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Report on GUAR GUM PROCESSING UNIT - Part I (IAR-203).

HIGHLIGHTS

* Gu a r is an im po rtan t cr op w h ich is extremely drought resistant and can be grown in semi arid regions.

* The bean is principally grown in India and Pakistan.

* It is termed as the best substitute for locust bean gums.

* Producing gum from guar beans gives such astonishing results that it is considered 'white gold'.

* Gum gives it unique thickening, binding and stabilizing properties.

* India produces about 80 percent of the total guar produced in the world and 70 percent is cultivated in Rajasthan.

* Its use lowers cholestrol and glucose levels and helps in prevention of obesity and weight loss.

Introduction

0Guar is an important leguminous crop which is extremely drought resistant and can be grown in semi arid regions. The guar bean has a large, guar gum endosperm that contains significant amounts of primary marketable product, guar gum. It has been used as cattle feed and green manure and can be eaten as a green bean. For hundreds of years Guar has been used as vegetable in India.

The guar gum, also called Guaran, is extracted from the seed of the leguminous shrub where it acts as a food and water store. The bean is principally grown in India and Pakistan, with smaller crops grown in the US,Australia, China, andAfrica. It is also grown in arid or semi-arid regions of Sindh and Punjab. It is termed as the best substitute for locust bean gums. Producing gum from its beans gives such astonishing results that it is considered 'white gold'.

It bears many beans, like pods, each of which contains six to nine small, rounded or oval shape seeds. The guar seed is typically made up of 40 to 46 germs, 38 to 45 percent endosperm and 14 to 16 percent husk. The gum is obtained from the grounded endosperm. The guar is oval shaped seed having a diameter of about 8mm.It is the raw material of guar gum that gives it unique thickening, binding and stabilizing properties.

The guar seeds are de-husked, milled and screened to obtain the gum. It is typically produced as a free flowing, pale, off white colored, coarse to fine ground powder.

Properties of Guar gum

Guar gum is soluble in hot and cold water but insoluble in most organic solvents and has strong hydrogen bonding properties. It has excellent thickening, Emulsion, Stabilizing and film forming properties. It is compatible with a variety of inorganic and organic substances including certain dyes and various constituents of food.

Guar is a photo sensitive crop and it flowers and matures when sown in the Kharif season. On maturity, the seed pods are brown and dry, and seed moisture content is less than 14 percent. During harvesting, small plants are either uprooted or cut from the stem and kept in the open for drying. Seeds are taken out of the beans, either mechanically or manually at the farm level, so that they do not shatter.

India produces about 80 percent of the total guar produced in the world and 70 percent is cultivated in Rajasthan. Pakistan, USA, South Africa, Malawi, Zaire and Sudan are other major producing countries. World market for guar gum has remained around 150,000 ton per annum. The USA is the largest consumer of guar gum with an annual consumption of 45,000 ton which is 25 percent of world trade. Over 75 percent of guar gum or their derivatives produced in India are exported mainly to the US and European countries.

Germany and Japan consume another 23 percent between them with the UK, Denmark and the Netherlands combining take further 22 percent of world trade.

0The consumption pattern of guar seeds is largely determined by the demand from the petroleum industry of the US and the oilfields in the Middle East. The US alone contributes to around 70,000 ton of guar and its derivatives demand. Also, in rest of the world, the trend of consumption has increased that has led to the introduction of this crop in many countries.

Production

The world's total production of guar seed is about 10 to 15 lac ton. In Pakistan, guar is grown in Punjab, mainly in Multan, Muzaffargarh, Layyah, Mianwali, Sargoda, Bahawalpur, Bahawalnagar and many cities of Sindh province. Global demand for guar seed has increased over the years with a steep rise in demand in the recent times on account of its increasing use in petroleum sector and other industries.

The world guar market is a mature one and increasing steadily 2percent per year. The area of growth is in Asia and South America as standards of living increase resulting in the increased consumption of processed food1. The world demand for guar gum is estimated to be 1.5 Lac ton per year.

Figure - 1& 2 shows the major world producersand consumers by Percent of their contribution.

