Research productivity of pepper from 2005-2014: a bibliometric analysis.
Pepper is widely used in traditional Indian medicine and as a home remedy for relief from sore throat, throat congestion, and cough. Pepper is a native of South and South East Asia. It is referred as "Black Gold" and used as a form of Commodity Money. Pepper was grown particularly in Southern Thailand, Malaysia and Kerala. The study is confined to a period of ten years from 2005 to 2014 covered in the database PubMed only. The key word "Black pepper" or "Piper nigrum" or pepper is used to download the results. The results 2475 were saved in the text file format. The data were analysised with the toolbox named as Bibexcel. This is developed by Olle Persson. This software is very useful for analysing bibliographic data. S Aswathy and A.Gopikittan are analysis the "Journal of Space graft and Rockets". It covers various parameters like growth pattern, authorship pattern, distribution with regard to subject, year, institution and geographical area. (1)
2. Need for the Study
Pepper is a Dravidian word. Peppercorns are often classified on their place of origin. Two types come from India's Malabar Coast and Tellicherry. "Journal of Chemical Information and Computer Sciences (JCICS) was found out the apex journal in this subsection for the last 30 years.In the subject of chemical information and computer sciences (CICS) bibliometric approach was used to survey the state-of-the-art of research." (2) C.Baskaran examined the research growth, relative growth rate and doubling time of publications, institution wise and ranking of authors in research productivity of Graph Theory during 2004-2011. (3) Plants modulate defense signaling networks in response to different biotic stresses. The study evaluated the effect of a phloem-sucking aphid on plant defense mechanisms in pepper during subsequent pathogen attacks on leaves and rhizosphere bacteria on roots. The findings of this study show that aphid feeding elicits plant resistance responses and attracts beneficial bacterial populations to help the plant cope with subsequent pathogen attacks. (4) A valuable source of information for improving our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms by which pepper leaves become symptomless following infection with geminiviruses. The identification of ortho logs for the majority of genes differentially expressed in recovered tissues in two major solanaceous crop species provides the basis for future comparative analyses of the viral recovery process. (5) Crop cultivation provides critical ecosystem services in arid lands with the plant root system acting as a "resource island" able to attract and select microbial communities endowed with multiple PGP traits that sustain plant development under water limiting conditions. (6) Kochujang is a traditional Korean fermented food that is made with red pepper, glutinous rice, salt, and soybean. Kochujang is fermented by naturally occurring microorganisms through which it obtains various health-promoting properties. (7)
R Kumaragurupari, Pamela Sieving and Prajna Lalitha were conduct a bibliometric analysis of Indian ophthalmic papers published from 2001 to 2006 in the peer-reviewed journals, to assess productivity, trends in journal choice, publication types, research funding, and collaborative research. (8) On that basis pepper analysis also done. Dried ground pepper has been used since antiquity for both its flavour and as a medicine. Oil can be extracted from the crushing of the pepper. This oil is used for Ayurvedic massage and beauty products. The major objectives of this study are:
* Find out the Quantum of research done
* Find out the Distribution of Research Productivity according to Country
* Find out the research by Language
* Find out the Publication Types and Authorship Pattern
* Find out the keyword and Co-word analysis
* Application of Bradford Law of Scattering in Pepper Research Publications
* Application of Zipf Law in the Pepper Research Publications
* Find out individual Authors Pepper Research, RGR and DT
3.1 Quantum of literature published on Pepper during 2005-2014:
The literature has been classified in Table 1 according to year of publication. It is found that there is a gradual growth of literature in the subject of study by year after year. There is a gradual growth for research in Pepper.
3.2 Distribution of Research Productivity according to Country
Distribution of contributions of Pepper by country and year wise is presented in Table 2. It is seen from the table that United States has produced 842 records ranking in the first position, England (564) in the second position and Netherland (210) third positions respectively. Indian contributions (45) have been ranked in the 9th position.
