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Reports on MARBLE INDUSTRY - Part I (165).

H I G H L I G H T S

Marble sector has a meager share of 0.096 percent in the world market of $62 billion.

Country earned $59.79 million from marble exports as against the target of $38 million.

Pakistan exports marble and granite to almost 52 countries of the world.

More than 100 types of colours and verities of marble and granite are found in Pakistan.

Mining and quarry sector of Pakistancontributes about 0.6 percent to GDP with a value addition of more than Rs16.5 billion.

Granite has greater strength than sandstone, limestone or marble.

INTRODUCTION

Present Scenario

Presently, marble industry of Pakistan is in great trouble and about 650 marble quarries have been closed during the last two years in Balochistan, owing to dispute among different government departments and prevailing law and order conditions.

Despite having huge export potential, the marble sector has a meager share of 0.096 percent in the world market of $62 billion. However, in spite of all odds and lack of facilities, the country earned $59.79 million against the target of $38 million from the export of marble and granite, during 2009-10.

Pakistan exports marble and granite to almost 52 countries of the world, including UAE, UK, India, China, Italy, USA, Malaysia etc. Its export price is $1,300 per cubic metric ton. Huge amount could be earned if issues related to the industry were resolved.

Marble is one of the emerging industries of Pakistan. According to estimates Pakistan has over 297 billion ton of marble and granite reserves and more than 100 types of colours and verities of marble and granite are found in Pakistan but extracted only over 1 billion ton per annum.

Marble is a durable stone in dry atmosphere only when protected from rain. The surface of Marble crumbles readily when exposed to moist or acidic environment. Purest form of Marble is statuary Marble, which is white with visible crystalline structure. The distinctive luster of statuary Marble is caused by the reflection of penetrated light from the surfaces of inner crystals.

Mining and quarry sector of Pakistan contributes about 0.6 percent to GDP with a value addition of Rs16.5 billion. The exporters demanded that government should help to get finance from financial institutions on concessionary rates and on priority to the marble sector. This would help stakeholders to utilize their capacities to the maximum level.

Definition of Dimensional Stone

All natural stones including Marble, Granite and Slate that can be cut to sizes, polished and used for construction purposes are called dimensional stones.

Each of these stones represents a family of similar stones, with various combinations of different minerals. The major distinction is made on the basis of their base minerals which are Calcium compounds (calcareous) for Marbles, Silica compounds (siliceous) for Granite and Shale clay for Slate.

Dimensional stones apparent occurrences have lent them to many uses for centuries particularly construction and allied uses. Their physical properties determine their appropriate extraction and processing requirements, bearing upon their end use.

The major products of dimensional stone are Marble and Granite, however; Onyx and Slate are also used in the dimensional stone processing industry.

Marble

Marble is a crystalline, compact variety of metamorphosed limestone, consisting primarily of calcite (CaCO3), dolomite (CaMg (CO3)6) or a combination of both minerals. Pure calcite is white, but mineral impurities add color in variegated patterns.Extensive deposits are located in Italy, India, Pakistan,Spain, Greece, Brazil, China, Afghanistan, Turkey, Great Britain, and in the United States. Commercially the term marble is extended to include any rock composed of calcium carbonate that takes polish including ordinary limestone. The term is further extended in the loose designation of stones such as alabaster, serpentine and other soft rocks.

Restricted choice of Marble for external applications is due to its porosity. They hardly sustain color and shine due to rainfalls and environmental pollution etc. Marble is preferred over Granite for special works that include sculptures, decorative items, fireplaces etc. due to their comparative softness.

Marble industry is entirely dependent upon a technically sound mining process and a stable supply chain. Several factors affect this chain link.The ongoing troubles in Balochistan have greatly impacted the supply of raw material to the marble units. For example, mines at Kataro in Balochistan about 140 km from Karachi were not able to maintain sustained supplies to target units. While the quality of ore is appropriate, the conditions are anything but satisfactory. Miners, truck operators and unit owners keep complaining about the precarious state of law and order in the area.

Granite or Siliceous Stone

Because of its uniform texture and hardness,Granite is preferred for external use. It is more durable as compared to Marble and is economical in maintenance. Granite does not need repolishing once it is polished and fixed at the desired place, while Marble needs polishing every year or at least once in two years.

The granular formation and compactness of Granite makes it non porous and non absorbent hence more hygienic for the use in laboratories, kitchen,washrooms and other water exposed areas.

Uniformity in texture gives better look to Granite and is thus convenient in its application at the desired place.

Majority of the cities located closer to the sea, provide greater markets for Granite as it can withstand the weather effects (moisturizing) better than Marble. Usage of Granite in special work, mainly involved in the making and fabrication of sculptures, decoration items etc. is lower as compared to Marble. This is simply because Granite is a harder material to work on due to its compaction and silica contents.

