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Research on public management efficiency improvement method based on parallel database oriented optimization management information system.

1. Introduction

Efficiency and its implementation mechanism have been the general management and the core content of the traditional public administration research. With the evolution and the development of subject, the efficiency of the increasingly rich content, the concept of efficiency is often used on the different meaning. The resulting confusion leads to the discussion of the efficiency of failed to further progress (Aji, 2013; Andrews, 2013; Abreu, 2015). Neglect the uniqueness of different efficiency caused by the realization of the efficiency mechanism made out prescription didn't suit the remedy to the case and implicit is key problem of a single research perspective (Hoi, 2013; Lannier, 2014; Khitun, 2015). Public management is the basic problem of social fairness problem is the study of social public sector how to formulate and implement right of public policy and adopt proper management measures and regulation behavior prompted the society as a whole to form a fair and just environment to make the reasonable market competition rules, so as to promote the development of the society and make of all the members of the society in various fields of social life have equal opportunities and equal rights to get the right development (Lee, 2012; Trigo, 2012; Osborne, 2013). The figure one illustrates the principles.


We can be in the public management efficiency is divided into two different levels, namely organization efficiency and development efficiency. (1) Allocative efficiency. When talking about the relationship between the government and the market, the mainstream view is: on the one hand, market failure and government failure are realistic (Wang, 2014; Woodbridge, 2015). On the other hand, the government and the market can be heals each other and this view also apply to the market mechanism of public goods supply. (2) Organizational efficiency. Even if main body of public administration organization efficiency is high, it provides the public goods and public service is entirely possible from the demand of the public. In this sense, the purpose of introducing market mechanism in public management not only with the ability to create competitive environment, more is to give public choice and collective judgment independently (Yfoulis, 2012; Wu, 2013).

To handle the mentioned issues, in this paper, we propose the novel public management efficiency improvement method based on parallel database oriented optimization management information system (MIS). Management information system is concentrated reflection of modern management modernization and the modernization is a comprehensive concept that is the science and the technology management system in people's ideology and behavior habits of modern fusion (Zhu, 2015). Effective management information system is the modern management ideas and methods, modern organization system and advanced computer technology and the organic unity of the modern people, and that will be the latest technical and the management results of the dynamic and the generation of the concept of dynamic.

2. The parallel database and optimization countermeasures

2.1. Parallel database concept

Query optimization in the parallel database, the processor allocation is always an important problem, in the parallel relationship database, more join queries is the query requirement of database application system is indispensable, and execution of each connection operation cost depends on the processor number assigned to the connection. As a result, more connected to the execution order scheduling and each connection processor allocation problem is the key of query optimization in parallel library. In the table one, we show the traditional load of the hyperbolic function.

To query optimization in distributed database, our main goal is with the minimum total cost, in the shortest possible time to obtain required data. Its implementation is related with the communication time already, also related to the local processing time depending on the interconnection network condition can have different query optimization strategies. Object-oriented database, however, is the relatively new technology, it is lack of theoretical support, he may have in dealing with a large number of data contains a lot of affairs much more slowly than a relational database system, but people have developed a hybrid object database, the database will be a relational database management system's ability to deal with affairs and object-oriented database systems dealing with the complex relationships and the ability of the new data. In the figure two, demonstrate the architecture.

Optimization method is one of the research of parallel database of a part of the optimization of the whole database query has important research value. In big ways, it can be divided into four types, respectively is the traditional optimization method based on the query tree and multiple weighted tree optimization method, the semantic query optimization method, and based on the genetic optimization algorithm. Among them, the traditional optimization method based on the query tree mainly includes the query optimization algorithm based on linear left tree, the query optimization algorithm based on the linear right tree, query optimization method based on linear episodic right tree, query optimization algorithm based on the thick trees, and the query optimization algorithm based on operation of forest which could be demonstrated as the follows, respectively.

* A linear tree query optimization algorithm based on the left:

Schneider presents a linear tree to the left and the HASH-JOIN algorithm on the basis of MJ query optimization method. MJ given query Q, and Q each left linear tree contains only one with the highest parallelism query plan, known as Q left linear tree optimization of parallel query plan.

* Query optimization algorithm based on the thick trees: GBT has the very high parallelism query optimization method, but the thick tree query execution plan space is very large. It uses the characteristics of the linear and dense trees have very high parallelism and relative GBT smaller search space. It can be seen that LBT tree query execution plan than GBT much smaller, and the relationship between n increases, while this phenomenon is more obvious, visible LBT tree based query GBT has improved a lot.

