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Research and Markets: This Essential Report on Cancer Drug Resistance is Available Now.

DUBLIN, Ireland -- Research and Markets ( has announced the addition of the "Cancer Drug Resistance" report to their offering.

Resistance mechanisms, resistance biomarkers, current & pipeline cancer drugs and strategies to combat drug resistance

A detailed and comprehensive review of cancer drug resistance

Drug resistance is the single most important cause of cancer treatment failure and carries a massive burden to patients, healthcare providers, drug developers and society. It is estimated that Multidrug Resistance (MDR) plays a major role in up to 50% of cancer cases. Today, most drug therapies involve multiple agents, as it is almost universally the case that single drugs (or single-target drugs) will encounter resistance.

This new report includes i) A Global Resistance Map: a presentation and review of resistance mechanisms or resistance-associated changes at the gene, protein or functional level reported for currently approved cancer drugs, covering 60 general cancer drug classes and 190 agents ii) Drug Pipeline: a presentation of the entire anticancer drug development pipeline (2000+ agents from approx. 400 general drug classes), from preclinical to launched, including mechanisms of action of individual drugs iii) New Drug Mechanisms: new cancer agents in the development pipeline (i.e. drug mechanisms not previously developed in any previous drug development phase), representing 157, 56, 84 and 37 new drug classes at preclinical, phase I, phase II and phase III, respectively iv) Strategies to Combat Cancer Drug Resistance: including targeting, bypassing or exploiting resistance mechanisms, current and new drug combinations and novel drugs offering new ways to target drug resistance. v) Resistance Biomarkers: a presentation of current findings at the gene and/or protein level for all currently launched anticancer drugs, that offer potential resistance biomarkers for drug discovery, diagnostics and therapy decisions

Cancer Drug Resistance: Anticancer drugs fail to kill cancer cells for a number of reasons. These include kinetic factors, where drugs fail to reach tumours, are poorly absorbed or metabolically deactivated. Drug resistance mechanisms are either innate, where they are intrinsic to the cancer or acquired, which occurs due to adaptive changes in response to therapy and due to the selection of survival phenotypes. Today, new drug combinations are central to the strategy to combat resistance and this report estimates (from trials in the US & UK) that 40-50% of current cancer drug trials involve multiple drug combinations. These include combinations of established small molecule drugs with others, with new agents or with immunotherapeutic molecules.

Targeting Resistance Mechanisms: Advancing knowledge at the gene and protein level in cancer cells is enabling scientists to better understand interconnected pathways involved cell cycle control, cell signaling and cell death and this is enabling viability-critical targets or target combinations to be more readily identified. In developing new combination drug therapies, a key goal is to identify targets that together represent an Achilles Heel to the cell. For example, scientists have reported that BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutant cells, which show defective DNA maintenance, are very sensitive to inhibitors of another genome maintenance pathway. These studies showed that inhibitors of the enzyme PARP (Poly(ADP-Ribose) polymerase) are able to kill cells that are defective in BRCA1 or BRCA2 at very low concentrations, compared to normal cancer cells. This illustrates the potential of targeting co-supportive or co-dependent pathways. Resistance data (at the gene and protein level), cited in this report, provides a comprehensive and detailed update of scientists' findings on cancer drug resistance, to assist efforts to better understand and target the associated mechanisms.

Further Information: This report also reviews all current phase III anticancer drugs, focusing on novel drug classes that are creating interest in their potential to combat drug resistance. This includes immunotherapeutic drugs (500+ agents in development or launched), second-generation targeted therapies (i.e. multi-target drugs; 15+ prominent candidates in development) and other drug classes such as the NF-?B inhibitors (30+candidates in development), heat shock protein inhibitors (40+ candidates in development), HDAC inhibitors and many others. This report also includes an in-depth discussion with Michael M. Gottesman M.D. (Head, Molecular Cell Genetics, Multidrug Resistance Unit, Centre for Cancer Research, US National Cancer Institute) and cites more than 260 References.

Key Topics Covered:

Chapter 1 Cancer Drug Resistance

This chapter gives a brief introduction to cancer drug resistance and identifies areas covered later in the report.

Chapter 2 Cancer Resistance and the Current Drug pipeline

This chapter presents a comprehensive review of resistance mechanisms and/or resistance-associated changes at the gene or protein levels in cancer cells. These have been identified in a number of cancers and all classes of currently approved anticancer drugs have been included as part of this review. In total, this represents around 60 different anticancer drug classes (based on their general pharmacological mechanisms of action) and includes approximately 190 individual cancer drugs. This chapter also presents the current cancer drug pipeline (preclinical through to phase III) by agent, pharmacological mechanism and development phase and identifies new drug types (i.e. based on new general pharmacological mechanisms) being developed to target cancer in new and more effective ways.

Chapter 3 Drug Resistance and Cancer Stem Cells

Chapter 3 presents a review of Cancer Stem cells (CSCs), a subset of cancer cells in tumours that have been strongly implicated in cancer drug resistance. This chapter also includes proposed resistance mechanisms associated with CSCs, drug discovery strategies for the targeting of these cells, the current CSC-targeting drug development pipeline and the potential of these cells in cancer diagnostics.

Chapter 4 Cancer Resistance Biomarkers

Chapter 4 presents the findings on drug resistance-associated changes or resistance mechanisms described in Chapter 2, as potential resistance biomarkers. Cell markers reported to characterise CSCs and to differentiate them from non-tumourigenic cancer cells, are also presented.

Chapter 5 Strategies to Combat Cancer Drug Resistance

Chapter 5 presents current developments and strategies designed to combat resistance to anticancer agents and includes pipeline drugs, novel drugs, drug combinations, multiple-targeting drugs, direct targeting and avoidance of resistance mechanisms, CSCs and other areas. This chapter includes a review of all phase III anticancer candidates.

Chapter 6 Discussion

Chapter 6 presents a discussion on the information and data presented in Chapters 1-5 of this report, focusing in particular on the practical steps being taken to combat resistance to cancer drugs.

Companies Mentioned:


- Immune Control

- Can-Fite BioPharma

- Pfizer

- Eisai

- PDL BioPharma

- Medivation

- Active Biotech

- ERYtech Pharma

- Nerviano Medical Sciences

- Abbott

- Thallion Pharmaceuticals

- Hoffmann-La Roche

- AEgera

- GlaxoSmithKline

- Bayer

- Zeria

- Micromet

- Seattle Genetics

- PDL BioPharma

- Seattle Genetics

- MaxCyte

- Immunomedics

- DanDrit Biotech

- OncoGenex Technologies

- Chemokine Therapeutics

- Cyclacel

- Nicholas Piramal

- Oxford BioMedica

- Eisai

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Publication:Business Wire
Date:Sep 17, 2008
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