Granite is igneous rock of visible crystalline formation and texture. It is composed of feldspar, usually potash feldspar and oligoclase and quartz, with a small amount of mica and minor accessory minerals, such as zircon, apatite, magnetite, ilmenite and sphene.

Granite is usually whitish or gray with a speckled appearance caused by the darker crystals. It is mainly preferred for its use in the exterior applications. Variety of colors in Granite is traded in the world market with different price tags. High price is fetched for the rare colors including Jet-Black, Pearl Blue and Deep Green. These colors are found in South Africa, Brazil, Norway, India and Pakistan.

Granite has greater strength than sandstone, limestone or marble and is correspondingly more difficult to quarry. It is an important building stone and its usage is in the external and internal flooring.

Onyx

Similar to most of the other forms of marble, it is composed of compact rocks of carbonate nature of sedimentary origin formed through chemical precipitation usually in underground cavities. Generally found in the form of big lenses and patches with a low relief. If crystals are particularly large to some centimeter and visible to the naked eye, these rocks are known as alabaster.

Onyx is mostly green in color with fine texture, nevertheless bands and patches of red, brown, and white are common, with rare patches of golden. Green variety is more valuable because it is used for special works in many parts of the world. Major deposits are located in Mexico, Iran and Turkey with best green variety in Afghanistan and Pakistan.

WORLD

Marbel Trade

Globally, the natural stone industry is growing rapidly. Since the beginning of the 1990's, production has risen annually by 7.3 percent and average increase in trade per annum was 8.7 percent.

The annual world natural stone extraction was estimated at 150 million ton per annum, with a trade of about 820 million sq/mt with a slab thickness of 2 cm, after deduction of waste and cutting losses.

World production of dimensional stone was estimated at about 103 million ton in 2008. Although production of marble is recorded at small scale in the majority of the world's nations, however, the major production of dimensional stone is contributed by about 23 countries. The top five dimensional stone producing countries in 2008 were China, India, Iran, Turkey and Italy contributing around 70 percent of the world's production.

Global production of dimensional stones has decreased by 3 percent in 2008 as compared to 2007. The top five producing countries production declines with the exception of Turkey. Whereas the United States ranked 10th in world production of dimensional stone in 2008. Technological revolution has increased the world production of dimensional stone over the last decades.

As per ITC figures, the world import of marble was stood at $1.64 billion for the year 2009. China has been the major importers of world for the last few years followed by India and Italy, respectively.

The details are given in table-1.

Table - 1

World Major Importers of Marble

World Major Importers of Marble###

(000' $)

Sr. Importers###Import###Import###Import###Import

No###value in 2006###value in 2007 value in 2008###value in 2009

01. China###535,566###719,586###868,886###860,620

02. India###48,211###57,687###85,955###104,402

03. Italy###119,176###141,850###162,127###101,603

04. Chinese###42,797###54,230###65,334###55,861

###Taipei###

05. Greece###38,552###49,582###48,230###32,587

06. Spain###75,864###82,758###61,604###31,454

07. Venezuela###3,704###N/A###62,190###29,574

08. Singapore###9,809###16,957###23,845###27,463

09. SyrianArab###29,006###37,868###47,717###27,227

###Republic###

10. LibyanArab###11,134###15,637###24,153###26,972

###Jamahiriya###

World (Top ten + all others)###1,274,012###1,610,552###1,902,762###1,647,580

Source: Intracen.org

Granite has the same importance as Marble.

Statistics show $1.76 million thousands of Granite was imported round the world in 2009. China is leading importer of granite whereas Italy and UK were the other major importers of Granite, table-2.

World Major Exporters of Marble and Granite The international marble and granite trade was valued at $2.5 billion in 2005, with production of about 19.6 million ton. Italy was the world leader in marble, granite and stone sector, exporting over 38 percent of finished material.

The average annual dimensional stone processing is being done with different levels of technology in different countries but a few leading countries such as Italy, China, Spain, Japan, Taiwan, Portugal, Germany, France, USA, and Greece have developed highly efficient technology with good forward and backward linkages. India has also improved this sector considerably in the last two decades.

Consumption is in over 50 countries of the world has increased use of dimensional stone in significantly.

World exports of marble stood at $1.64 billion in 2009, says ITC. Turkey ranks 1st in world export of marble followed by Italy and Spain respectively.

Whereas Pakistan was on the 14th position in export of marble. Table-3 shows the worldwide exports of marble.

The industry is generating overall turnover of $40 billion. The majority of world consumption comes from quarried in different countries rather than those where it is installed.

The leading producers, China, India, Italy, Spain and Portugal account for 53 percent of the world quarrying production.

