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Research on Protestantism in Latin America: a bibliographic essay.

A generation ago John A. Mackay observed, "There was a time... when two illusions were current regarding the religious situation in Latin America. One illusion was that this region was the most solidly Roman Catholic of all the great areas of the world. The other illusion was that Latin America is an area where Protestant Christianity has little significance. Recent dramatic events have brought both these illusions to an end." (1)

Especially over the latter part of the twentieth century there has been an increasing awareness in the world Christian community of a vibrant and growing Protestant presence in the midst of Latin American society. Protestantism has achieved a new level of maturity in its understanding of the complex social and political realities of the continent and its place in that society. The following review of research on Protestantism in Latin America comes from an immense body of literature and is necessarily highly selective. (2) Whereas in the early years of the twentieth century serious research often fell to expatriate missionaries and scholars, in the last half-century much valuable research has come from scholars born, raised, and educated in Latin America. Considerable research has been done by recognized academics; other studies, often of equal value, have been produced by lay scholars. The most insightful research will always come from those whose personal destiny is caught viscerally in the subject of thei r endeavors.

Not until the early twentieth century was Latin America defined as a cultural and political entity rather than as merely geographic areas identified as South America, Central America, and the Caribbean. For many years it seemed that Latin America was not considered of great importance by world historians. Arnold Toynbee visited the region only once, making a brief stop in Puerto Rico. Though he wrote little about Latin America, he at least foresaw a time of increased importance: "There are things happening in Latin America today, things, that, in my judgment, could have the same historical significance as the Renaissance of the fifteenth century." (3)

Protestant Christianity in Latin America often was thought to lie outside the purview of Christian history; it was seen merely as an extension of Protestantism from North America, Britain, and Europe. This echoed the way that Roman Catholicism in Latin America was understood as a projection of Iberian Catholicism. Latin America as a world region and in particular the uniqueness of Latin American Protestantism were slow to be recognized.

Research from the Early Years

Since Protestantism arrived late in Latin America, much significant research did not begin until the mid-twentieth century when the burgeoning growth of evangelical Christianity caught the attention of the Christian world. Nevertheless, an early effort to place Latin American Protestantism in its proper context can be dated to 1900 and 1901, when Hubert W. Brown gave lectures at Princeton, Auburn, and Western seminaries that were published as Latin America: The Pagans, the Papists, the Patriots, the Protestants, and the Present Problem. (4)

Two indigenous interpreters of Latin American Protestantism in the first half of the twentieth century stand out: Erasmo Braga and Alberto Rembao. Braga, a Brazilian Presbyterian, wrote Pan Americanismo: Aspecto religioso (1916), (5) which opened the religious dialogue between the Americas. Rembao, a Mexican Congregationalist, followed a generation later with Discurso a la nacion evangelica; this work recognized the emergence on Latin soil of an authentic new religious community called los evangelicos. (6) Within this period appeared a cadre of outstanding writers such as Sante Uberto Barbiere (Argentina), Gonzalo Baez-Camargo (Mexico), and Santiago Canclini (Uruguay). There were also expatriate missionary authors: John A. Mackay, W. Stanley Rycroft, Reginald Wheeler, Webster Browning, and Kenneth Grubb.

The classic work of this era is without doubt Mackay's volume The Other Spanish Christ (1932). (7) Of this monumental work Jose Ortega y Gassett wrote, "This is a profound and well documented study of the spiritual history of Indo America.... With a perception, so special of the Anglo Saxon race, Mackay establishes landmarks and traces relationships which other writers hardly recognize." (8)

Following in Mackay's footsteps was his disciple W. Stanley Rycroft, who wrote two definitive volumes, Sobre este fundamento (1944) (9) and Religion y fe en la America Latina (1958). (10) These volumes summarize Latin American religious history, the principal ideological currents of the time, and the achievements of Protestant work in Latin America.

The research done by Gonzalo Baez-Camargo on early Protestants in Latin America, beginning with those summoned to appear before the Spanish Inquisition, is of immense historical value. (11) Thomas S. Goslin in Los evangelicos en la America Latina, siglo XIX presented an overview of developments in the early to late nineteenth century. (12) Kenneth Grubb, for many years associated with World Dominion Press, contributed several volumes in the 1920s and 1930s on mission work among indigenous South American groups. (13) George Howard, a Uruguayan Methodist, surveyed religious liberty for Protestants in Religious Liberty in Latin America ? (14) This book was widely distributed among the members of the United States Congress because of its implications for the rights of United States citizens living in Latin America. James Goff documented religious persecution in Colombia in a doctoral thesis published by a Roman Catholic documentation service in Mexico. (15) Roman Catholic scholars also moved to take seriously th e presence of Protestantism in Latin America, as reflected in the research done by Camilo Crivelli, Angelo Rossi, and Prudencia Damboriena. (16)

Another source of information about the early years of Protestantism in Latin America is the preparatory studies and the proceedings of the major Protestant conferences held in Latin America between 1916 and 1961. This literature includes research on the growth in numbers and in vision of the Protestant denominations in Latin America. (17) A series of twenty-six study papers on the role of Protestantism in Latin American culture were presented at the annual study conferences, 1957 through 1967, of the Committee on Cooperation in Latin America. (18) These conferences included addresses by leaders of nondenominational mission boards, such as Kenneth Strachan of the Latin America Mission, as well as denominational board executives.

