almost all the countries irrespective of the native language of the country. Rojas Sola and AguileraGarcia have studied "various bibliometric indicators for different countries and research centers such as the number of documents (article and review), showing per document, productivity, the average number of citations, authors, research centers, national and international collaboration including their networks, the weighted and relative impact factor, as well as the h-index. Furthermore, we have analyzed the international dissemination of research of countries through journals and the relationship with the impact factor to detect the published journals of each country. We have also shown that English is the most common language of publication." (10) This phenomenon is not an exception to the subject of Pepper which published about 96.08% of the research output in English. This is followed by Chinese (1.49%) and Spanish (0.57%) as second and third positions respectively. Therefore from the above analysis, it is inferred that English language is dominating in the scholarly communication of Pepper research

3.4 Publication Types Wise Distribution of Pepper Research

Table 4 reveals the distribution of the 'Pepper' research output according to publication type. It is conventional that utmost of the scholarly statement of scientific study is available in Journals and occasionally presented in the conferences. Of course, those conference papers are additional updated and issued in journals of the particular field of knowledge. Therefore, scientific statement is being regularly made through subject journals. In the Pepper study, about 84.16% have printed in journals, 6.10% have published in Comparative Study and 3.35% are published in English Abstract.

3.5 Authorship Pattern in Pepper Research

The study of authorship pattern or productivity is one of the important aspects in the bibliometric analysis. Generally it is necessary to concentrate on authorship pattern to assess the research contributions in a field and Pepper research is not an exception. Thrity-nine faculty members of School of Biological Sciences at Seoul National University published 640 publications from 2004-2009. Most of them are co-authored with foreign researchers with three or other co-authorship types. (11) In order to identify author productivity and authorship pattern the researcher has attempted to analyses this below table--5. Seventy two authors jointly produce one article. It is evident that 24.32% of product by single author and 14.75% of the contributions were by three authors. About 14.46% represent by four authors.

3.6 Distribution of Journals in Pepper based on Bradford Law of Scattering

Bradford (1934) first expressed his law, but it did not accepted by more until the first publication of his book 'Documentation' in 1948. Bradford studied all of the journal titles and bibliography in applied Geophysics. He divided the list into three 'zones' each containing roughly equal number of references. On the basis of this observation Bradford work out his law.

"If scientific periodicals are arranged in the order of decreasing productivity of articles on a given subject, they may be divided into a nucleus of periodicals more particularly devoted to the subject and several groups or zones containing the same number of articles as the nucleus where the number of periodicals in the nucleus and the succeeding zones will be as 1: n:n2 "

Accordingly, the journals are grouped into three zones producing a similar number of articles. The distribution of journal by zone wise is given in the Table 6. 32 core journals are grouped in zone-1 published 827 (33.41%) articles accounts for one third of the total output. Similarly the second zone comprises of 133 journals 825 (33.33%) research and in the third zone 627 journals 823 (33.25%) scientific work grouped in third zone. The Bradford's Law states that the number of periodicals in zones, the first zone and second zones will be 1: n: n2. We can implement the Bradford's Law in Pepper Research.

3.7 Major Contribution of Journals in Pepper Research

Ranking of the journals along with the research output on 'Pepper' during the stu period of 2005 to 2014 has been presented in the Table 7.

The highly productive journals up to three ranks are as follows

1. "J Agric Food Chem" with 101 contributions amounting First Rank.

2. "PLoS One" with 58 publications as Second Rank.

3. "Arch Virol" with 43 research in third place.

3.8 Authors Productivity in Peper Research:

Santhakumar and Kaliyaperumal clearly analysed in the Mobile Technology publication with language, most prolific authors, their affiliation, and subject area. Most of the scientist are ready to do research in this newly emerging field. (12) This table--8 shows some to the top the individual scientist productivity Hwang BK contributes 55, Choi D publish 24 Kim BD brings out 19. During the year 2005 to 2014 for the Pepper Research 11,041 authors are contributing their work. This analysis is carried out by the help of Bibexcel Software. According to Lotka's Law, large number of papers published by the limited number of authors is revealed true by Pepper research.

3.9 Application of Zipf Law in the Pepper Research Publications:

We can find out how many keyword are used. This is analyzed with the help of Bibexcel tool. By that we can able to find out how many keywords are used for each and every article and what are they. We can catch the number of key words used. "Humans" is used 575 times, "Animals" in 497 times and "Male" in 323 times. Total 11,546 key words were used for 2475 publications in Pepper.

Zipf Law is the governing of relation between the rank of a word and frequency of its appearance in a long text. If "r" is a rank of a word and "f" is its frequency the Zipfs Law stated as flow

r f = c

For this Pepper research 5,606 key words are used. To execute the Zipfs Law, 20 words are selected.