The world trade is just less than 29.6 million ton, that is equal to about 4.8 billion square feet, 450 million equivalent sq/mt, and has reached $8.6 billion in 2004 with an annual average increase of 13 percent. China has shown the largest increase in its export value, about 28 percent increase per annum over the last 4 years.

Italy, China and Spain are the major players in the world market and exported more than 55 percent of the dimensional stone's products, blocks and processed, by value. Other major exporters include Brazil, Spain, India, Turkey and Portugal.

About 53 percent marble is exported directly from the mines while 47 percent, including 45 percent of indoor and out door floorings and stairs, 55 percent in the shape of handicrafts and other construction materials.

Major importers of marble products are Italy, USA, Japan, Germany, Italy and China and more than 60 percent of the products go to these countries. As per statistics of ITC, India exported the largest quantity of Granite for the year 2009. Brazil and Norway were the other major exporters of Granite whereas the total exported quantity of Granite was $1.3 million thousands, table-4.

World Major Importers of Granite###

(000' $)

Sr.###Importers###Import###Import###Import###Import

No###value in 2006###value in 2007###value in 2008###value in 2009

01.###China###485,224###512,886###644,527###566,249

02.###Italy###460,994###457,098###392,404###237,058

03.###United Kingdom###145,065###192,897###192,079###121,907

04.###Spain###157,804###172,977###137,013###84,220

05.###Chinese Taipei###102,815###111,664###120,410###76,450

06.###Poland###55,544###73,877###81,944###63,610

07.###Singapore###19,715###63,182###115,894###60,999

08.###France###52,940###68,205###68,554###58,472

09.###Belgium###61,992###71,045###69,495###47,232

10.###Germany###50,221###57,785###50,838###44,068

World (Top ten + all others)###2,062,535###2,316,605###2,395,213###1,760,691

Source:###ITC###

Table - 3

World Major Exporters of Marble###

(000' $)

Sr.###Exporters###Export###Export###Export###Export

No###value in 2006###value in 2007###value in 2008 value in 2009

01.###Turkey###244,090###338,842###438,935###471,158

02.###Italy###219,148###262,719###292,270###285,348

03.###Spain###303,028###331,207###324,553###224,806

04.###Egypt###N/A###N/A###212,328###172,222

05.###Iran###49,386###118,005###117,941###92,832

06.###Portugal###48,231###62,711###69,151###61,130

07.###Greece###49,761###57,878###59,767###51,907

08.###India###24,833###29,765###35,148###24,937

09.###Macedonia###9,882###10,806###N/A###19,312

10.###Belgium###14,863###18,104###25,132###18,583

11.###Germany###8,376###12,475###15,690###18,400

12.###Croatia###22,620###25,010###22,895###17,217

13.###Indonesia###4,923###13,043###19,771###17,110

14.###Pakistan###6,693###11,309###14,047###16,479

World (Top Fourteen + all others)###1,282,327###1,643,064###1,879,955###1,659,056

Source:###Intracen.org###

Table - 4###

World Major Exporters of Granite###

(000' $)

Sr.###Exporters###Export###Export###Export###Export

No###value in 2006###value in 2007###value in 2008###value in 2009

01.###India###461,856###653,253###532,818###474,705

02.###Brazil###200,286###194,417###169,707###135,536

03.###Norway###97,407###99,320###95,945###77,687

04.###South Africa###17,056###46,947###90,241###58,818

05.###Italy###64,073###66,416###68,695###54,695

06.###Belgium###36,597###67,758###74,168###53,661

07.###Spain###57,055###61,513###61,913###38,538

08.###USA###51,381###52,143###49,689###30,789

09.###Finland###42,624###50,922###47,181###30,108

10.###Angola###N/A###21,712###30,336###29,353

World(Top ten + all others)###1,408,478###1,744,898###1,708,827###1,330,661

Source: ITC

PAKISTAN

Fortunately God has blessed Pakistan huge reserves of marble and granite that are yet to be exploited. More than 100 types of colours and verities of marble and granite are found in Pakistan. Therefore, there is an urgent need to invest in mining for creating job opportunities and raising exports.

According to Federal Beauro of Statstics (FBS) figures, the known stone deposits are estimated over 10 billion ton. Though there are approximately 1,500 mines producing stones for about 4,500 small to large units across the country, but none of these mines are operating on modern methods and manufacturing facilities. Thus they are unable to produce products that meet international standards. Neither they have capacity to fulfill bulk orders.

The marble sector is facing several constraints, most prominently are the obsolete methods in mining, law and order situation in major mineral resources areas, lack of necessary infrastructure from mines to ports, non availability of skilled labour, greater reliance on raw products export rather then value addition, problems in supply chain processes, lack in value addition, lack of capital to explore further opportunities, improper transportation facilities and lack of foreign director investment in the sector.