In 1961 the Evangelical Foreign Missions Association published the first listing of mission agencies working in Latin America with a country-by-country analysis, as well as a denomination-by-denomination listing. (19) Since then there have been several updates of that information. Operation World lists several of the major agencies working in each country. (20) Fuller listing of U.S. and Canadian agencies with a country-by-country breakdown is available in the Mission Handbook: U.S. and Canadian Christian Ministries Overseas: 2001-2003. (21) Several recent publications include sections on the contributions of evangelical missions, among them Earthen Vessels: American Evangelicals and Foreign Missions, 1880-1980, edited by Joel A. Carpenter and Wilbert R. Shenk, (.22) Toward the Twenty-first Century in Christian Mission, edited by James M. Phillips and Robert T. Coote, (.23) Mission at the Dawn of the Twenty-first Century, edited by Paul Varo Martinson, (.24) and Evangelicals and Politics in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, by Paul Frestoin. (25)

Widening Academic Perspectives

By the 1960s interest in Protestantism in Latin America as a subject of serious research had extended beyond students of religion and history. For example, a body of literature began to be produced by sociologists of religion. Among these were the North American Emilio Willems (writing on Protestantism in Brazil and Chile) (26) and the Swiss scholar Christian Lalive D'Dpinay (on Pentecostals in Chile). (27) Following soon after, Cornelia L. Flora, a sociology doctoral researcher, studied the mass mobilization of Pentecostals in Colombia to affirm lower-class solidarity. (28) Gonzalo Castillo Cardenas, a sociologist of religion and member of a new generation of Protestant researchers, documented the struggle of indigenous peoples for a place in modem society in The Life and Thought of Quintin Lame. (29)

A critical study of the older Protestant churches in Peru and Chile by Juan B. A. Kessler stands as one of the first works that penetrated below the level of triumphal mission board reporting. (30) The doctoral dissertations of Paul E. Pierson and Robert L. McIntire on the inner struggles of Presbyterianism in Brazil were significant contributions. (31) Wilton Nelson's study of Protestantism in Costa Rica is in need of revision and updating. (32) Daniel P. Monti's analysis of the impact of immigrant Protestantism in the Rio de Ia Plata region during the nineteenth century details the arrival of the Waldensian, the German Lutheran and Congregationalist, the Swiss and Dutch Reformed, and other immigrant churches. (33) This volume was followed by an in-depth study by three sociologists, Waldo Villalpando, Christian Lalive D'Dpinay, and Dwain Epps, who researched the interplay of the historical, sociological, and theological impact of the Rio Platense Protestant community. (34) The Mennonite immigrant communitie s in Paraguay were documented by J. W. Fretz. (35) Wilkens Winn recounted the Central American Mission's pioneer missionary work in Honduras and Guatemala. (36)

The first bibliography on Protestantism in Latin America, Protestantism in Latin America: A Bibliographical Guide, was the work of the present author when he served as secretary for Latin America for the Presbyterian Church (USA) (37) The compilation of this volume in 1967 (also a revision and amplification in 1976 that included 3,115 listings) was made possible through the efforts of more than forty Protestant mission historians in every country in Latin America.

In 1973 the Asociacion Interconfessional de Estudios Teologicos at the Instituto Superior Evangelico de Estudios Teologicos (Buenos Aires) initiated a more comprehensive bibliography on religious materials published in Latin America (and in relation to Latin America). Entitled Bibliografia teologica comentada, it was a multiyear project (from 1973 to 1990). (38)

The Mennonite missions and national churches in Latin America published an excellent listing of historical materials in "Mennonites in Latin America." (39) As far as the author can ascertain, no similar comprehensive listing of other denominational materials has appeared.

Missionaries and Church Leaders

The pioneers of evangelical Christianity in Latin America were mainly the colporteurs of the Bible societies from North America and Great Britain. The work of James Thomson, the tireless Scottish Baptist layman who began work in South America in 1816, was researched by Donald Mitchell, a missionary from New Zealand serving in Peru. (40) He drew heavily from the travel letters of James Thomson, published in London in 1827. (41)

Arnoldo Canclini authored one of the several books about Commander Allen Gardiner, an early Protestant missionary martyr. (42) Francisco Penzotti, an intrepid Argentine colporteur, wrote his autobiography, which spanned sixty years of journeys around South America. (43)

The story of Robert R. Kalley, M.D., and independent missionary with a Congregationalist outlook who pioneered Protestant work in the Madeira Islands and Brazil, was written by Michael Testa in 1963. (44) The lives and work of Bishop Sterling of the Falkland Islands (45) and Edward F. Every (46) of the SPCK, British Anglicans serving in southern South America in the 1880s and 1890s, reflect the deep commitment of British evangelicals to extend their ministries out beyond the expatriate communities.

