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Research on the precise design of green buildings based on BIM technology--taking the ecological sponge exhibition center of Yuelai new town of Chongqing City as an example.

1. Introduction

Since the issue of Evaluation Standard of Green Building in 2006, the development of green buildings has entered into the steady rising period. By the end of Dec. 31st, 2015, the total area of green buildings reaches 460 million [m.sup.3] and altogether 3979 projects obtain the evaluation label of green buildings (China Society for Urban Studies, 2016). The State Council government work report of 2016 proposes that we are going to promote green buildings and building materials, reinforce the energy saving reconstruction of building and insist on green development and the strategic requirement of energy conservation and emission reduction in the 13th Five Year Plan (The State Council of the People's Republic of China, 2016). The development of the number of green buildings promotes related new technologies and new materials towards the maturity stage. Therefore, the design of green buildings will transfer from routinization to precision, thus realizing the enhancement in quality.

2. Difficulties in the Precise Design of Green Buildings

Green buildings emphasize the full life circle of design, construction, operation and maintenance and bear the characteristics of various fields, strong profession, high comprehensive integration and incremental cost (Liao et al., 2016). The complexity of the process for managing all of information related to this industry has resulted in tremendous inefficiencies, leading to massive money and time losses (Pereira-Rama et al., 2012). In precise design, restrictions will be posed by the following factors:

The first is that technical consultants, building material providers and specific technique manufacturers all need to participate in the design process, but the intervening time and definition of working of participants are ambiguous (Liu and Tian, 2014).

The second is the single and linear "reverse" process of first building design and last technology consulting, lacking collaborative design.

The third is that the feedback of each field is delayed. Problems like backward information transit mode, delayed transmission, severe loss and ineffective sharing of information lead to the design period extension (Fan and Zeng, 2015).

Meanwhile, existing design of green buildings adopt traditional two-dimension design and the defects are as follow:

The first is that precise and quantitative prospective analysis of specific index requirement like energy and water conservation of green buildings is difficult to conduct, resulting in the disjunction of design and implementation.

The second is that the space design of complex shape of green buildings cannot be expressed precisely, like irregular shaped members and curved curtain wall. It is very difficult to conduct precise localization of details, leading to the incomplete of design information.

The third is that the non-visual docking of technical drawings of different fields like pipeline collision can only be found until construction phase, resulting in reworking or redesign and the consumption of materials and personnel. 3

3. Advantages of Precise Design of Green Buildings Supported by BIM Technology

Building information modeling can achieve the full life cycle integrated management of buildings applying digital modeling technology; this modeling can provide new prediction methods, management mode, performance-based analysis and environmental monitoring method for the precise design of green buildings through the characteristics of visualization, simulation, optimization, drawable.

3.1. Perpetual Object

BIM technology focuses on the full life cycle of buildings, enhances the scientific and technical level of the planning, design, construction and operation of green buildings and supports the precise design of green buildings from four dimensions of project planning, material selection, project construction and post-stage operation.

3.2. Information Management

BIM model, as the carrier of building information, achieves the centralized management of each phase and each piece of profession information, which benefits the sharing of information and the checking of error, leakage, collision and loss, providing more intuitive data for sustainable design; the information extracted through the BIM model has integrity, veracity, consistency and controllability, making the information statistics of building materials and equipment more reliable, providing relevant reference for the calculation of incremental cost of green buildings and making the realization of green targets become more controllable; the rich information of design, production, construction, operation and maintenance in BIM model provides strong data support for the design and evaluation of precise design of green buildings.

3.3. Research Method

BIM model, as the foundation of simulation analysis of precise design of green buildings, brings forward the performance-based analysis of green buildings to the preliminary design phase of buildings and provides certain reference for architects in the comparison and selection, optimization and improvement of scheme, which benefits relevant decisions of green buildings (Editors of Green Building, 2016) and saves the modeling time of relevant performance analysis software greatly.

4. Project Overview

The ecological sponge exhibition center is located in the northeast of Yuelai new town of Chongqing City. The building land use is 17577 [m.sup.2], the capacity building area is 9993.58 [m.sup.2] and the building height is 21.15m, the function of which covers exhibition, experience, publicity and education. This center applied technical measures of ecology, intelligence and sponge bearing mountainous characteristics of Chongqing City in expectation to reach the three-star rating of national green buildings, becoming the landmark building taking "ecology, intelligence and sponge" as the theme of Chongqing City (Figure 1 and Figure 2).