While Pakistan is emerging as a potential market for mineral exploration. Varied deposits of metallic and non-metallic mineral have been found on around 600,000 sq.kms of outcrop area in Pakistan. The contribution of mineral sector to GDP is 0.5 percent but likely to increase due to massive initiatives taken by pubic and private sector. Marble and Granite are included in the list of largest minerals extracted among chromite, coal, rock salt, lime stone, china clay, dolomite, fire clay, gypsum, silica sand etc, table-12.

Pakistan has good potential due to its huge and high quality reserves of Marble and Granite in different parts of country, but unfortunately so far Pakistan could not develop its name in the world list.

Exports

The government has set export target of $60 million for 2011 and $100 million for 2012 that would be not difficult to achieve, if government pay a little attention to solve problems of the industry.

The annual average exports of marble and granite, in the form of blocks and boulders were around $22 million during 2005-06 to 2007-08. However, during 2008-09, some square blocks were also exported which caused an increase of $35 million. In spite of facing many problems, during July- April 2011, marble export reached $42.65 million showing an increase of 80 pc as against $24.18 million in 2010.

It was claimed by the Association that exporters not only achieved export target but also surpassed and reached $60.620 million during 2010- 11 that showed 72.3 pc growth, the export quantum of marble and granite was $40 million, 2007-08. The Chairman of the Marble Association said that investors from Italy, European countries including UK, Saudi Arabia, Korea and China has shown interest and wanted to establish joint ventures with the Pakistani counterparts.

Pakistani marble sector is anticipating a huge business deal with the Abu Dhabi and it was expected that construction activities will gather pace in 2011- 12 as a number of government infrastructure projects are moving to build phases and the continual development of Abu Dhabi's ambitious 2030 programme. The programme has revealed that over $23 billion construction contracts are ready to be awarded in the UAE market.

Around 22 percent of the construction material consists of marble products, tiles and blocks. The export of different marble products including slabs from Pakistan during July-December 2010 stood at $40.70 million, including $20.70 million to Afghanistan, as compared to $14.71 million during the same period last year.

However, Chairman of the marble association pointed out that Mineral Department of Balochistan is also bearing loss of Rs6 lac per day because of not getting quarry lease fee for the last two years.

Pakistan produces marble 1.3 million ton annually, with less than 10 percent exported, which is 0.03 percent of the world trade. China is physically near the major mining sites in Pakistan, is the biggest importer of raw and finished marble slabs and tiles, nearly double that of USA, in the world.

The country has enormous mineral resources including marble. Which is used for both construction purposes and handicrafts manufacturing, whereas, Onyx is a semi transparent and generally used by handicrafts manufacturing industry.

There is great demand of onyx products in the export markets of European Union countries, Central Asian countries etc. make this sector highly attractive. Foreign tourists are the main customers of the products made of marble and onyx, table-5.

Projections

Around 15 percent growth is expected while the country will cross $500 million by exporting finished and semi-finished goods by 2015 in addition to the existing export of around $47 million annually. Currently, export orders of marble products including tiles and slabs to Middle East, USA, China, Italy, Hong Kong and South Korea are in the pipeline. The demand from India alone is around more than $1 million every month, as India possesses granite but not marble.

Uses of Dimensional Stone

Major categories for usage of dimensional stones are architectural works, funeral trade and sculptures etc. The architectural work includes construction and structural works. The total share of the dimensional stone is 70 percent while in the decorative, sculptures and memorial art its share is 30 percent. According to their peculiar characteristics, including weather effects, color fading, load tolerance, edge cuts, water absorption, color choice, hygienic factor, hardness etc; various type of dimensional stones are used in different locations and places.

The quarrying and working of stone already practiced in ancient times by the Egyptians and the Greece has seen greater developed in Italy under the Romans. But by the end of the 18th century, economic activity in the stone sector developed for the first time with the invention of gunpowder and the use of mechanical cutting.

Although dimensional stones are produced in more than 42 countries of the world but 12 of these producers are dominant in the international market, 6 European countries and 3 each in Asia and Africa.

Table - 5###

Country###wise Marble Export from Pakistan###

(Value in 000 $)

###July-June 2009-10###July-June 2008-09###Change###

###Export % Share###Export % Share###Value###%

Marble and Onyx###Manufacured###31,000###0.16###32,371###0.18###(1,371) (4.24)

###Country Increase###Country Decrease###

###July-June###July-June###

###2009-10###2008-09###Var.###2009-10###2008-09###Var.