3.10 Co-Word analysis:

Co-word analysis is the article's keywords occurring within the same paper. Out 2475 articles 11,546 keywords are used. "MH" field was selected in the old tag. Then .doc file and .out file was find out. After, that .oux was created. The top twenty one keywords were selected. On the basis of .coc file and .net was created. Then .cit file and .vec file was made. The .net file and .vec was called from pajek. The network was created. The below image shows, the keywords and number of times occurred in the bracket with red color circle. The size of the ball represent the number of times of the word occurred. For example [575] Human and [497] Animals keyword appeared. It is very clear in the image. Added to that we are getting links. [284] Female keyword is seemed 94 publications with the co-word of [102] Middle Aged.

This tables shows the specific word used with another word in the number of records again and again.

3.11 Relative Growth Rate (RGR):

Now a day's scientific research is going tremendous manner. Lot of man power and finance also involved. Relative Growth Rate (RGR) over the particular period of interval can be considered from the following equation:

1-[2.sup.R] = [Log.sub.e] [W.sub.2] - Loge [W.sub.1]/[T.sub.2]-[T.sub.1]


1-2 [bar.R] = mean relative growth rate over the specific period of interval

[log.sub.e] [W.sub.1] = log of initial number of articles/pages

[log.sub.e] [W.sub.2] = log of final number of articles/pages after a specific period of interval

[T.sub.2] - [T.sub.1] = the unit difference between the initial time and the final time [aa.sup.-1] = average no. of articles

The year can be take here as the unit of time. The Relative Growth Rate for the articles and pages can be calculate separate.


1 - [2.sup.R(aa-1 year-1)] can represent the mean RGR per unit of articles per unit of year ov period of interval.

2006 = [Log.sub.e] 362 - [Log.sub.e] 173/2006-2005 = 5.89 - 5.15/1 = 0.74

2007 = [Log.sub.e] 557 - [Log.sub.e] 362/2007-2006 = 6.32 - 5.89/1 = 0.43

The researcher tried to implement the Relative Growth Rate (RGR) and Doubling Time for Pepper. It is seen from the below Table -11 shows that Relative Growth Rate. From 2006 (0.74) to 2014 (0.15) the rate is decreasing.

3.11 Doubling Time (Dt)

There exists a direct equivalence between the relative growth rate and the doubling time. "If the number of articles/pages of a subject doubles during a given period then the difference between the logarithms of numbers at the beginning and end of this period must be logarithms of number 2. If natural logarithm is used this difference has a value of 0.693. Thus the corresponding doubling time is for each specific period of interval." Baskaran examined the research growth, relative growth rate and doubling time of publications, institution wise and ranking of authors in research productivity of Graph Theory during 2004-2011 (3).

Doubling time (Dt) = 0.693/R



2006 = 0.693/0.74 = 0.93

2007 = 0.693/0.43 = 1.60

The Doubling Time for cloud computing research increases from 0.93 to 4.50

4. Conclusion

Pepper is widely used in traditional Indian Medicine and as home remedy for sore throat, throat congestion and cough. The polyphenol extracts of alligator pepper, ginger and nutmeg displayed good antioxidant as well as antiglycation potential. They are very safe for consumption. (9) From the Pubmed Database the 2475 pepper research was done for the year 2005 to 2014. United States is the top most country with the maximum number of publication of 842. India is in the 9th place with 45 examines. It is find out that out of 2475 Pepper publications 2378 (96.08%) articles are published in English language. Journal article contribution is 2083 (84.16%). In the Pepper Research Four authors contributions are high 85 (16%). Single Authors contributions are 24.32%. Bradford's Law of Scattering is applicable in the Pepper research. 32 core journals are grouped in zone-1 published 827 articles accounts for one third of the total output. "J Agric Food Chem' Journal with 101 contributions amounting to the First Rank. According to Lotka's Law large numbers of papers were produced by limited number of authors. 11,041 authors are done research for the year 2005 to 2014. Among them "Hwang BK" contributes 55 results. 11,546 key words were used. Here we applied Zipfs Law with the top most first 20 key words. We can implement Relative Growth Rate and Doubling Time in Pepper Research. The highest Global Citation Score is 69. Airtight storage help to preserve the pepper flavour and aroma for a long period. If it exposed in light it will become as tasteless. Though it is having so many medicinal values only controlled studies have been carried out.

5. References:

(1.) Aswathy. S & Gopikuttan. A. (2012) Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets: A Scientometric Analysis..SRELS Journal of Information Management. 49(6). 671-682

(2.) Natsuo Onodera. A Bibliometric Study on Chemical Information and Computer Sciences Focusing on Literature of JCICS. Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling. 41,4; 2011; 878-888.