* Multiple weighted tree optimization method: This method can deal with the choice of the most commonly used a projection of the join query, support for multiple parallel connection algorithm, including assembly line buffer memory allocation algorithm optimization, manipulation processor and memory optimization allocation algorithm and the connection operation to realize optimization algorithm of the algorithm. Query optimization algorithm that can support variety of parallel connection algorithm provides connection operation implementation algorithm of heuristic optimization algorithm.


2.2. Database optimization methodologies

Database optimization is to adjust the component and improve the performance, increase the throughput of the database and the processing time is correspondingly reduced. And database query is a management information system, the main operating speed of the query is directly related to the performance of database system, the index can improve the database query speed. As a result, in improving the performance of information management system is of great significance for the optimization design of relational database index. Running speed and the execution efficiency is an important standard to measure the performance of the database system, in order to guarantee the system performance and throughput, the need to optimize the database logic design and physical design, and through the database design always, this is the first task of database optimization design.

For this concern, we should firstly discuss the characteristics of the components. (1) Foreign key role is to establish the relationship between the relational database referential integrity primary key can only be from independent entity migration to the independent entity which become a property known as foreign keys. (2) Keys are used for complex SQL statements frequently used in the data access a table with only a primary key. Primary key can be divided into natural primary and primary key natural primary key by the entity attribute of the natural primary key can be a compound in the form a composite primary key primary key columns cannot too much composite primary key complicates Join operation also increased the size of the external key table primary key is key in the absence of appropriate nature or nature complex or high sensitivity in human form. (3) Index was used to optimize the system performance is obvious to all commonly used in the where clause of the column in the query and all for sorting the columns of the create index can avoid a full table scan or visit without changing the physical structure of the table under the condition of direct access to specific data column.

Choosing the right column to establish the index has an important effect on the positive and negative effects of the balanced index. Usually have the following characteristics data column is indexed in: (1) define a primary key and foreign key columns of data; (2) need in the specified range of fast or frequent queries in a column; (3) the need according to the sort order fast or frequent search column; (4) in the collection process need to fast or frequent combination to columns together.

When designing the database, the query efficiency is very important. In the design should be noted: (1) Whether the use of index. The database index is like a directory in the general books, when accessing the database the user can reduce the number of data traversing the data, so as to quickly find the desired data. (2) I/O throughput. In the hardware environment, optimization of the deployment scheme can improve the I/O throughput and avoid the bottleneck problem. When in a certain field for query conditions, local area need to back a large amount of data, should establish a clustered index on this field, and when the query data quantity is small, it is necessary to establish the clustered index in this basic field. (3) The calculation column should be created. If there is no corresponding calculation column, in the data query on the existing data to be calculated again, so as to waste a part of the performance. (4) To have enough memory. In the query or access to the database in the data, it is inevitable to take up a lot of memory space, when the memory is insufficient and the data access speed will be significantly affected. In a large database design, therefore, only the reasonable index field selection and the rational use of index design principles that can effectively improve the operating efficiency of the entire database.



3. Public management efficiency quantitative analysis

3.1. Quantitative analysis of public management

Public administration is a high degree of cross discipline. Its research objects, and political science and sociology has a considerable overlap, research paradigm and management more similarities, analysis tools are most reference to economics and statistics. Therefore, a complete public management research methodology should be a methodology for organic integration of related disciplines can form a scientific analysis of all the public management thinking system. Quantitative analysis exist obvious form characteristics, according to the characteristics and the quantitative analysis of the three forms whether to build a hypothesis model in this paper to illustrate public management problem. Under this basis, research methodologies can be generally separated into the following aspects.

* To research the measurement, using statistical methods described, such as charts, figures to illustrate this, quantitative analysis is to interpret the problem of the auxiliary means, this kind of literature for the study of the quantitative analysis as the auxiliary pole.

* For the creation of the experimental conditions, control variables, collect data, hypothesis testing for things to research abstracts a number of the variables, structure model, the relationship between variables, structure study as causal research.

* In addition to the above two cases in the literature, in order to form such as case, presentation, retort, argue to discuss the problems and get the research conclusion, this kind of research for the pure qualitative research.