The altitude difference of land use of Yuelai ecological sponge exhibition center is 50m and the topographic slope mainly concentrates in 30%-50%. The complex terrain makes the rational utilization of land more and more difficult (Figure 3). Meanwhile, this landmark building has complex architectural image, exterior elevation is irregular curved surface (Figure 4).

To reach the three-star rating design criterion of national green buildings, achieve the collaborative design of each field, formulate appropriate technology strategies for green buildings and express the modeling space of buildings precisely, the key and difficult point in this precise design of green buildings is the precise statistics of the utilization amount of all kinds of materials. Therefore, this research will adopt BIM technology to conduct precise design of green buildings on Yuelai ecological sponge exhibition center.

5. Technological Rout

The integrated design platform based on BIM technology can conduct the integration and optimization of traditional linear design process, clear the integrated design requirements of various professions and fields in green building design at the same time and establish logical structure.

5.1. Process of Collaborative Design

Bentley proposed the collaborative design, which is to complete the same design project following the same set of standard under the same environment for project members; in the design process, each profession is design concurrently, which guarantees timely and accurate communication. The structure of "taking

application as the core and modeling to complement" based on BIM technology transfers the "mixture" design of each profession to the "collaborative" design based on BIM platform (Figure 5), making the green buildings in Yuelai ecological sponge exhibition center concentrate on four elements of "people, mechanism, material, environment" to achieve the mutual participation of all professions.

5.1.1. Assembling Green BIM Work Team

Speaking of the element of "people", we refer to the construction of green BIM work team. Profession green building design team need to be added in Green BIM team on the basis of original BIM team. Green BIM team consists of BIM director, profession engineers of building, structure, electromechanical, steel structure and curtain wall, green building designer director, and profession engineers of building materials, building environment, performance-based analysis and building energy conservation (Figure 6).

5.1.2. Writing Green BIM Collaborative Manual

The element of "mechanism" refers to the establishment of supporting mechanism of green BIM application. Referring to the new working mode of collaborative design in the Guidelines of BIM Implementation Standard for Design Enterprise (BIM Research Group of Tsinghua University, & BIM Research Group of is BIM, 2013). Compiled by the research group of Tsinghua University, supporting green BIM collaborative manuals are compiled according to the actual project requirement of Yuelai ecological sponge exhibition center to regulate the template, collaborative standards, model precision, data exchange standard, drawing standard of each profession of the BIM project execution plan (Wang and Liu, 2015). Each standard content of cooperative work is strictly formulated.

5.1.3. Building Green BIM Collaborative Platform

The element "material "refers to the software and hardware equipment needed in the building of BIM application. A platform should be built for the collaborative work of each profession, ensuring the real-time updating of all kinds of data. The green BIM collaborative platform consists of software platform and the sharing platform based on cloud computing and mobile Internet technology.

Revit collaborative platform is adopted at this time, including a series of Revit software like Revit Architecture, Revit Structure, Revit MEP and Navisworks and local secondary development is conducted at the same time. Based on BIM model, information is imported in corresponding green building software through format conversion to conduct performance-based analysis and optimization design, realizing the synergistic effect of design among each civil engineering profession. Meanwhile, the cloud collaborative management platform (Figure 7) consisting of data storage layer, access layer and palliation service layer is built to achieve the functions of document management, task distribution and online browsing and realize the seamless joint among designers, owners and constructors. Each participant of the project conducts data access through computers, tablet PC and smartphones, logins the BIM cloud platform system through network access, user authentication and privilege management interface and makes inquiry and modification of the related information of the project (Table 1).

5.1.4. Application of Green BIM execution Project

The element of "environment" refers to the construction of the project. In Yuelai ecological sponge exhibition center, green BIM platform is built and BIM model is established (Figure 8), conducting the collaboration of each profession and practicing the sustainable precise design target.

5.2. Application of BIM Technology

The core of BIM technology is the establishment of virtual 3-D model, applying digitalization technology to form the integrated, accurate and consistent information database containing full life cycle of buildings. Designers can conduct the recording and extracting of information on the center model at any time and can realize the exchange and sharing of model information of each profession, which effectively solves the "fault information" of communication of each participant based on 2-D design mode in traditional design and the "information island issue" among application systems. Meanwhile, the related information extracted through the BIM model is beneficial for the proposal and implementation of green technical strategies, realizing the precise design requirements of green buildings.