(3.) Baskaran. C (2012). Ressearch Prodcutivitiy of Graph Theory duing 2004-2011: A Bibliometic Study". SRELS Journal of Information Management. 49(6). 683-691.

(4.) Boyoung Lee; Soohyun Lee; Choong-Min Ryu. (2012). Foliar Aphid Feeding Recruits Rhizosphere Bacteria and Primes Plant Immunity against Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic Bacteria in Pepper. Annals of Botany. 110 (2)281-290.

(5.) Gongora-Castillo E,, Ibarra-Laclette E., Trejo-Saavedra DL & Rivera-Bustamante RF. (2012). Transcriptome analysis of symptomatic and recovered leaves of eminivirus-infected pepper. Virol J. 27(9).295.

(6.) Marasco R., (2012). A drought resistance-promoting microbiome is selected by root system under desert farming. PLoS One. 7(10).e48479.

(7.) Young-Do Nam; So-lim Park; Seong-Il Lim. (2012). Microbial Composition of the Korean Traditional Food & Ldquo; Kochujang & Rdquo; Analyzed by a Massive Sequencing Technique. Journal of Food Science. 77(4). M250-M256.

(8.) Kumaragurupari R., Pamela Sieving & Prajna Lalitha (2010). A Bibliometric Study of Publications by Indian Ophthalmologists and Vision Researchers, 2001-2006". Indian Journal of Ophthalmology. 58(4),275-280.

(9.) Kazeem M., Akanji M., Hafizur RM & Choudhary M (2012). Antiglycation, antioxidant and toxicological potential of polyphenol extracts of alligator pepper, ginger and nutmeg from Nigeria. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2(9).727-32.

(10.) Rojas Sola, J., & AguileraGarcia, A. (2015). Global Bibliometric Analysis of the 'Mining & Mineral Processing' Subject Category from the Web of Science (1997-2012). Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy Review, 36(6), 349-369.

(11.) Kim, M. (2014). A Bibliometric Analysis of Publications by the School of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, South Korea. Scientometrics, 98(2), 999-1019.

(12.) Santhakumar,R & Kaliyaperumal,K (2014). Mapping of Mobile Technology Publications; A Scientometric Approach. DESIDOC Journal of Library & Information Technology. 34(4), 298 303.


I am so thankful to Olle Persson for his Bibexcel tool and his guidance.

Dr. A. Thirumagal


Manonmaniam Sundaranar University

Tirunelveli--627 012, Tamilnadu



Caption: Image--1 Screen Short of Bibexcel

Caption: Diagram--1 Zipf law for Pepper Research

Caption: Image--2 Vector Analysis of Co-word of Pepper Research

Caption: Diagram--2 Doubling time for Research output in Pepper

Quantum of Literature published in Pepper by year wise

S. No.   Years   Records     %

1        2005      173     6.99
2        2006      189     7.64
3        2007      195     7.88
4        2008      205     8.28
5        2009      214     8.65
6        2010      241     9.74
7        2011      244     9.86
8        2012      283     11.43
9        2013      370     14.95
10       2014      361     14.59
                  2475     100.00

Table 2
Country wise Distribution of Pepper Research

S.No   Country         No.of

1      United States   842

2      England         564

3      Netherlands     210

4      Germany         208

5      Korea (South)   83

6      Japan           66

7      Switzerland     55

8      China           46

9      India           45

10     Austria         45

11     Brazil          44

12     Ireland         32

13     France          17

14     Belgium         16

15     Poland          15

16     Canada          14

17     Pakistan        12

18     Denmark         12

19     Thailand        11

20     Russia          11

21     Others          104

Table 3
Language wise Distribution of Pepper Research

S,No    Languages      No.of    Percentage

1.      English         2378    96.08
2.      Chinese           37    1.49
3.      Spanish           14    0.57
4.      Russian           10    0.40
5.      French             7    0.28
6.      Japanese           7    0.28
7.      Portuguese         7    0.28
8.      Polish             5    0.20
9.      German             4    0.16
10.     Czech              2    0.08
11.     Dutch              2    0.08
12.     Italian            2    0.08
                        2475    100

Table 4
Publication Type Distribution of Pepper Research

S.No   Publication Type              No.of    Percentage

1.     Journal Article                2083    84.16
2.     Comparative Study               151    6.10
3.     English Abstract                 83    3.35
4.     Evaluation Studies               58    2.34
5.     Case Reports                     58    2.34
6.     Historical Article               10    0.40
7.     Clinical Trial                    8    0.32
8.     Retraction of Publication         6    0.24
9.     Comment                           6    0.24
10.    Biography                         4    0.16
11.    Letter                            4    0.16
12.    Editorial                         2    0.08
13.    Book                              2    0.08
                                      2475    100.00