Positivism is trying to build can explain and predict the theory of nature and social events, and to develop a set of interrelated and can verify rules, these rules explain the causal relationship between variables, the ultimate goal is to control the natural and social events. According to this thinking, the fact of social life or organization can be separated from values and the function of the science is to focus on facts, not values. For this, the table 2 shows the related principles.

How to better carry out quantitative study of the public management, we need to clarify the relationship between the two. One is found to the problems of research, analysis and solution to clarify the relationship. These three relations can be simplified as the study of causal relationship between the research questions, in the face of the complicated public affairs, public the management is the main task of researchers finds public affairs internal causality. The causal relationship within public affairs of the essence can use mathematical function relational expression. In the formula one, we define the relationship.

y = f ([x.sub.1],[x.sub.2], ..., [x.sub.n]) (1)

The relation between highly reflects the nature of public affairs within the causality, and the relationship can be expressed as formula two for simple expression.

y = f (x) (2)

Qualitative research with quantitative research is the important tool of the road to solve. Qualitative research is mainly use the interview or literature that uses the narrative techniques. In contrast, quantitative research is used the social survey data, using statistical analysis technique. In fact, the difference between qualitative and quantitative research method is far from imagination of big, in many cases, the difference between them is more in the style of study and use of specific skills and technology. Both quantitative research and qualitative research, in the process of the causal analysis of logic and the effect is the same.

3.2. Public management efficiency

The unity of social development and social justice is the human eternal pursuit of goals that is the eternal theme in human society. A society must also constantly development inevitably. But in the process of social development, as a result of people between the status and the difference of the ability and opportunity, social differentiation and inequality are continually. This leads people to the pursuit of social justice and voice, and also causes the social conflict again and again. But in the class society before the market economy, the social order is rely on force to maintain the rule, social member's possession of social wealth is subject to their status and rank, social justice is only a fantasy and is in a state of the slow social development. To enhance the efficiency of the organization depends on internal resources configuration status and level of internal management. Both in nature can be summed up in the organization management system and the management pattern of the results. In comparison, the third sector as the main body of public management organization system is not as large and complex as the government. Many government departments, as different levels of government are government internal management must face, with this condition, we should consider the related countermeasures as the follows. (1) Decentralization. Decentralization has two meanings: one refers to central government to local government decentralization, local governments, first of all, to be responsible for their jurisdiction of providing public goods, the second is to government departments at all levels of government decentralization, let each department is responsible for the different nature of basic public goods. (2) Performance of the contract or performance of the agreement. Despite the adaptive method of the private sector in the public sector by some skepticism, but do need in public sector is responsible for, and higher efficiency. (3) Building the competitive mechanism of the public administration. To break the monopoly and encourage competition, the concern of the public choice has been to most people. In short, that is, within the public management subject system to introduce market competition mechanisms. (4) Build public management incentive mechanism. Incentive mechanism to solve the problem there are two main: for the public sector and non-profit organizations, the core of incentive mechanism is the priority principle, according to the budget by public budget or the public spending encourages them to provide better, more public goods and public services. (5) The competition within the public management subject system there may be such a dilemma: participate in the competition of subject too little is not limited and too much involved in the main body can cause repetitive construction and waste of the resources, as resulting in inefficient. It seems that the core role of the government should get again and that will also be faced with the sufficient issues.

The new public management from public choice theory basis, think the government should take the customers and the market as the guidance, which changes the traditional public administration mode of the relationship between the government and society, the functions of the government and its relationship with social the location again. The new public administration thinks that the government's social responsibility mainly is to provide service to customers according to requirements of the customers. The idea embodied in the new public management that put some scientific management methods, such as management by objectives, performance evaluation, cost accounting is the public administration field, such as to improve the government's work efficiency has a promoting effect. This requires government to establish new management mechanism to strengthen government management efficiency, improve the administrative efficiency. At the same time, the new public management believes that the government should pay attention to the efficiency and quality of management activities, that is to pay attention to the performance of work should pay attention to analysis of input and output ratio, the government also should pay attention to cost accounting and also must pay attention to save administrative cost. For this goal, we should introduce the management system as the figure 5, and we will discuss the building of the MIS system in the later section.


4. Management information system implementation

Management information system of the evaluation system of building is a process of system, evaluation system, to build the information system must be explicitly the basic elements of basic information system evaluation system. When evaluating an information system, the most important is to establish the evaluation index system. The evaluation index system includes both the information system development, that also is the information system of the main body, also includes the direct user of information system is the object of information system, includes more the external social environment. Based on this principle, in figure 6, we show the architecture of the proposed methodology. Isolation system design, the layered structure changed, simplifies the complex degree, so the development of system is more convenient. For better demonstration, the system is described as the follows.