5.2.1. Application of BIM Technology in Different Design Phase

Compared with the traditional design era of 2-D CAD, BIM model can provide better information carrier. Meanwhile, the co-movement of flat vertical profile design guarantees the integrity and reliability of information transmission at each phase. With comprehensive and integrated information system (Sa et al., 2012), BIM model contains rich spatial and temporal information (Yi and Wei, 2014). The complete engineering information description (Table 2) provides a good access point for the detailed building materials, device parameter, statistics details of each phase in the design green buildings.

To reach the goal of three-star rating of national green buildings, at the beginning of the planning, the Yuelai ecological sponge exhibition center adopted BIM technology to conduct the modeling, analysis and optimization of the scheme and applied visualized presentation (Figure 9) to cooperate with the goal of green buildings proposed at the beginning of the project, truly achieving the green BIM application at the beginning of the planning.

1. Schematic Design Phase

Propose green targets, establish initial model, complete site analysis, building performance simulation analysis, comparison and selection of designing schemes. In this phase, positioning and analysis at the scene is the main factor influencing the building layout and BIM model is applied to record related engineering information. Evaluation of the scene and surrounding conditions is conducted to organize transportation streamline and building layout. In this phase, BIM model can output some macro controlling parameters as the boundary conditions of the preliminary performance-based analysis of green buildings. Sustainable analysis tools are applied to conduct rapid evaluation of the energy consumption of different schemes, thus conducting the comparison and selection of schemes.

Two design schemes were proposed at the schematic design phase of Yuelai ecological sponge exhibition center, scheme 2 was selected to conduct detailed design after the comparison and selection of mould, plane layout, vertical design, ecological analysis, preliminary performance-based analysis (wind, light, heat, sound environment) (Figure 10).

2. Preliminary Design Phase

Perfect green targets, optimize BIM model, putting particular emphasis on various functions and performances of single building (Figure 11). In preliminary design phase, center model is established on the server-side; corresponding model information of each profession is recorded; ensure the integrity of data and information of the center model through collaborative sharing. The information contained in the BIM model is taken as the foundation of the performance-based analysis software of green buildings to conduct energy conservation design, sunlight analysis, energy efficiency evaluation, natural ventilation design, HVAC design and calculation and water supply and drainage calculation and analysis.

After selecting scheme 2 to conduct detailed design, designers conducted several rounds of optimization design on Yuelai ecological sponge exhibition center combined with the design strategy of green buildings, applying BIM technology and parametrization design methods and taking performance-based analysis results into consideration. Based on the recorded local climate and building physical environment information, applying parameterized technology, conduct logical scheme modeling and adjustment and optimization of through parameter adjustment; meanwhile, conduct rapid sunshine and daylighting calculation of buildings applying the built BIM model to guide the production of external shading members. Through the analysis, we can know that the control rate of direct solar radiation is 35% when designing horizontal shading; and the number is 75.5% when adding vertical design. Therefore, the mode of the combination of horizontal and vertical shading is applied (Figure 12). With the help of visualization, simulation, and coordination of BIM, functions of mesh generation, height detection, roof scheme adjustment, daylighting roof mesh generation, spiral stair setting-out and internal space analysis are completed and the precise design of building space is realized (Figure 13), thus completing the optimization of the selected scheme.

3. Construction Drawing Design Phase

Implement green targets and deepen BIM model. In this phase, detailed design of each profession is completed and material information, device parameters are recorded in detail. After the establishment of 3-D models of each profession, collision detection is conducted and optimization of devices and pipelines is conducted to reach the optimal condition of spatial layout. Meanwhile, in terms of steel structure, mechanical and electrical installation, BIM model is adopted to conduct detailed design. Problems may exist in the design are anticipated and detailed construction drawing and member list are generated, reducing material wastage and improving the material preparation rate of factories. Meanwhile, detailed member information is extracted from the BIM model, making it possible to do member prefabrication in other places and improving the return on investment of the whole project to a great extent (Harvey et al., 2015). The drawable nature of BIM technology can be utilized to complete the drawings of related professions. BIM model data is extracted based on different needs and each profession can form the evidentiary material according to the selected green building technology as the basis for green building evaluation.

4. Joint Point of BIM Technology and Green Building Design at Each Design Phase

At different design phases, the design information in BIM model can provide certain reference for relevant parameters of green building design, provide certain quantitative basis for the implementation of green building targets and effectively expand the application value of BIM in green building design at the same time (Table 3).