China###16,264###7,127 9,137 U.S.America###4,376###5,747###(1,371)

CHINA###16,264###7,127 9,137 U.S.AMERICA###4,376###5,747###(1,371)

U.A.E.###1,930###1,272###658###Saudi Arabia###1,020###1,250###(230)

Japan###409###396###13###Italy###617###1,141###(524)

Afghanistan###299###299###-###Korea, Rep. Of###384###410###(26)

Hong Kong###283###151###132###Germany###254###635###(381)

U.R.Of Tanzania###275###5###270###Russian Fed.###221###5,489###(5,268)

Viet Nam###258###125###133###Canada###217###300###(83)

Spain###227###91###136###Bangladesh###207###484###(277)

Qatar###206###102###104###Ukraine###207###2,365###(2,158)

Indonesia###203###24###179###India###195###279###(84)

Greece###191###145###46###United Kingdom###146###198###(52)

Kuwait###123###88###35###Egypt(U.A.R.)###140###233###(93)

Turkey###105###104###1###Poland###115###120###(5)

Sri Lanka###97###95###2###Malaysia###81###748###(667)

Bahrain###77###17###60###Brazil###71###110###(39)

Mozambique###57###7###50###Australia###59###60###(1)

Kenya###27###1###26###Portugal###42###84###(42)

Sudan###8###4###4###France###38###149###(111)

###Iran ( Islamic R.)###35###56###(21)

###Ireland###30###41###(11)

###South Africa###27###66###(39)

###Iraq###11###119###(108)

###Netherlands###9###35###(26)

###Mauritius###6###20###(14)

###Belgium###2###12###(10)

###Philippines###1###9###(8)

###Thailand###1###14###(13)

###Denmark###-###1###(1)

###Guinea###-###1###(1)

###Co,Te D,Ivoire(Fr.Iv###-###2###(2)

###Oman###-###7###(7)

###Norway###-###8###(8)

###Mexico###-###24###(24)

###Finland###-###530###(530)

###Other Countries###1,449###1,571###(122)

Total###21,039###10,053###10,986###Total###9,961 22,318(12,357)

###9,961###22,318 (12,357)###

###31,000###32,371 (1,371)###

Technological advances in the last 70 years had increased the world production and consumption of dimensional stones to 150 million and about 8.8 billion square feet (820 million square meters), respectively. Marble is included in the list of largest minerals extracted item and since 1990 mining and quarrying contributed 0.5 percent to the GDP. Production of marble has grown substantially in the last 25 years with a total production of about 5 million ton in 2003 that increased to 1.3 million ton in 2009-10. Due to using traditional methods of extraction the quarry wastage ranges from 61 to 73 percent in addition to poor quality, mainly due to unwieldy lasting techniques.

Processing industry is using wide array of technological options for basic finishing stage, all of old age. Due to technological imbalance, wastages in processing are about 52 to 55 percent. The processing industry is based on local manufactured machinery and equipment a few units have high efficiency machines imported from foreign countries.

The marble processing industry is directly related to the development of building materials, the modernization in building leads to the progress of the tile industry. It recorded a trend of increasing use in modern architecture.

The tiles manufacturing unit of marble on the basis of its abundant availability in the country can be set up near the area of its production. The process technology is simple and the investment cost is also comparatively low, besides it is a labourintensive industry provides jobs.

Table - 6

Production of Dimensional Stones in Pakistan###

(Ton)

Commodity###2003-04###2004-05###2005-06###2006-07###2007-08

Marble###708,362###1,054,898###779,147###831,868###507,288

Onyx###44,955###52,960###61,035###71,610###70,444

Granite###8,788###5,407###2,466###4,170###2,054

Slate###158,055###220,733###45,809###143,036###110,606

Source: Mineral Statistics of Pakistan 2010, GSP

The trend shows that increase in export of marble tiles is one of the important export oriented industries. Its export has high potential in the countries where the construction of high rise buildings are in progress towards urbanization or where urbanization is projected. It is expected that the export of marble would increase over the period of time.

Despite having great potential in mining sector the investors are reluctant to come forward and invest in the province of Balochistan due to the law and order situation and noncooperastive behaviot of officials and political leaders.

The exporters demanded that 10 percent rebate on exports of value added marble should be given. Moreover, to enhance export of value added products quota system should be introduces for raw material exports. They also demanded that government should instruct financial institutions to provide finance on priority basis and on concessionary rates to the marble industry. This would help stakeholders to utilize their capacities to the maximum level.

Besides, all commercial counselors of Pakistani embassies should provide latest informations to TDAP about marble and granite imports in their respective countries.

The Chairman of the Association said that the prevailing law and order situation and the worsening power crisis should be tackled by the government immediately as it is affecting this sector.

Moreover, there is a lack of well defined policy, shortage of warehouses in the country, therefore, government should establish a warehouse in Dubai, as the Gulf Region has great demand for Pakistani marble and Dubai could becime a hub station.

Due to fine quality of stone available in the country and expertise in making finish products exports can be increased. The country would be benefited by the export of all kinds of marble products due to construction boom in Qatar, Middle East and Saudi Arab and increase in Indian demand.