3.3 Distribution of Research Production by Language
The below table shows the dissemination of Pepper literature by language. The scholarly communication is effected through English language in almost all the countries irrespective of the native language of the country. Rojas Sola and AguileraGarcia have studied "various bibliometric indicators for different countries and research centers such as the number of documents (article and review), showing per document, productivity, the average number of citations, authors, research centers, national and international collaboration including their networks, the weighted and relative impact factor, as well as the h-index. Furthermore, we have analyzed the international dissemination of research of countries through journals and the relationship with the impact factor to detect the published journals of each country. We have also shown that English is the most common language of publication." (10) This phenomenon is not an exception to the subject of Pepper which published about 96.08% of the research output in English. This is followed by Chinese (1.49%) and Spanish (0.57%) as second and third positions respectively. Therefore from the above analysis, it is inferred that English language is dominating in the scholarly communication of Pepper research
3.4 Publication Types Wise Distribution of Pepper Research
Table 4 reveals the distribution of the 'Pepper' research output according to publication type. It is conventional that utmost of the scholarly statement of scientific study is available in Journals and occasionally presented in the conferences. Of course, those conference papers are additional updated and issued in journals of the particular field of knowledge. Therefore, scientific statement is being regularly made through subject journals. In the Pepper study, about 84.16% have printed in journals, 6.10% have published in Comparative Study and 3.35% are published in English Abstract.
3.5 Authorship Pattern in Pepper Research
The study of authorship pattern or productivity is one of the important aspects in the bibliometric analysis. Generally it is necessary to concentrate on authorship pattern to assess the research contributions in a field and Pepper research is not an exception. Thrity-nine faculty members of School of Biological Sciences at Seoul National University published 640 publications from 2004-2009. Most of them are co-authored with foreign researchers with three or other co-authorship types. (11) In order to identify author productivity and authorship pattern the researcher has attempted to analyses this below table--5. Seventy two authors jointly produce one article. It is evident that 24.32% of product by single author and 14.75% of the contributions were by three authors. About 14.46% represent by four authors.
3.6 Distribution of Journals in Pepper based on Bradford Law of Scattering
Bradford (1934) first expressed his law, but it did not accepted by more until the first publication of his book 'Documentation' in 1948. Bradford studied all of the journal titles and bibliography in applied Geophysics. He divided the list into three 'zones' each containing roughly equal number of references. On the basis of this observation Bradford work out his law.
"If scientific periodicals are arranged in the order of decreasing productivity of articles on a given subject, they may be divided into a nucleus of periodicals more particularly devoted to the subject and several groups or zones containing the same number of articles as the nucleus where the number of periodicals in the nucleus and the succeeding zones will be as 1: n:n2 "
Accordingly, the journals are grouped into three zones producing a similar number of articles. The distribution of journal by zone wise is given in the Table 6. 32 core journals are grouped in zone-1 published 827 (33.41%) articles accounts for one third of the total output. Similarly the second zone comprises of 133 journals 825 (33.33%) research and in the third zone 627 journals 823 (33.25%) scientific work grouped in third zone. The Bradford's Law states that the number of periodicals in zones, the first zone and second zones will be 1: n: n2. We can implement the Bradford's Law in Pepper Research.
3.7 Major Contribution of Journals in Pepper Research
Ranking of the journals along with the research output on 'Pepper' during the stu period of 2005 to 2014 has been presented in the Table 7.
The highly productive journals up to three ranks are as follows
1. "J Agric Food Chem" with 101 contributions amounting First Rank.
2. "PLoS One" with 58 publications as Second Rank.
3. "Arch Virol" with 43 research in third place.
3.8 Authors Productivity in Peper Research:
Santhakumar and Kaliyaperumal clearly analysed in the Mobile Technology publication with language, most prolific authors, their affiliation, and subject area. Most of the scientist are ready to do research in this newly emerging field. (12) This table--8 shows some to the top the individual scientist productivity Hwang BK contributes 55, Choi D publish 24 Kim BD brings out 19. During the year 2005 to 2014 for the Pepper Research 11,041 authors are contributing their work. This analysis is carried out by the help of Bibexcel Software. According to Lotka's Law, large number of papers published by the limited number of authors is revealed true by Pepper research.
3.9 Application of Zipf Law in the Pepper Research Publications:
We can find out how many keyword are used. This is analyzed with the help of Bibexcel tool. By that we can able to find out how many keywords are used for each and every article and what are they. We can catch the number of key words used. "Humans" is used 575 times, "Animals" in 497 times and "Male" in 323 times. Total 11,546 key words were used for 2475 publications in Pepper.
Zipf Law is the governing of relation between the rank of a word and frequency of its appearance in a long text. If "r" is a rank of a word and "f" is its frequency the Zipfs Law stated as flow
r f = c
For this Pepper research 5,606 key words are used. To execute the Zipfs Law, 20 words are selected.