5.2.2. BIM Technology Application of Green Building Performance-based Analysis

To create the optimal indoor and outdoor space and environment enjoyment, designers must conduct the performance-based analysis of various fields, which is a very important part in green building design. At the moment, various software is applied in the performance-based analysis of green buildings in China, and the modeling of each profession needs to be conducted again according to the design drawings to conduct software analysis, resulting in the problem of high talent cost in designing institutes. BIM model contains various member information of buildings, like material, weight and heat resistance, which can provide necessary parameters for performance-based analysis (Liu and Wang, 2015). Therefore, with the help of BIM model, it can be imported into related performance-based analysis software (Figure 14), which can conduct analysis and evaluation of wind, light, heat, sound environment of single building, saving the modeling time of each profession greatly and providing relatively accurate building information at the same time.

Based on engineering principles such as architectural physics, heat transfer theories (Amos et al., 2016; Halima et al., 2016; Seyed and Sadeghiazad, 2016), and fluid mechanics, the Yuelai ecological sponge exhibition center takes meteorological data, site characteristics, and engineering costs as boundary conditions, and uses advanced computer simulation software and analysis method based on a BIM model to achieve main goals such as green building, energy conservation, environmental protection, high quality, and high cost effectiveness, thereby realizing quantification and visualization of technology application effects.

Analysis of luminous environment: export files in a DXF format from the BIM model; import the files in Ecotect software; and perform simulation analysis for light environment on main function rooms on second and third floors to obtain average lighting coefficient values, 3.97% and 7.69%, and obtain standard illuminance values of indoor natural light, 476.4lx and 922.8lx, which meets design standards for indoor lighting (Figure 15), where the average lighting coefficient values and the standard illuminance values are corresponding to the main function rooms on the second and third floors. During design of a parking garage, natural lighting of a sunken square is adopted in some area of the parking garage. In addition, measures of using medium transparent glass, whitewashing an inner wall, or the like are adopted to improve lighting environment. An average lighting coefficient value and a maximum lighting coefficient value of the garage are obtained by means of Ecotect analysis, where the average value is 2.09%, and the maximum value is 40.4%. Most parking area and roadways have a poor lighting condition. To achieve a comfortable lighting environment, five sets of D530 light guides are used in the design for aided lighting (Figure 16).

Analysis of wind environment: Yuelai ecological sponge exhibition center forms the natural ventilation flow in transition seasons and promote the natural ventilation in transition seasons through southwestern floor openings and opening design of louvers inside the atrium building. Simulation comparative analysis is conducted on these two ventilation schemes utilizing Phoenics software (Figure 17) and we can obtain that the average wind speed of the second floor is between 0.1 to 0.8 m/s and the number is 0.1 to 2.0 m/s in the third floor. The ventilation effect in the pedestrian zone is relatively uniform and both schemes can meet the requirements of indoor natural ventilation. However, scheme 2 has the risk of pollutants upward and downward flowing.

Thermal environment analysis: based on the regional characteristics of Chongqing area, Yuelai ecological sponge exhibition center conducts the design of ground source heat pump. Energy consumption simulation software Dest is adopted to conduct annual hourly air conditioning load analysis (Figure 18). Comprehensively considering the annual thermal balance of the soil and the annual efficiency of generator units, rational unit matching is conducted: the ground source heat pump screw unit with the heating capacity of 339KW and the cooling capacity of 387KW and the screw chiller with cooling capacity of 1135KW. The load in the winter is all provided by the ground source heat pump and the 35% of the load in summer is provided by the ground source. In the whole year, provided by the ground source is responsible for 39% of air conditioning load.

6. Difficulty in the Collaborative Design of BIM Technology and Green Buildings

Through this research, we can discover that the combination of BIM technology and green buildings holds a distinct superiority, but there still exist some technical difficulties in solely utilizing green BIM to solve the design of full life cycle. Developmental researches need to be conducted on the cooperation between BIM model and performance-based analysis software. 7