The work of the Methodist lay educator William Morris is detailed in the story of the founding of industrial arts schools in Argentina. (47) The contribution of another pioneer missionary, David Trumbull, in Chile, is told by Irven Paul in A Yankee Reformer in Chile. (48)

The early missionary efforts in Colombia of Henry Pratt and other Presbyterians were researched and presented by Wilmar A. Quiring in "The Establishment of Evangelical Christianity in Colombia, 1825-1900." (49) A fascinating unedited autobiography of Alexander Allan, a New Zealand Presbyterian missionary in Colombia, is to be found in the Day Missions Library of Yale University Divinity School. (50)

Robert L. Wharton, founder of the influential Presbyterian school La Progresiva in Cardenas, Cuba, is the subject of a biography by Rafael Cepeda. (51) The biographies of two outstanding Mexican Protestant lay leaders, Moises Saenz (52) and Ignacio Gutierrez Gomez, (53) are among the many biographies that enrich the history of Protestantism in Mexico. A biography of Frederick J. Huegel, pioneer Disciples of Christ evangelist, was written by his son. (54) Three disciples of Gonzalo Baez-Camargo edited a volume of essays on the contributions of this distinguished Christian educator and journalist. (55) A biography of Mexican Congregationalist Alberto Rembao, erudite editor of La Nueva Democracia, the leading Protestant journal for intellectuals between 1920 and 1963, is still to be written. EI Centro Alberto Rembao has recently been established in his home city, Guadalajara, to encourage study of this great journalist's writings.

We know of the work of Frederick Crowe, the pioneer Bible colporteur to Guatemala (his first visit took place in 1835), through his autobiography. (56) The official documentation related to his residence in and subsequent expulsion from Guatemala has been compiled by David Escobar. (57)

Protestantism in Particular Countries

The research that has been produced on Protestantism in Brazil is vast. Emile G. Leonard wrote a social and ecclesiastical history of Brazilian Protestantism in French in 1953, which was translated and published in Brazil in 1963. (58) A cadre of trained social scientists and mission historians has written on many aspects of evangelical Christianity in that country. (59)

Research on Mexican Protestantism was ably carried out by Jean-Pierre Bastian, a Swiss sociologist who spent years teaching at the Comunidad Teologica de Mexico. He has published several books on Mexican Protestant history. (60) Churches in the Dominican Republic were researched by William L. Wipfler in 1964, with special attention to the Roman Catholic, Protestant, and Episcopal churches. (61) Marcos Antonio Ramos has provided in recent years a survey of the Protestant movement in Cuba. (62) Guatemalan Protestants depend on an eighty-five-year-old but valuable unpublished manuscript by Edward M. Haymaker, who garnered historical material from the early years not found elsewhere. (63) A centennial history of the Presbyterian work in Guatemala was prepared in 1983 by Jose G. Carrera and the late David Scotchmer. (64) An example of the numerous sociological studies on Protestants in Guatemala is God and Production in a Guatemalan Town. (65)

Ecuador has long had the smallest percentage of Protestants of any Latin American nation. The basic research in that evangelical community was carried out by Washington Padilla J. in the 1970s but was cut short by his untimely death. Simon Espinosa finished the research in 1989. (66) Juan B. A. Kessler has given us a good survey in Historia de la Evangelizacion en el Peru. (67)

A recent doctoral dissertation by Donna Laubach Moros, a Presbyterian mission worker in Spain, gives us the first major work in English on Protestantism in Venezuela. (68) This study is complemented by Domingo Irwin's studies on the early missionary work of the Evangelical Missionary Alliance in western Venezuela. (69) Irwin is a professor of history at the Universidad Andres Bello in Caracas.

General Histories

Two researchers have given us an overview of two hundred years of Protestantism in Latin America: Jean-Pierre Bastian and Hans-Jurgen Prien. Their works should be read together to get a complete picture. Bastian writes as a sociologist of religion, and Prien as a church historian. Bastian's Una breve historia del protestantismo en America Latina (70) interprets the implantation of Protestantism within the framework of forces of social, economic, political, and ideological change. La historia del cristianismo en America Latina (71) by Prien was published in 1978 in German and in Spanish in 1985. The work has special significance for Lutheran Protestants, since the author carefully details the penetration of Lutheranism through immigrant communities in Latin America.

These two histories are supplemented by the sections on Protestantism in a multi-volume series published by the Commission on the Study of the Christian Church in Latin America (CEHILA). (72) The CEHILA project was launched in 1973 when a group of Roman Catholic and Protestant historians met in Quito, Ecuador, under the guidance of Enrique Dussel of Argentina. The twenty-year writing project took its perspective from liberation theology. The basic question the historians asked was, How has the church in Latin America been an instrument of liberation and of oppression? Writing from such a point of view is difficult, since much church history is written from a triumphal stance, largely for the consumption of supporting constituencies. Each of these volumes has a section written by a Protestant historian on Protestantism in the author's country. The contributions vary in perspective and quality, yet the collection as a whole is valuable as a complement to the above-mentioned histories.