3.10 Co-Word analysis:
Co-word analysis is the article's keywords occurring within the same paper. Out 2475 articles 11,546 keywords are used. "MH" field was selected in the old tag. Then .doc file and .out file was find out. After, that .oux was created. The top twenty one keywords were selected. On the basis of .coc file and .net was created. Then .cit file and .vec file was made. The .net file and .vec was called from pajek. The network was created. The below image shows, the keywords and number of times occurred in the bracket with red color circle. The size of the ball represent the number of times of the word occurred. For example  Human and  Animals keyword appeared. It is very clear in the image. Added to that we are getting links.  Female keyword is seemed 94 publications with the co-word of  Middle Aged.
This tables shows the specific word used with another word in the number of records again and again.
3.11 Relative Growth Rate (RGR):
Now a day's scientific research is going tremendous manner. Lot of man power and finance also involved. Relative Growth Rate (RGR) over the particular period of interval can be considered from the following equation:
1-[2.sup.R] = [Log.sub.e] [W.sub.2] - Loge [W.sub.1]/[T.sub.2]-[T.sub.1]
1-2 [bar.R] = mean relative growth rate over the specific period of interval
[log.sub.e] [W.sub.1] = log of initial number of articles/pages
[log.sub.e] [W.sub.2] = log of final number of articles/pages after a specific period of interval
[T.sub.2] - [T.sub.1] = the unit difference between the initial time and the final time [aa.sup.-1] = average no. of articles
The year can be take here as the unit of time. The Relative Growth Rate for the articles and pages can be calculate separate.
1 - [2.sup.R(aa-1 year-1)] can represent the mean RGR per unit of articles per unit of year ov period of interval.
2006 = [Log.sub.e] 362 - [Log.sub.e] 173/2006-2005 = 5.89 - 5.15/1 = 0.74
2007 = [Log.sub.e] 557 - [Log.sub.e] 362/2007-2006 = 6.32 - 5.89/1 = 0.43
The researcher tried to implement the Relative Growth Rate (RGR) and Doubling Time for Pepper. It is seen from the below Table -11 shows that Relative Growth Rate. From 2006 (0.74) to 2014 (0.15) the rate is decreasing.
3.11 Doubling Time (Dt)
There exists a direct equivalence between the relative growth rate and the doubling time. "If the number of articles/pages of a subject doubles during a given period then the difference between the logarithms of numbers at the beginning and end of this period must be logarithms of number 2. If natural logarithm is used this difference has a value of 0.693. Thus the corresponding doubling time is for each specific period of interval." Baskaran examined the research growth, relative growth rate and doubling time of publications, institution wise and ranking of authors in research productivity of Graph Theory during 2004-2011 (3).
Doubling time (Dt) = 0.693/R
[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
2006 = 0.693/0.74 = 0.93
2007 = 0.693/0.43 = 1.60
The Doubling Time for cloud computing research increases from 0.93 to 4.50
Pepper is widely used in traditional Indian Medicine and as home remedy for sore throat, throat congestion and cough. The polyphenol extracts of alligator pepper, ginger and nutmeg displayed good antioxidant as well as antiglycation potential. They are very safe for consumption. (9) From the Pubmed Database the 2475 pepper research was done for the year 2005 to 2014. United States is the top most country with the maximum number of publication of 842. India is in the 9th place with 45 examines. It is find out that out of 2475 Pepper publications 2378 (96.08%) articles are published in English language. Journal article contribution is 2083 (84.16%). In the Pepper Research Four authors contributions are high 85 (16%). Single Authors contributions are 24.32%. Bradford's Law of Scattering is applicable in the Pepper research. 32 core journals are grouped in zone-1 published 827 articles accounts for one third of the total output. "J Agric Food Chem' Journal with 101 contributions amounting to the First Rank. According to Lotka's Law large numbers of papers were produced by limited number of authors. 11,041 authors are done research for the year 2005 to 2014. Among them "Hwang BK" contributes 55 results. 11,546 key words were used. Here we applied Zipfs Law with the top most first 20 key words. We can implement Relative Growth Rate and Doubling Time in Pepper Research. The highest Global Citation Score is 69. Airtight storage help to preserve the pepper flavour and aroma for a long period. If it exposed in light it will become as tasteless. Though it is having so many medicinal values only controlled studies have been carried out.
(1.) Aswathy. S & Gopikuttan. A. (2012) Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets: A Scientometric Analysis..SRELS Journal of Information Management. 49(6). 671-682
(2.) Natsuo Onodera. A Bibliometric Study on Chemical Information and Computer Sciences Focusing on Literature of JCICS. Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling. 41,4; 2011; 878-888.