Approximately 1,300 natural stone mines are in operation and over 2,000 processing units are producing value added products.

The comparison of price of the value of dimensional stone, square block, with stone extracted by conventional methods shows that square blocks have 70 percent more value than conventional extracted stones. Therefore, the earning ratio is rising with the adaptation of mechanized quarrying.

Regional Distribution

Mining of Marble and Granite is carried out in Balochistan, KPK and Sindh.

Balochistan contribution is rich in dimensional stones and has great investment potential especially in Marble, Granite and Onyx. Total production of Marble, Granite, and Onyx in 2007-08 was stood at 338,047 ton.Further reserve mapping and calculation is under progress. There are about 252 operational mines of Marble, Granite and Onyx in the province. The production statistics of dimensional stones of Balochistan is shown in the table-7.

The colors found in Balochistan are widely accepted in the local markets and are at par on international standards due to their similarity with the Italian stones, which have widespread demand in the global markets. Balochistan Onyx is one of the favorites in the world markets and is used for facings, floorings and decorative items. One of the Onyx mines in Balochistan, Zehri mines in Chaghi Distt, is the only mine in the country which is properly equipped with modern mining machinery where quarrying is done on advanced methods.

Some more mines are being developed on the same pattern in near future. According to market analysis, there are around 1208 Marble processing units in the province.

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Contribution

The province produces Marble, Granite and Slate in large volumes i.e. 196545, 1044 and 110606 ton respectively. There are wide varieties of Marble and Granite with huge reserves available in the province. There are three major clusters of processing units in KPK mainly in Peshawar.

The CM KPK is giving priority to development and mining of these resources on scientific lines and taking practical steps in this regard. He stressed support to private sector for development of this sector. About 4 billion ton marble and granite reserves were available in Chitral, Swat, Buner, Mardan, Nowshera, Dir, Kohistan and Mansehra District.

Mardan and Buner. In FATA, major clusters are at Mohmand Agency and Khyber Agency. According to the industry estimates there are about 550 processing units in the province, table-8.

Table - 7

Marble,###Granite and OnyxProduction in Balochistan###

(Ton)

###2003-04###2004-05###2005-06###2006-07###2007-08

Marble###317,655###460,082###399,525###389,855###267,312

Marble onyx###44,955###52,960###61,035###71,610###70,444

Granite###4,014###2,017###2,184###1,092###291

Total###366,624###515,059###462,744###462,557###338,047

Source: Mineral Statistics of Pakistan 2010, GSP###

Table - 8###

Marble,###Granite and Slate Production in KPK###

(Ton)

###2003-04###2004-05###2005-06###2006-07###2007-08

Marble###384,245###589,014###375,586###428,649###196,545

Granite###4,301###3,018###0###2,528###1,044

Slate###158,055###220,733###45,809###143,036###110,606

Total###546,601###812,765###421,395###574,213###308,195

Source: Mineral Statistics of Pakistan 2010, GSP###

Table - 9###

Marble and Granite Production in Sindh###

(Ton)

###2003-04###2004-05###2005-06###2006-07###2007-08

Marble###5,927###3,861###707###3,305###1,415

Granite###473###372###282###180###629

Total###6,400###4,233###989###3,485###2,044

Source: Mineral Statistics of Pakistan 2010, GSP###

Table - 10###

Marble and Granite Production in Punjab###

(Ton)

###2003-04###2004-05###2005-06###2006-07###2007-08

Marble###535###1,941###3,329###10,059###42,016

Granite###0###0###0###370###90

Total###535###1941###3,329###10,429###42,106

Source: Mineral Statistics of Pakistan 2010, GSP

Sindh Contribution

Sindh also has good colors of Granite widely spread in the area of Tharparker. There are 10 mines in operation; while reserves are not known as any efforts in this direction has not been made so far. The mines are producing blocks in squared shape and are supplied to feed the local industry. Sindh Granite can compete in the international markets with India, as the colors found in Sindh are better than the colors found in India. There is a big cluster of processing units in Sindh at Karachi. There are more than 1280 processing units are working in Sindh. The production statistics of Sindh, table-9.

Punjab Contribution

In quarry production in Punjab has no contribution to the sector. However deposits of minerals in the northern Punjab have been identified but no proper source can be mentioned. Three significant sized clusters of processing units in the province exist at Lahore, Rawalpindi and Islamabad. In addition there are smaller clusters in Multan, Faisalabad, Gujranwala, Sargodha and Sialkot. The PASDEC Gujrat is also working in this field. There are about 450 units working in Punjab, table-10.

Problems

Lack of Quality Production: In the prevailing circumstances the industry is unable to produce quality product for the export markets. One of the major reasons has been the absence of appropriate technology. There are quite few units in the country, which have modern machinery and are capable to process dimensional stones according to the international standards but still these units cannot facilitate large orders placed by the importing firms due to various limitations.