There have been very few attempts to research the historical context in which Protestant missionary expansion was carried out in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Recently an excellent doctoral dissertation was written by Arturo Piedra Solano, from Costa Rica, at the University of Edinburgh. Based on research in the archives of missionary societies, Piedra gives us the full story behind the decision to exclude most missionary work in Latin America from the agenda of the 1910 World Missionary Conference in Edinburgh. (73)

The Protestant section of CEHILA sponsored several study conferences in the early 1990s that focused on the distinct role of Protestantism in Latin American culture. Two volumes of essays emerged from those conferences, Protestantismo y cultura en America Latina and Protestantismo y politica en America Latina y el Caribe. (74)

An anthology of documents on the early years of Christianity in the New World, both Roman Catholic and Protestant, was prepared in 1989 by the late H. McKennie Goodpasture. (75) Published by Orbis Books, the anthology includes original material about the missions in the West Indies, Central America, Mexico, southwestern United States, Peru, and Brazil; the beginnings of Protestantism; the emergence of Roman Catholic lay movements; the model of "a new Christendom"; and the impact of the Second Vatican Council on Latin American life.

Pentecostalism and Future Challenges

New chapters in Protestant research have been written in the past twenty years by Latin American Pentecostal researchers such as Juan Sepulveda of the Iglesia Mision Pentecostal (Chile) and Manual Gaxiola of the Iglesia Apostolica de Mexico; both hold doctoral degrees from the University of Birmingham. Two Internet services now link Pentecostal researchers: SIPALC (Information Service on Pentecostal Studies in Latin America), Lima, Peru, directed by Bernardo Campos, and CEEP (Center for Pentecostal Studies), Concepcion, Chile, directed by Luis Orellana. Bibliographies of Pentecostal studies are available on these electronic services, In March 2002 the Catedra Pentecostal Latinoamericana Itinerante was initiated, meeting for the first time at the Universidad Biblica Latinoamericana in San Jose, Costa Rica. This innovative project will annually bring together researchers on Pentecostalism in Latin America, and its location will move from country to country. (76)

For the English-speaking world there are available several volumes on Pentecostalism in Latin America, written by both secular and church historians. Three that warrant mentioning here are Power, Politics, and Pentecostals in Latin America, edited by Edward L. Cleary and Hannah W. Stewart-Cambino; Fire from Heaven, by Harvey Cox; and In the Power of the Spirit: The Pentecostal Challenge to Historic Churches in Latin America, edited by Benjamin F. Gutierrez and Dennis A. Smith. (77)

Most textbooks tell the story of Christianity as a record of events that happened in Europe in past centuries; Christian history in the non-Western world seems tacked on as an afterthought. A consultation in April 2001, The History of the World Christian Movement, highlighted the vastly expanded scope of Christianity and outlined the issues to be faced by mission historians wishing to recast the historiography of non-Western Christianity. The consultation projected publication of a series of books over a five-year period to fill the gap in the education of most Christians concerning the global spread of Christianity. The first volume, authored by Dale Irwin and Scott Sunquist, appeared recently. (78) Latin American mission research is now challenged to position its work within the context of global Christianity.

In recent years the Pew Foundation has funded a series of studies on religious liberty and evangelization in several world areas under the direction of the Center for Religion and Law at Emory University. One of these volumes, Religious Freedom and Evangelization in Latin America: The Challenge of Religious Pluralism, delves into specific areas of tension faced by Roman Catholicism, nondenominationalism, and historic Protestantism. (79) Special attention is given to Cuba, Mexico, Guatemala, Peru, Colombia, Argentina, and Chile.

Unfortunately, to date only one attempt has been made to write an ecumenical history of Latin America. (80)

An authentic cultural history of missions in the twentieth century needs to be well researched, well presented, and sensitively interpreted. To undergrid such research there is urgent need for the preservation of mission archival material within and outside of Latin America. In November 2001 the Billy Graham Center at Wheaton College sponsored a consultation on nondenominational mission archives. (81) This area, so vital to mission research, has been neglected for years. These archival materials are especially important for research related to evangelical Christianity in Latin America because of the important contributions of nondenominational missions.

It is to be expected that many young mission researchers will emerge from the growing Protestant community in Latin America. There are now graduate academic programs that can provide their training. Much of the basic research, however, will continue to be done by lay historians as they record, evaluate, and organize the fast-moving events in Latin America, The field of oral history is a promising new area of research for which minimal training is required and yet which produces significant results. (82)

Protestant mission historians have responsibility for recording and interpreting significant and still unfolding chapters of Christian history in Latin America. To the present, little has been done to organize the research potential of the evangelical seminaries of Latin America. However, programs that encourage mission research related to specific areas are slowly emerging. (83)


(1.) John A. Mackay, foreword to Protestantism in Latin America: A Bibliographical Guide, ed. John H. Sinclair (Austin, Tex.: Hispanic American Institute, 1967), p. ii.