* The business layer, the realization of the process: Loose coupling of the Web Services directly from loose coupling business elements, elements of our business in the design business process must be separated from business elements, appropriate to the needs of the business division loosely-coupled business elements.

* Web service layer, business elements of basic encapsulation: The development of the Web service layer is in the following services under the premise of the protocol stack. Web service is actually the business layer of the business elements to meet the requirements of the Web service protocol stack encapsulation.

* Rule layer, and the realization of the algorithm: OA is cross-platform, not be restricted by using any language and operating system, but to the upper open API interface, provide the basic algorithm.

* The data layer, the foundation of the "service": The data layer is responsible for a variety of community management data stored in database, the database management system to complete the data management. With the data layer support, the implementation services for the entire system provide a solid foundation.


MIS project plan can be a full and also can be periodic or subsystem. With overall planning should be as much as possible to leaving allowance and elastic; While phased plan or subsystems can be according to the recent fine, forward general method to carry out, so that we can make the development team fruitful work, and with the development of the project, make customers more and more requirements and expectations on the late specific and clear, phased plan and subsystems can be subsequently refinement, and the entire plan can maintain stable in general. Foe the MIS assisted public management efficiency enhancement and evaluation task, we suggest to finalize based on the following aspects. (1) The mathematical model of basic fuzzy evaluation. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method for management information system evaluation index system is difficult to use mathematical tools of uncertain factors in comprehensive evaluation, the evaluation index system and fuzzy mathematics theory is applied to implement the management information system evaluation in the process of the fuzzy representation, judgment, reasoning process, and considering the influence of various factors to make the evaluation results more close to actual. (2) Management information system based on neural network evaluation model is set up. The application of the model and algorithm of neural network in information system, evaluation system of economic evaluation based on neural network model is established, in order to more objectively evaluate the system performance, function and the economic benefit. (3) AHP evaluation mathematical model is set up, application of ytic hierarchy process (AHP) to evaluate semi-structured factors in the management information system and to establish performance management system and quality of AHP evaluation system. (4) Final verification on the application of public management efficiency task.

5. Conclusions

Public management is the historical process of human public management practice in people's ideological theory. It is always influenced by the development level of social production development. The history of public administration paradigm shift shows that the task of public management and the form is always the certain historical period of the development level of the productivity and production organization form of decision and restriction. Public administration is to provide public goods to the society. To the society in order to effectively provide public goods, public management must solve for whom what public goods provision of public goods and provide the two basic questions of public management. Under this theoretical background, this paper proposes the new public management efficiency improvement method based on parallel database oriented optimization management information system. MIS project plan can be a full and also can be periodic or subsystem. With overall planning should be as much as possible to leaving allowance and elastic, while phased plan or subsystems can be according to the recent fine. Moreover, we integrate the quantitative analysis model to conduct the systematic research on the public management efficiency which will provide the theory with in-depth and convincing background. In the future research, we will conduct more survey to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Recebido/Submission: 03/03/2016

Aceitacao/Acceptance: 4/07/2016


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Yingjun Han (1) *, Rui Sun (2)


(1) North China University of Science and Technology, 063000, China

(2) North China University of Science and Technology Affiliated Hospita, 063000, China
Table 1--Load of the hyperbolic function

                      Item       Curve        Curve
Parameter             number   function-1   function-2

                        Q1       Xy=25        Xy=35
Selected parameter      Qm       Xy=95        Xy=105
core set                Qh       Xy=175       Xy=185
                        Qs       Xy=355       Xy=365

Table 2--Quantitative analysis of public management steps
and principles

Research stage     Principles

Start              Informed consent: inform the basic information about
                   the research subjects, and obtain their consent

Data gathering     Privacy and confidentiality: respect the research
                   object of personal privacy, and promises to its
                   confidentiality to avoid damage, rude, and
                   reluctantly: to avoid harming the object of study

Writing reports    Anonymous: study cannot be able to identify the
                   object of study status of information; Justice:
                   description of the object of study the objective and
                   fair attitude

End of the study   Reasonable use, ensure that the study found that to
                   be used reasonably, and is used for legitimate
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Author:Han, Yingjun; Sun, Rui
Publication:RISTI (Revista Iberica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informacao)
Date:Jul 1, 2016
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