Most of the processing units in the country are equipped with local versions of the cutting machinery with little or no calibration, high electricity consumption and low quality production. Products of these units have variations in the tile thickness as high as 1 to 2 mm and are chipped at the edges whereas international standards allow variations in thickness up to 0.5mm for tiles and the edges properly chamfered. Uneven raw blocks are contributing to high processing loss due to the material, cracks in the blocks and inability of extracting large sheets.

Another factor involved is the lack of skills among the processing workers, who have not been provided with required training on cutting techniques, even in the plants with imported machinery.

Incapability of meeting consistent supply the existing distribution system both for raw as well as finished products is disjointed. The processing units acquire their raw material supplies directly from the mines in small lots resultantly they can not ensure regular supply of similar products of the consistent grade, shade and color of material ordered by the buyer. These supplies may also be delayed or stopped by the miners due to many reasons that include:

Low production because of non scientific quarrying.

Incapability of doing product grading.

Local issues including rent and right of way resulting into halting of mining operations poor infrastructure due to which trucks cannot carry heavy loads on contouring roads in the hilly areas.

Besides, all the mentioned reasons, there is no arrangement of keeping stock at the processing units or at mines mainly due to financial constraints. The Ministry of Industries and Production and Mineral Department of Balochistan locked horns and causing huge losses to the industry. For instance, marble units in Karachi has shown a loss of Rs20 million per day due to shortage of raw material.

The city is required about 10,000 ton marble per day.

About 350 small and medium size marble factories have been closed their night shifts in Karachi only, which resulted curtailment of 15 to 16 thousand jobs. Power and gas load shedding in industrial sites are hampering exports. Marble sector severely affected by load sheddings besides breakdown has also played its part in increasing losses. Industry is deeply concern with the export orders mainly due to 150 to 250 hour load shedding a month, which has increased financial pressures on industry.

Marble City in Karachi

A marble city will be developed along Karachi Northern Bypass. Spreading over 300 acres of land, the project will be undertaken as a public-private partnership enterprise with Pakistan Stone Development Company.

The memorandum of understanding was finalised after the Sindh Investment Conference last year. Necessary administrative approvals are being sought from the chief minister to expedite the project on a fast track basis.

In 2006, a marble city was set up in Gadani in Balochistan with the assistance from Omani government. Spread over 600 acres, the venture has taken off but at a slow pace. Even some investors acquire land and made boundary walls only.

However, several units have been built while more are under construction. The Sindh government must take note of the competitive environment before moving ahead with its plans.

In Karachi there are small and medium-scale units of marble processing scattered along Manghopir Road, Pak Colony, SITE area and environs. These units largely, catering to local construction industry complaing about the power outages and loadshedding. Needless to say that marble processing is a power intensive production. Without adequate supply of electricity, any new venture is likely to hit snags, even before a proper take off.

Marble exports have been highlighted as highly profitable sub sector with expected volume to the tune of $1 billion in the next two to three years.

Objectives of PASDEC

Chairman Pakistan Stone Development Company (PASDEC) Ihsanullah Khan said several measures were taken for the development of mining of marble and granite on scientific lines besides provision of funds, machinery, land and other needs. The objectives of PASDEC include, development and mining of marble and granite resources on scientific lines mechanised quarrying of marble and granite in partnership with private mines owners, establishment of machinery pool for mechanised quarrying of marble and granite, training of locals in quarrying of marble and granite as part of human resource development and establishment of marble city and mosaic centers.

The establishment of marble in Chitral and Buner, up gradation of marble quarry in Buner, provision of machinery on rental basis to local mines owners in Buner and mosaic training of three months to female in Peshawar and Chitral are included in activities under the corporation.

PASDEC is trying to evolve mechanized quarrying system that include diamond wire saw, chainsaw machines for precise cutting and bench quarrying. The objective is to discriminate blasting and reduces wastage of natural stones.

PASDEC said Pakistani marble products received good response by the international buyers at the four day international exhibition for marble and construction material in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Reserves and Extraction###of Principal Minerals###

###(000 ton)

Reserves/###Anti-###Argonite/###China###Celestite###Chromite###Coal###Dolomite###Fire Clay###Fullers Gypsum Lime