(2.) The author understands "research" as careful and systematicinquiry into or examination of a field of knowledge in order to establish facts and principles. The present article includes important sources throughout the twentieth century but concentrates on research in the last half of the century, with only limited reference to very recent works (especially in regard to Brazil). The citations include some unpublished dissertations, but with a few exceptions articles that are available in a broad spectrum of mission journals are not cited; nor does the article include material on Puerto Rico or the Hispanic community in mainland United States.

(3.) Quoted by John A. Mackay in an address to the Committee on Cooperation in Latin America, 1963.

(4.) Hubert W. Brown, Latin America: The Pagans, the Papists, the Patriots, the Protestants, and the Present Problem (New York: Revell, 1901).

(5.) Erasmo Braga, Pan Americanismo: Aspecto religioso (New York: Missionary Education Movement, 1916; Eng. trans., 1917).

(6.) Alberto Rembao, Discurso a la nacion evangelica (Buenos Aires: La Aurora, 1949).

(7.) John A. Mackay, The Other Spanish Christ (London: Student Christian Movement, 1932; reprinted, Eugene, Ore.: Wipf & Stock Publishers, 2001; Span. trans., Mexico City: Casa Unida de Publicaciones [hereafter CUPSA], 1952, 1988, 1990, 1994). For a biography of Mackay, see John H. Sinclair, Un escoce's con alma latina (Mexico City: CUPSA, 1990); Portuguese trans., Um escoces com alma latina (Manhumirim, Brazil: Didaque, 1995). See also Stanton W. Wilson and William O. Harris, eds., "John A. Mackay: Bibliographical Resources, 1914-1992," Studies in Reformed Theology and History 1, no. 4 (Fall 1993): i-ix, 1-58.

(8.) Jose Ortega y Gasset, in El Heraldo de Antioquia (Medellin, Colombia), January 22, 1936.

(9.) W. Stanley Rycroft, Sobre este fundamento (Buenos Aires: La Aurora, 1944). Rycroft wrote an autobiography, Memoirs of Life in Three Worlds (Cranbury, N.J.: J. B. Business Services, 1976). See also W. Stanley Rycroft, "W. Stanley Rycroft: Latin America Missiologist [interview by John H. Sinclair]," American Presbyterians [Journal of Presbyterian History] 65, no. 2 (Summer 1987): 117-33.

(10.) W. Stanley Rycroft, Religion y fe en la America Latina (Buenos Aires: La Aurora, 1951; Eng. trans., Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1958).

(11.) See the series, Obras ineditas o muy raras para la historia del Protestantismo en la America Latina, edited by Gonzalo Baez-Camargo. This series includes his Protestantes enjuiciados por la Inquisicion en Iberoamerica (Mexico City: CUPSA, 1960).

(12.) Thomas S. Goslin, Los evangelicos en la America Latina, siglo XIX (Buenos Aires: La Aurora, 1956). See also Samuel Escobar, Precursores evangelicos (Lima: Ediciones Presencia, 1984) for documents of James Thomson and Francisco Penzotti.

(13.) Kenneth G. Grubb, The Lowland Indians of Amazonia (London: World Dominion Press, 1927), From Pacific to Atlantic: South American Studies (London: Methuen, 1933), and other titles.

(14.) George P. Howard, Religious Liberty in Latin America? (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1944).

(15.) James P. Goff, The Persecution of Protestant Christians in Colombia, 1948-1963 (Cuernavaca, Mexico: CIDOC, 1964).

(16.) Camilo Crivelli, S.J., Los protestantesen America Latina (Rome: Isolade Liri, A. Maciore y Pisani, 1931); Angelo Rossi, Diretorio protestante no Brasil (Campinas: Tipograffa Paulista, 1928); Prudencio J. Damboriena, El protestantismo en America Latina (Bogota: FERES, 1962).

(17.) An example of these conference reports is found in the six volumes related to the Congress on Christian Work in Latin America (New York: CCLA, 1917).

(18.) These study papers were published by the Committee on Cooperation in Latin America (now the Latin American and Caribbean Committee of the National Council of Churches of Christ, U.S.A.).

(19.) Clyde W. Taylor and Wade T. Coggins, eds., Protestant Missions in Latin America: A Statistical Survey (Washington, D.C.: Evangelical Foreign Missions Association, 1961).

(20.) Patrick Johnstone and Jason Mandryk, with Robyn Johnstone, Operation World (Carlisle, U.K.: Paternoster, 2001).

(21.) John A. Siewert and Dotsey Welliver, eds., Mission Handbook: U.S. and Canadian Christian Ministries Overseas: 2001-2003 (Wheaton, Ill.: Evangelism and Missions Information Service, 2000).

(22.) Joel A. Carpenter and Wilbert R. Shenk, eds., Earthen Vessels: American Evangelicals and Foreign Missions, 1880-1980 (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1990).