(3.) Baskaran. C (2012). Ressearch Prodcutivitiy of Graph Theory duing 2004-2011: A Bibliometic Study". SRELS Journal of Information Management. 49(6). 683-691.
(4.) Boyoung Lee; Soohyun Lee; Choong-Min Ryu. (2012). Foliar Aphid Feeding Recruits Rhizosphere Bacteria and Primes Plant Immunity against Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic Bacteria in Pepper. Annals of Botany. 110 (2)281-290.
(5.) Gongora-Castillo E,, Ibarra-Laclette E., Trejo-Saavedra DL & Rivera-Bustamante RF. (2012). Transcriptome analysis of symptomatic and recovered leaves of eminivirus-infected pepper. Virol J. 27(9).295.
(6.) Marasco R., et.al (2012). A drought resistance-promoting microbiome is selected by root system under desert farming. PLoS One. 7(10).e48479.
(7.) Young-Do Nam; So-lim Park; Seong-Il Lim. (2012). Microbial Composition of the Korean Traditional Food & Ldquo; Kochujang & Rdquo; Analyzed by a Massive Sequencing Technique. Journal of Food Science. 77(4). M250-M256.
(8.) Kumaragurupari R., Pamela Sieving & Prajna Lalitha (2010). A Bibliometric Study of Publications by Indian Ophthalmologists and Vision Researchers, 2001-2006". Indian Journal of Ophthalmology. 58(4),275-280.
(9.) Kazeem M., Akanji M., Hafizur RM & Choudhary M (2012). Antiglycation, antioxidant and toxicological potential of polyphenol extracts of alligator pepper, ginger and nutmeg from Nigeria. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2(9).727-32.
(10.) Rojas Sola, J., & AguileraGarcia, A. (2015). Global Bibliometric Analysis of the 'Mining & Mineral Processing' Subject Category from the Web of Science (1997-2012). Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy Review, 36(6), 349-369.
(11.) Kim, M. (2014). A Bibliometric Analysis of Publications by the School of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, South Korea. Scientometrics, 98(2), 999-1019.
(12.) Santhakumar,R & Kaliyaperumal,K (2014). Mapping of Mobile Technology Publications; A Scientometric Approach. DESIDOC Journal of Library & Information Technology. 34(4), 298 303.
I am so thankful to Olle Persson for his Bibexcel tool and his guidance.
Dr. A. Thirumagal
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University
Tirunelveli--627 012, Tamilnadu
Caption: Image--1 Screen Short of Bibexcel
Caption: Diagram--1 Zipf law for Pepper Research
Caption: Image--2 Vector Analysis of Co-word of Pepper Research
Caption: Diagram--2 Doubling time for Research output in Pepper
Table--1 Quantum of Literature published in Pepper by year wise No.of S. No. Years Records % 1 2005 173 6.99 2 2006 189 7.64 3 2007 195 7.88 4 2008 205 8.28 5 2009 214 8.65 6 2010 241 9.74 7 2011 244 9.86 8 2012 283 11.43 9 2013 370 14.95 10 2014 361 14.59 2475 100.00 Table 2 Country wise Distribution of Pepper Research S.No Country No.of Records 1 United States 842 2 England 564 3 Netherlands 210 4 Germany 208 5 Korea (South) 83 6 Japan 66 7 Switzerland 55 8 China 46 9 India 45 10 Austria 45 11 Brazil 44 12 Ireland 32 13 France 17 14 Belgium 16 15 Poland 15 16 Canada 14 17 Pakistan 12 18 Denmark 12 19 Thailand 11 20 Russia 11 (Federation) 21 Others 104 Table 3 Language wise Distribution of Pepper Research S,No Languages No.of Percentage Records 1. English 2378 96.08 2. Chinese 37 1.49 3. Spanish 14 0.57 4. Russian 10 0.40 5. French 7 0.28 6. Japanese 7 0.28 7. Portuguese 7 0.28 8. Polish 5 0.20 9. German 4 0.16 10. Czech 2 0.08 11. Dutch 2 0.08 12. Italian 2 0.08 2475 100 Table 4 Publication Type Distribution of Pepper Research S.No Publication Type No.of Percentage