Years###mony###Marble Clay###(ton)###(ton)###Earth###Anhydrite###Stone

###(ton)###Very###4.9###fairly###185###Very###Over 100###fairly###350###Very

###large###million###..###large###billion large###million large###million large

###Deposits###ton###Deposits###ton###Deposits###ton###Deposits###ton###Deposits

1990-91###128###281###44###1,773###24###3,054###154,591 120###23###468###9,009

1991-92###-###321###42###1,069###28###3,627###180,987 139###21###471###8,528

1992-93###5###388###37###1,682###23###3,256###220,241 132###23###533###9,015

1993-94###3###460###48###4,398###11###3,534###228,090 116###17###666###9,125

1994-95###-###467###31###1,403###13###3,043###227,079 152###15###620###9,682

1995-96###-###458###43###762###27###3,465###185,115 112###18###420###9,740

1996-97###-###459###66###812###35###3,496###215,556 110###12###522###9,491

1997-98###-###345###68###961###35###3,145###116,046 94###18###307###11,166

1998-99###-###403###67###642###18###3,378###198,831 153###16###242###9,467

1999-00###-###579###63###802###26###3,164###347,583 139###19###355###9,589

2000-01###95###620###47###807###22###3,285###352,689 164###13###364###10,870

2001-02###37###685###54###382###24###3,512###312,886 171###16###402###10,820

2002-03###-###1,066###40###402###31###3,609###340,864 117###15###424###11,880

2003-04###-###994###25###570###29###3,325###297,419 193###14###467###13,150

2004-05###5###1,280###38###1,855###46###3,367###199,653 254###17###552###14,857

2005-06###91###1,835###53###3,160###52###3,854###183,952 333###16###601###18,427

2006-07###119###1,980###31###1,530 104###3,702###342,463 347###11###624###25,512

2007-08###245###1,537###32###1,310 115###4,066###359,994 330###11###660###31,789

2008-09###75###1145 r###17###470###90 r###3679 r 249,918 389 r###10###800###33186 r

2009-10###25###1065 r###23###160 257###3,536###130,408 329###11###854###37,137

July-March###

2009-10###-###754###15###80###182###2,539###84,601 237###8###645###27,202

2010-11*###-###657###13###120###110###2,352###89,670 221###4###540###23,911

Reserves/###Magne- Rock###Silica Ochre###Sulphur Soap###Baryte Bauxite/###Iron###Crude###Natural

Years###site###Salt###Sand###(ton)###(ton)###Stone###Laterite###Ore###Oil (m.###Gas (000

###(ton)###(ton)###(ton) barrels)###m.cu.mtr.)

###Over 100###Very###0.8###0.6###5###Over 74###Over 430###184###492

###million###large###..###million###million###million###million###million###million###billion

###tondeposits###ton###ton###ton###ton###ton US barrels###cu. metre

1990-91###4,242###736###143###1,285###295###32###26###24,644###318###23.49###14.66

1991-92###6,333###833###132###1,001###215###37###30###21,818###937###22.47###15.57

1992-93###5,047###895###158###1,000###510###48###26###18,682###1,922###21.90###16.50

1993-94###7,000###916###169###745###715###44###18###34,984###3,792###20.68###17.65

1994-95###5,227###890###152###4,623###510###34###20###32,214###8,103###19.86###17.77

1995-96###14,981###958###184###8,081###20###40###14###19,554###6,046###21.05###18.85

1996-97###6,679###1,066###154###2,047###640###45###30###33,583###4,575###21.27###19.76

1997-98###3,397###971###135###3,147###22,458 49###30###28,366###5,500###20.54###19.82

1998-99###3,455###1,190###158###4,080###19,103 61###18###41,362###38,151###19.95###20.92

1999-00###4,513###1,358###167###4,793###22,812 48###26###48,237###45,980###20.40###23.17

2000-01###4,645###1,394###155###4,691###17,428 47###28###35,114###24,765###21.08###24.78

2001-02###4,637###1,423###157###5,064###22,580 39###21###37,182###4,942###23.19###26.16

2002-03###2,645###1,426###185###6,733###19,402 66###41###67,536###11,483###23.46###28.11

2003-04###6,074###1,640###259###7,861###23,873 52###44###88,044###84,946###22.62###34.06

2004-05###3,029###1,648###309###18,686###24,158 21###42###78,288 104,278###24.12###38.08

2005-06###2,446###1,859###411###34,320###24,730 21###52###60,370 131,259###23.94###39.65

2006-07###3,445###1,873###402###61,665###27,710 45###47###150,796 125,879###24.62###40.03

2007-08###3,940###1,849###403###46,215###29,485 38###50###174,223 286,255###25.60###41.18

2008-09###2,639###1,917###370###56,617###25,784 14###63###137,485 320,214###24.03###41.37

2009-10###5159r###1,944###411###55,352###26,641 54###57###190,077 437,003###23.70###41.99

July-March###

2009-10###4,179###1,347###305###42,475###19,541###48###49###127,193###302,255###17.88###31.42

2010-11 *###1,611###1,389###255###26,634###20,103###12###33###212,864###249,410###18.13###32.05

* :###Provisional###

Source: FBS###and###Economic###Survey.

r : Revised###

. : Not###available###
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Publication:PIAR Report
Article Type:Statistical data
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Aug 15, 2011
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