(23.) James M. Phillips and Robert T. Coote, eds., Toward the Twenty-first Century in Christian Mission: Essays in Honor of Gerald H. Anderson (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1993).

(24.) Paul Varo Martinson, ed., Mission at the Dawn of the Twenty-first Century: A Vision for the Church (Minneapolis: Kirk House, 1999).

(25.) Paul Freston Evangelicals and Politics in Asia, Africa, and Latin America (New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2001).

(26.) Emilio Willems, Followers of the New Faith (Nashville: Vanderbilt Univ. Press, 1967).

(27.) Christian Lalive D'Epinay, El refugio de las masas (Santiago, Chile: El Pacifico, 1968; Eng. trans., London: Lutterworth, 1969).

(28.) Cornelia L. Flora, "Mobilizing the Masses: The Sacred and the Secular in Colombia" (Ph.D. diss., Cornell Univ., 1970).

(29.) Gonzalo Castillo Cardenas, The Life and Thought of Quintin Lame (Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 1972). See also Castillo Cardenas's Liberation Theology from Below (Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 1982) and William D. Reyburn, The Toba Indians of the Argentine Chaco (Elkhart, Ind.: Mennonite Board of Missions, 1954).

(30.) Juan B. A. Kessler, A Study of the Older Protestant Missions and Churches in Peru and Chile (Goes, Netherlands: Oosterbaan and Le Cointre, 1967). See Karl Appl, Historia de las iglesias en Chile (Santiago: Platero, 1996) for a recent review of all the Protestant churches in Chile.

(31.) Paul E. Pierson, "A Younger Church in Search of Maturity" (Th.D. diss., Princeton Theological Seminary, 1971); Robert L. McIntire, "Portrait of a Half Century: Fifty Years of Presbyterianism in Brazil, 1859-1910" (Th.D. diss., Princeton Theological Seminary, 1959).

(32.) Wilton M. Nelson, A History of Protestantism in Costa Rica (Lucknow, India: Institute of Church Growth, 1963). This work is a condensation of a doctoral thesis submitted at Princeton Theological Seminary, 1957.

(33.) Daniel P. Monti, Presencia del protestantismo en el Rio de la Plata durante el siglo XIX (Buenos Aires: La Aurora, 1969). See also Arno Enns, Man, Milieu, and Mission in Argentina (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1971).

(34.) Waldo Villalpando, Christian Lalive D'Epinay, and Dwain Epps, eds., La iglesia del transplante (Buenos Aires: Centro de Estudios Cristianos, 1970). See also E. Tron and E. H. Ganz, Historia de las colonias Valdenses sudamericanas, 1858-1958 (Colonia Valdense, Uruguay: Libreria Pastor Miguel Morel, 1958), and Marcelo Dalmas, Historia de los Valdenses en el Rio de la Plata (Buenos Aires: Ediciones Aurora, 1987).

(35.) J. W. Fretz, Pilgrims in Paraguay: The Story of Mennonite Colonization in South America (Scottdale, Pa.: Herald Press, 1953). See also R. Herbert Minnich, "A Sociological Study of the Mennonite Communities in Parana, Brazil" (Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Florida, 1966), and Rodolfo Plett, El protestantismo en el Paraguay (Asuncion, Paraguay: Instituto Biblico, 1987).

(36.) Wilkins B. Winn, "A History of the Central American Mission" (Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Alabama, 1964).

(37.) John H. Sinclair, ed., Protestantism in Latin America: A Bibliographical Guide: An Annotated Bibliography of Selected References, Mainly in English, Spanish, and Portuguese (Austin, Tex.: Hispanic American Institute, 1967;2d ed., South Pasadena, Calif.: William Carey Library, 1976).

(38.) Bibliografia teoldgica comentada (Buenos Aires: ISEDET, 1973-90). This bibliography includes publications of the entire Iberian world.

(39.) R. Herbert Minnich, Willard H. Smith, and Wilmar Stahl, "Mennonites in Latin America: An Annotated Bibliography, 1912-1971," Mennonite Quarterly Review 46, no. 2 (April 1972): 177-235.

(40.) Donald Mitchell, "James Thomson" (Ph.D. diss., Princeton Theological Seminary, 1972).

(41.) James Thomson, Letters on the Moral and Religious State of South America (London: Nesbitt, 1827). Copies exist in the Speer Memorial Library (Princeton Theological Seminary), the Day Missions Library (Yale Univ. Divinity School), and the Biblioteca Nacional de Buenos Aires.

(42.) Arnoldo Canclini, Hasta lo ultimo de la tierra (Buenos Aires: La Aurora, 1951). See also G. W. Phillips, The Missionary Martyr of Tierra de Fuego: Memoirs of the Catechist J. Garland Phillips (London: Werthein & Hunt, 1961).

(43.) Francisco Penzotti, Spiritual Victories in South America (New York: American Bible Society, 1916). See also Claudio Celada, Un apostol contemporaneo (Buenos Aires: La Aurora, 1945).