Table 5
Authorship pattern in Pepper

S,No   Author              No.of    Percentage

1.     Single                602    24.32
2.     Joint                 320    12.93
3.     Three                 365    14.75
4.     Four                  358    14.46
5.     Five                  295    11.92
6.     Six                   188    7.60
7.     Seven                 139    5.62
8.     Eight                  82    3.31
9.     More than Eight       126    5.09
       Total                2475    100.00

Table 6
Zone and Number of Journals in Pepper Research

Zone     No. of Journals    No. of articles

          No.        (%)      No.       (%)

Zone 1     32       4.04      827     33.41
Zone 2    133      16.79      825     33.33
Zone 3    627      79.17      823     33.25
Total     792     100.00     2475    100.00

Table 7
Ranking of Journals in Pepper Research

1     J Agric Food Chem            101
2     PLoS One                      58
3     Arch Virol                    43
4     Phytopathology                36
5     Planta                        35
6     Food Chem                     30
7     Theor Appl Genet              30
8     Plant Physiol                 27
9     J Food Prot                   27
10    Genet Mol Res                 25
11    Mol Cells                     24
12    Pest Manag Sci                24
13    Mol Plant Pathol              24
14    J Econ Entomol                24
15    Plant Cell Rep                22
16    Mol Plant Microbe Interact    22
17    J Food Sci                    21
18    Biochem Biophys Res Commun    21
19    J Sci Food Agric              20
20    Food Chem Toxicol             20

Individual Authors Contribution in Pepper Research

1     Hwang BK            55
2     Choi D              24
3     Kim BD              19
4     Moury B             15
5     Paran I             14
6     Shim JH             12
7     Gong ZH             12
8     Lee SC              12
9     Antonious GF        11
10    Kang BC             11
11    Paek KH             11
12    Kim WT              10
13    Kim HJ              10
14    Jahn MM             10
15    Lee S                9
16    Kim DS               9
17    Wang Y               8
18    Lahaye T             8
19    Kim NH               8
20    Fernandez-Alba AR    8

Application of Zipf Law in for Pepper Research

S.No    Keywords                     No. of times

1.      Humans                               575
2.      Animals                              497
3.      Male                                 323
4.      Molecular Sequence Data              291
5.      Female                               284
6.      Amino Acid Sequence                  150
7.      Adult                                149
8.      Phylogeny                            146
9.      Gene Expression Regulation           141
10.     Base Sequence                        126
11.     Mice                                 118
12.     Capsicum                             104
13.     Middle Aged                          102
14.     Sequence Analysis                    100
15.     Chromatography                        81
16.     Genes                                 75
17.     Rats                                  73
18.     Phenotype                             70
19.     Plants                                69
20.     Reproducibility of Results            67
21.     Aged                                  67
22.     Plant Diseases                        65
23.     Food Contamination                    64
24.     Genetic Variation                     64
25.     Dose-Response Relationship            62

Co-word Analysis

S.No   Word or Keyword           Co-word                     No. of

1.     Amino Acid Sequence       Molecular Sequence Data        145
2.     Adult                     Female                         124
3.     Animals                   Humans                         122
4.     Adult                     Male                           119
5.     Animals                   Mice                           118
6.     Base Sequence             Molecular Sequence Data        102
7.     Humans                    Middle Aged                    102
8.     Animals                   Female                          99
9.     Female                    Middle Aged                     94
10.    Molecular Sequence Data   Phylogeny                       89
11.    Male                      Middle Aged                     84
12.    Molecular Sequence Data   Sequence Analysis, DNA          79
13.    Adult                     Middle Aged                     75
14.    Animals                   Rats                            73
15.    Aged                      Humans                          67

Pepper Scientific Relative Growth Rate and Doubling Time

Year     Quantum    Cumulative    W1
        of Output    Total of

2005         173          173
2006         189          362    5.15
2007         195          557    5.89
2008         205          762    6.32
2009         214          976    6.64
2010         241         1217    6.88
2011         244         1461     7.1
2012         283         1744    7.29
2013         370         2114    7.46
2014         361         2475    7.66

Year     W2    [MATHEMATICAL    Dt(a)
               EXPRESSION NOT
                 IN ASCII]

2005    5.15
2006    5.89            0.74     0.93
2007    6.32            0.43     1.60
2008    6.64            0.32     2.19
2009    6.88            0.24     2.85
2010    7.10            0.22     3.09
2011    7.29            0.19     3.71
2012    7.46            0.17     3.98
2013    7.66            0.20     3.53
2014    7.81            0.15     4.50


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Author:Thirumagal, A.
Publication:Library Philosophy and Practice
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:90ASI
Date:Feb 1, 2016
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