Records 1. Journal Article 2083 84.16 2. Comparative Study 151 6.10 3. English Abstract 83 3.35 4. Evaluation Studies 58 2.34 5. Case Reports 58 2.34 6. Historical Article 10 0.40 7. Clinical Trial 8 0.32 8. Retraction of Publication 6 0.24 9. Comment 6 0.24 10. Biography 4 0.16 11. Letter 4 0.16 12. Editorial 2 0.08 13. Book 2 0.08 2475 100.00 Table 5 Authorship pattern in Pepper S,No Author No.of Percentage Records 1. Single 602 24.32 2. Joint 320 12.93 3. Three 365 14.75 4. Four 358 14.46 5. Five 295 11.92 6. Six 188 7.60 7. Seven 139 5.62 8. Eight 82 3.31 9. More than Eight 126 5.09 Total 2475 100.00 Table 6 Zone and Number of Journals in Pepper Research Zone No. of Journals No. of articles No. (%) No. (%) Zone 1 32 4.04 827 33.41 Zone 2 133 16.79 825 33.33 Zone 3 627 79.17 823 33.25 Total 792 100.00 2475 100.00 Table 7 Ranking of Journals in Pepper Research 1 J Agric Food Chem 101 2 PLoS One 58 3 Arch Virol 43 4 Phytopathology 36 5 Planta 35 6 Food Chem 30 7 Theor Appl Genet 30 8 Plant Physiol 27 9 J Food Prot 27 10 Genet Mol Res 25 11 Mol Cells 24 12 Pest Manag Sci 24 13 Mol Plant Pathol 24 14 J Econ Entomol 24 15 Plant Cell Rep 22 16 Mol Plant Microbe Interact 22 17 J Food Sci 21 18 Biochem Biophys Res Commun 21 19 J Sci Food Agric 20 20 Food Chem Toxicol 20 Table--8 Individual Authors Contribution in Pepper Research 1 Hwang BK 55 2 Choi D 24 3 Kim BD 19 4 Moury B 15 5 Paran I 14 6 Shim JH 12 7 Gong ZH 12 8 Lee SC 12 9 Antonious GF 11 10 Kang BC 11 11 Paek KH 11 12 Kim WT 10 13 Kim HJ 10 14 Jahn MM 10 15 Lee S 9 16 Kim DS 9 17 Wang Y 8 18 Lahaye T 8 19 Kim NH 8 20 Fernandez-Alba AR 8 Table--9 Application of Zipf Law in for Pepper Research S.No Keywords No. of times occurred 1. Humans 575 2. Animals 497 3. Male 323 4. Molecular Sequence Data 291 5. Female 284 6. Amino Acid Sequence 150 7. Adult 149 8. Phylogeny 146 9. Gene Expression Regulation 141 10. Base Sequence 126 11. Mice 118 12. Capsicum 104 13. Middle Aged 102 14. Sequence Analysis 100 15. Chromatography 81 16. Genes 75 17. Rats 73 18. Phenotype 70 19. Plants 69 20. Reproducibility of Results 67 21. Aged 67 22. Plant Diseases 65 23. Food Contamination 64 24. Genetic Variation 64 25. Dose-Response Relationship 62 Table--10 Co-word Analysis S.No Word or Keyword Co-word No. of Records Occurred 1. Amino Acid Sequence Molecular Sequence Data 145 2. Adult Female 124 3. Animals Humans 122 4. Adult Male 119 5. Animals Mice 118 6. Base Sequence Molecular Sequence Data 102 7. Humans Middle Aged 102 8. Animals Female 99 9. Female Middle Aged 94 10. Molecular Sequence Data Phylogeny 89 11. Male Middle Aged 84 12. Molecular Sequence Data Sequence Analysis, DNA 79 13. Adult Middle Aged 75 14. Animals Rats 73 15. Aged Humans 67 Table--11 Pepper Scientific Relative Growth Rate and Doubling Time Year Quantum Cumulative W1 of Output Total of Output 2005 173 173 2006 189 362 5.15 2007 195 557 5.89 2008 205 762 6.32 2009 214 976 6.64 2010 241 1217 6.88 2011 244 1461 7.1 2012 283 1744 7.29 2013 370 2114 7.46 2014 361 2475 7.66 Year W2 [MATHEMATICAL Dt(a) EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 2005 5.15 2006 5.89 0.74 0.93 2007 6.32 0.43 1.60 2008 6.64 0.32 2.19 2009 6.88 0.24 2.85 2010 7.10 0.22 3.09 2011 7.29 0.19 3.71 2012 7.46 0.17 3.98 2013 7.66 0.20 3.53 2014 7.81 0.15 4.50
Please note: Illustration(s) are not available due to copyright restrictions.
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|Publication:||Library Philosophy and Practice|
|Date:||Feb 1, 2016|
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