(44.) ichael P. Testa, O apostolo da Madeira (Lisbon: Igreja Evangelica Presbiteriana do Portugal, 1963).

(45.) Frederick C. MacDonald, Bishop Sterling of the Falklands (London: Seeley, 1939).

(46.) Edward F. Every, Twenty-five Years in South America (London: SPCK, 1929).

(47.) Bernardo Gonzalez Arrili, Vida y milagros de Mr. Morris (Buenos Aires: n.p., 1955).

(48.) Irven Paul, A Yankee Reformer in Chile (South Pasadena, Calif.: William Carey Library, 1973). See also H. McKennie Goodpasture, "David Trumbull: Missionary Journalist and Liberty in Chile, 1845-1889," Journal of Presbyterian History 56, no. 2 (Summer 1978): 149-65.

(49.) Wilmer A. Quiring, "The Establishment of Evangelical Christianity in Colombia, 1825-1900" (M.A. thesis, Hartford Seminary Foundation, 1957).

(50.) Alexander M. Allan, "Behind the Mast and Before the Pulpit" (unedited and unpublished MS, Day Missions Library, Yale Univ. Divinity School, 1973). See also Philip O. Evaul, "Alexander M. Allan: Presbyterian Missionary to Colombia, 1910-1946" (M.Th. thesis, Louisville Presbyterian Seminary, 1964).

(51.) Rafael Cepeda, El forjador de hombres: Vista y hechos de Robert L. Wharton (Havana: La Progresiva, 1953).

(52.) H. Edwin Rosser, "Beyond Revolution: The Social Concern of Moises Saenz, Mexican Educator, 1884-1941" (Ph.D. diss., American Univ., Washington, D.C., 1970).

(53.) Jose Coffin S., El General Gutierrez, heroe presbiteriano de la revolucion maderista en Tabasco (Mexico City: El Faro, 1912; 2d ed., 1980).

(54.) Juan E. Huegel, Apostol de la cruz (Mexico City: El Faro, CUPSA, Kirios, Ediciones Transformacion, 1995).

(55.) Carlos Mondragon, Esteban Cortes, and Carlos Martinez Garcia, eds., Gonzalo Baez-Camargo: Una vida al descubierto (Mexico City: CUPSA, 1994).

(56.) Frederick Crowe, The Gospel in Central America: The Introduction of the Bible into the Spanish American Republic of Guatemala (London: Chas. Gelpin, 1850).

(57.) David Escobar, Federico Crowe: Expedientes oficiales de su residencia en, y expulsion del Territorio de Guatemala (privately printed by the author, 1984).

(58.) Emile G. Leonard, O protestantismo brasilero: Estudo de eclesiologia e historia social (Sao Paulo: Associacao de Seminarios Teologicos Evangelicos, 1963). See also his O iluminismo num protestantismo de constituica recente (Sao Bernardo do Campo: Instituto Ecumenico de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Religiao, 1988; Fr. original, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1953) and Duncan Reily, Historia documental do protestantismo no Brasil (Sao Paulo: Associacao de Seminarios Teologicos Evangelicos, 1984).

(59.) Extended bibliographic material on Brazil appears in Protestantism in Latin America: A Bibliographical Guide (see note 37). Since it appeared, much new research has emerged that has yet to be made available to the academic community outside of Brazil.

(60.) Jean-Pierre Bastian, Protestantismo y sociedad en Mexico (Mexico City: CUPSA, 1983), Los disidentes: Sociedades protestantes y revolucion en Mexico, 1872-1911 (Mexico City: Fondo de Cultura Economica y El Colegio de Mexico, 1989), Protestantes, liberales y francmasones: Sociedades de ideas y modernidad en America Latina, siglo XIX (Mexico City: CEHILA y Fondo de Cultura Economica, 1990).

(61.) William L. Wipfler, "The Churches of the Dominican Republic in the Light of History" (S.T.M. thesis, Union Theological Seminary, New York, 1964), published as no. 11 in the Sondeos series (Cuernavaca, Mexico: CIDOC, 1967).

(62.) Marcos Antonio Ramos, Panorama del protestantismo en Cuba (San Jose. Costa Rica: Editorial Caribe, 1986).

(63.) Edward M. Haymaker, "Footnotes on the Beginnings of the Evangelical Movement in Guatemala" (1917). Copies of this unpublished MS are to be found in the library of CELADEC in Guatemala City and the Day Missions Library, Yale University Divinity School. See also Virginia Garrard-Burnett Protestantism in Guatemala: Living in the New Jerusalem (Austin: Univ. of Texas Press, 1998).

(64.) Jose G. Carrera, ed.; David Scotchmer, coordinator, Apuntes para la historia de la Iglesia Evangelica Nacional Presbiteriana de Guatemala (Guatemala City: Sinodo de Iglesia Presbiteriana Nacional, 1983).

(65.) Sheldon Annis, God and Production in a Guatemalan Town (Austin: Univ. of Texas Press, 1987).