7. Conclusions

China started to implement the new version of Evaluation Standard of Green Buildings since 2015 and the BIM technology was taken as innovation plus. Meanwhile, the Guidance of Promoting the Application of Building Information Model Technology issued by Shanghai also specifically proposed to enhance the research on integrative development of BIM technology, green buildings and construction industry, establish the BIM technical application system meeting the design and construction requirements of prefabricated buildings and improve the simulation analysis software level based on BIM technology(Shanghai Urban and Rural Construction and Management Committee, 2014). Thus it can be seen that the collaboration between BIM technology and precise design of green buildings has gradually been brought into the official system. Therefore, it can be the key to solve the energy consumption constraint to actively explore rational green design strategies and realize the green management of the full life cycle from the beginning of the planning to the construction and maintenance utilizing the combination of the two. Global energy consumption and intensifying greenhouse effect severely hinders the optimal physical environment building of green buildings. Therefore, we should actively explore the computing method of carbon emission based on BIM (Guo Rongjun, Liu Jingdong, & Wang Xiwen,2014), improvement measures of green building indoor air quality based on BIM(Wu Dongdong, 2015) and achieve the realtime monitoring of carbon dioxide concentration and pollutants in the air, which will effectively reduce energy consumption and create high quality spatial feeling. Meanwhile, the depth and breadth of precise deign of green buildings based on BIM technology will be upgraded continuously with the practice of BIM technology in new construction of green buildings and green revamping of existing buildings (Autodesk Company,2009).

Recebido/Submission: 08/04/2016

Aceitacao/Acceptance: 23/07/2016

Acknowledgements

The project (cstc2016shmszx30017) is supported by Chongqing Social Career and People's Livelihood Guarantee Science and Technology Innovation Special.

References

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Lili Dong (1), Liping Yang (1), Bin Liu (2), Haiyue Li (1)

dllview@163.com, yang09100116@gmail.com, 7146509@qq.com, 309179151@qq.com

(1) College of Architecture and Urban Planning of Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing 400074, China

(2) China CMCU Engineering Corporation, Chongqing 400074, China

Table 1 - BIM Cloud Platform Operation Application
of Each Project Participant

Project       BIM Cloud Platform Operation Application
Participant

owner         record research information and establish basic project
              information database; manage the project schedule;
              inquire the project report; release and trace project
              events timely

designer      upload the BIM model recorded with design information;
              standardize drawing expression; check the discrepancy
              between design and obstruction information; statistics
              of change information

constructor   obtain revised design model; build details of
              construction model; upload the cost, schedule and
              security of the construction; manage project documents

Table 2--Description Table of BIM Model Engineering Information

Information              Description of Engineering Information
Classification

design information       structure type, building materials,
                         engineering performance, member size,
                         fire rating

production information   product codes, type specification,
                         functional application

construction             construction procedure, schedule
information              information, cost information, quality
                         information, human resources, mechanical
                         resources, material resources,
                         engineering practice

operation &maintenance   engineering security performance,
information              durability performance of materials,
                         replacement cycle, maintenance mode,
                         service condition

associated information   engineering logic relationship among
                         objects

Table 3--Application and Value Analysis of BIM
Model Information in Green Building Design Phase

               BIM design information      Design parameter of
                                           corresponding green
                                           building

scheme         project information         balance of excavation
design         (project name, address,     volume; reasonable
               code, weather,              orientation; shape
               surroundings); initial      coefficient; indoor
               landform within site        natural ventilation;
               scope; outdoor ground and   external sunshade;
               roads; architecture         preliminary analysis of
               quantity and main fender    energy consumption;
               members; outdoor pipeline   outdoor view; parking
               layout and determination    space; outdoor noise;
               of equipment room           outdoor wind environment;
               position; outdoor
               mechanical equipment,
               structures; simulation
               survey and earth volume
               calculation (depth of
               modeling: LOD 100 );

preliminary    outdoor design sites,       barrier free design;
design         roads and structures;       structural optimization;
               building maintenance        ratio of green space;
               members and various         adjustable external
               indoor members: structure   sunshade; public
               column, beam, floor         auxiliary facilities;
               layout and material type,   public transportation;
               stairs ramp, various        outdoor permeable ground,
               vertical shafts,            outdoor wind environment;
               enclosure structure         roof greening, vertical
               layout and material type    greening; reasonable rain
               (door, window, wall,        scheme; rainfall runoff;
               roof); main function room   indoor noise, member
               and furniture layout;       sound insulation; roof,
               main room name and area;    east and west external
               indoor and outdoor main     wall internal surface
               pipelines, structures       temperature; indoor wind
               (location, size,            speed, humidity,
               material, depth); fire      temperature, air
               hydrant and pump room;      pollutant concentration,
               water tank room and other   lighting coefficient;
               equipment room;             simulation analysis-wind,
               luminaire, electrical       sound, light, heat,
               apparatus and the 3-D       sunlight, energy
               model of the device; air    conservation;
               duct and its accessories;
               pipeline and its
               accessories; tuyere and
               3-D modeling of air
               conditioning equipment;
               completing the collision
               coordination of each
               profession (depth of
               modeling: LOD 200 );