(66.) Washington Padilla J., La iglesia y los dioses modernos: Historia del protestantismo en el Ecuador (Quito: Corporacion Editora Nacional, 1989).

(67.) Juan B. A. Kessler, Historia de la evangelizacion en el Peru (Lima: Ediciones Puma, 1993). See also Saul Barrera C., Origenes y desarrollo de la Iglesia Evangelica Peruana: 100 anos de mision (Lima: CEDEPP, 1993), and Samuel Escobar, ed., Protestantismo en el Peru: Guia bibliografica y de fuentes (Lima: Centro de Investigaciones y Publicaciones [CENIP], 2001).

(68.) Donna Laubach Moros, "A History of Protestantism in Venezuela" (Ph.D. diss., Vanderbilt Univ., 1998).

(69.) Domingo Irwin Gaffaro, La minoria protestante en Tachira (Caracas: Universidad Andres Bello, 1997).

(70.) Jean-Pierre Bastian, Una breve historia del protestantismo en America Latina (Mexico City: CUPSA, 1986; rev. ed., 1990). See also two works that delineate different varieties of Protestantism in Latin America: Jose Miguez Bonino, Faces of Latin American Protestantism (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1997; Span. original, Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1995), and Rene Padilla, Mision y encuentro de culturas (Buenos Aires: Kairos Ediciones, 2001). The latter recounts episodes of Protestant arrivals during the colonial period and the nineteenth century.

(71.) Hans-Jurgen Prien, La historia del cristianismo en America Latina (Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1978; Span. trans., Salamanca: Industrias Graficas Visedo-Horteleza, 1985). See also two dictionaries with substantial material related to church history in Latin America: Wilton M. Nelson, ed., Diccionario de historia de la iglesia (Miami: Editorial El Caribe, 1989), and Gerald H. Anderson, ed., Biographical Dictionary of Christian Missions (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1999). The Diccionario de historia de la iglesia is a translation and amplification of the New International Dictionary of the Christian Church (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1974).

(72.) Enrique D. Dussel, ed., Historia general de la iglesia en America Latina, multi-vol. (Salamanca: Ediciones Sigueme, 1981-).

(73.) Arturo Piedra Solano, Evangelizacion protestante en America Latina: Analisis de las razones que justificaron y promovieron la expansion protestante en America Latina, 1830-1960, 2 vols. (Quito: CLAI, 2001-2).

(74.) Tomas Gutierrez Sanchez, ed., Protestantismo y cultura en America Latina (Quito: CLAI/CEHILA, 1994) and Protestantismo y politica en America Latina y el Caribe (Quito: CEHILA, 1996).

(75.) H. McKennie Goodpasture, Cross and Sword: An Eyewitness History of Christianity in Latin America (Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 1989).

(76.) For more information, see:

(77.) Edward L. Cleary and Hannah W. Stewart-Cambino, eds., Power, Politics, and Pentecostals in Latin America (Boulder, Cob.: Westview Press, 1997); Harvey Cox, Fire from Heaven: The Rise of Pentecostal Spirituality amid time Reshaping of Religion in the Twenty-first Century (Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1994); Benjamin F. Gutierrez and Dennis A. Smith, eds., In the Power of the Spirit: The Pentecostal Challenge to Historic Churches in Latin America (Drexel Hill, Pa.: Skipjack Press, 1996).

(78.) Dale T. Irvin and Scott W. Sunquist, eds., History of the World Christian Movement: Earliest Christianity to 1453, vol. 1 (Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 2001).

(79.) Paul E. Sigmund, ed., Religious Freedom and Evangelization in Latin America: The Challenge of Religious Pluralism (Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 1999).

(80.) Dafne Sabanes Plou, Caminos de unidad: Itinerario del dialogo ecumenico en America Latina, 1916-1991 (Quito: CLAI, 1994). See also John H. Sinclair, "From Panama to San Jose: Eighty Years on an Ecumenical Journey," in Hope amid Justice for All in time Americas: Discerning God's Mission, ed. Oscar L. Bolioli (New York: Friendship Press, 1998).

(81.) For the papers and proceedings of this consultation, go to; or contact Robert Shuster, Billy Graham Center Archives, Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois 60187, or

(82.) For an example of oral history applied to research, see John H. Sinclair, "Evangelizando en los campos militares de Mexico: una historia oral," El Faro (revista de la Iglesia Nacional Presbiteriana de Mexico), May-June 2000, pp. 76-77.

(83.) An example of directed research is the John A. Mackay Research Project, sponsored by the Universidad Biblica Latinoamericana, Apartado 901, 1000 San Jose, Costa Rica. The project began in 2001.

John H. Sinclair served as a Presbyterian missionary in Venezuela and Chile, 1948-60, and as secretary for the Presbyterian Church (USA) mission board for Latin America and the Caribbean, 1960-73.
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Author:Sinclair, John H.
Publication:International Bulletin of Missionary Research
Geographic Code:30SOU
Date:Jul 1, 2002
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