construction   detail design (local 3-D    foundation basis;
drawing        detail drawing); various    structural system;
design         detail statistic lists of   optimization of
               building profession         structural members;
               (usable area, curtain       prefabricated member
               wall, total building        design; daily water
               area, room, material,       consumption; pipeline
               area of fire compartment,   leakage prevention; no
               enclosure structure);       overpressure of water
               detailed design of steel    supply; water-saving
               structure (detailed         appliances; water-saving
               information of member       and cooling technology;
               detailed drawing, detail    high-strength
               node information, steel     reinforcement; ratio
               volume, number of           calculation of highhigh-
               bolt),                      strength concrete; indoor
               detailed design of          lighting area ratio of
               curtain wall (unit plate,   window to floor, open
               embedded part, accurate     area ratio of natural
               positioning of keel); air   ventilation, welded
               duct, pipeline pressure     steel, mechanical
               loss report; water supply   connection; usage of 3R
               and drainage pipeline       building materials;
               attachment detail list      content of harmful
               (name and type, size,       matter; usage rate of
               number of measurement,      recyclable building
               manufacture factory,        materials; parameter of
               note); detail list of       ventilation, air
               mechanical and electrical   conditioning and
               profession                  illuminating system; per
               (electromechanical          capita land area index;
               device, pipeline            ratio of green space, per
               fittings, fire alarm        capita public green area;
               equipment, lighting         rational utilization of
               equipment, electrical       underground space;
               equipment, electrical       thermal performance of
               apparatus) (depth of        enclosure structure
               modeling: LOD 300 )

               Analysis of BIM
               application value

scheme         (1) green building
design         strategy and primary
               location; (2) performance
               analysis of green
               buildings, realizing the
               comparison and selection
               of plan and design
               schemes; (3) initial
               scheme is more scientific

preliminary    (1) conducting wind,
design         sound, light, heat,
               sunlight, energy
               conservation simulation
               utilizing BIM model,
               verifying green building
               technology; (2)
               realizing modification of
               parameterized modeling
               technology, intelligent
               change of associated
               content; (3)
               integrated design of
               pipelines, find the
               error, leakage,
               collision, loss through
               the collision checking of
               each profession, reduce
               the reworking and waste
               of construction;

construction   (1) exporting civil
drawing        engineering, detail
design         statistical report by the
               BIM model as the
               evaluation basis for
               green buildings; (2)
               improve the drawing
               efficiency of
               construction drawing,
               ensure the consistency of
               flat vertical profile and
               effectively reduce the
               error of 2-D construction
               drawing; (3) conduct
               precise prefabrication
               and field installation of
               a large number of members
               through rich member
               information of the BIM,
               reduce the cost and
               improve the efficiency

Figure 12 - Parameterized Design Sun-shading System of Yuelai ecological
sponge exhibition center

              Light spot area on indoor
                 floor ([m.sup.2])

Time       Vo      Horizontal   Integrated
        sunshade    sunshade     sunshade

08:00    85.98       54.81          0
09:00    60.02       29.49          0
10:00    45.55       15.14          0
11:00    36.56        4.87          0
12:00    27.89         0            0
13:00    33.52         0            0
14:00    87.95         0            0
15:00    159.07      60.13         8.79
16:00    247.01      155.62       47.89
17:00    369.42      288.77       112.81
18:00    579.15      516.05       234.09

          Shadow effect contrast of      Building externa sunshade
        direct sunlight with different         shadow effect
              sun-shadine desien

Time            No/horizontal/
             integrated sunshade

08:00
09:00
10:00
11:00
12:00
13:00
14:00
15:00
16:00
17:00
18:00

Figure 18 - Annual Hourly Air Conditioning Load Analysis
of Yuelai Ecological Sponge Exhibition Center

Project statistics                     Unit       Statistic

Total air conditioning area          [m.sup.2]     6631.05
Project load atatiatica
Annual maximum heating load             kW          370.9
Annual maximum cooling load             kW          1396
Annual maximum humidification          kg/h         97.86
Annua] cumulative heating load         kW. h      141764.11
Annua] cumulative cooling load         kW. h      993047.48
Annual cumulative huaidification        kg         333.14
Project load area index
Annual maximum heating load index   W/[m.sup.2]     66.7
Annual maximum cooling load index   W/[m.sup.2]     214.2
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Author:Dong, Lili; Yang, Liping; Liu, Bin; Li, Haiyue
Publication:RISTI (Revista Iberica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informacao)
Date:Oct 15, 2016
Words:5335
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