USA is the major exporter of Guar to Canada, contributing nearly 50 to 60 percent of the total import of Canada.Although India is exporting a good amount of guar gum but India is facing threat from other competitors like Pakistan, Morocco and Spain. In the later half of the year demand of guar in Canada increased.

Prices

It was estimated that guar seed and guar gum prices to be strengthened due to low carry forward stocks, good export demand and seasonal demand for Guar Gum. Guar seed prices to be Rs2490-2600/ Quintal and Guar gum Rs5508-5680/Quintal in next 4 to 5 months. Export price for guar gum dropped to $7,000 from $27,000 per ton in May 2012.

US oil services companies, worried that a drought in India would hurt guar output, began to stockpile the gum, which they buy from Indian processors or through commodity trading companies like Connell Bros. Co., a division of Wilbur-Ellis Co.

Historical Background

Guar is a native to the Indian subcontinent. It is grown mainly in India, Pakistan, and United States and also in some parts of Africa and Australia.

Since ancient days, Guar was used as rich protein to feed cattle. However, later on it was also being used as green vegetable in India. After Second World War there was major shortage of locust bean gum which adversely affected the textile and paper industries. Therefore, Guar Gum was found the most suitable substitute for scarce locust bean gum. In 1953 the extraction technology of guar gum was commercialized in USA and India.

Guar Plant

The guar plant is an annual plant known as 'Cyamopsis Tetragonaloba'. The important source of nutrition to human and animals is the legume, it regenerates soil nitrogen and the endosperm of guar seed is an important hydrocolloid widely used across a broad spectrum of industries.

The plant grows well under a wide range of soil conditions. It thrives best in fertile, medium textured and sandy loam soils, with good structure and well drained subsoil. Under irrigated condition it should be sown from April to July but in rain fed regions sowing should be completed before monsoon.

The plant cannot stand water logging conditions, although it is considered to be tolerant to both soil salinity and alkalinity. The crop tolerates high temperatures and dry conditions and is adapted to arid and semi-arid climates. Ideally, guar requires two showers before sowing, one spell during budding and another one at the time of blossoming. Too much of precipitation can lead to vigorous vegetative growth, reducing the number of pods or the number of seeds per pod, affecting the size and yield of seeds.

The guar plant flourishes even in extreme drought and semiarid regions where most plants perish. It grows best in sandy soils. The ideal areas for farming are West, Northwest India and parts of Pakistan. The major processing centers of Guar Gum are in the North Western states in India.

Size

The plant grows from 2 feet to 9 feet high. The plant's flower buds start out white and change to a light pink as the flower opens. The flowers turn deep purple and are followed by fleshy seed pods which ripen and harvested in summer.

The seed pods grow in clusters giving guar the common name cluster bean. A gum extracted from the guar beans forms a gel in water, commonly referred to as guar gum.

Guar Harvesting Period

The growing period of guar is 14 to 16 weeks and requires reasonably warm weather and moderate flashing rainfall with plenty of sunshine. Too much rain can cause the plant to become more 'leafy' resulting reducing the number of pods or the number of seeds per pod which affects the size and yield of seeds.

The crop is generally sown after the monsoon rainfall in the second half of July to earlyAugust and is harvested in late October to early November. The crop requires 3 to 4 spells of rain during seed setting and maturing, which is during September first week and the end of September.

The Guar is a naturally rain fed crop. Depending on the monsoon rainfall the total size of Guar crop varies from year to year. After harvesting, when the pods become dry through sunlight, they are beaten off and during this process, the seeds come out of the pods.

Sowing: June; July; August

Harvesting: October; November

Varieties

0Main varieties are HydroxyAlkylated Guar gum, Carboxy Methylated Guar gum, Oxidised Guar gum, Acetates of Guar gum, Cationic derivatives of Guar gum, Sulphated Guar gum, Guar gum formate, Guar gum acryl amide, Borate cross linked Guar gum and Reticulated Guar gum.

Production and Trade

The guar bean is mainly grown in India, Pakistan and Australia, with smaller crops in the US, China, and Africa. In India, Rajasthan and Haryana are the main producing regions and Jodhpur in Rajasthan is a major Guar trading market.

India produces 10.0 to 12.5 lac ton of guar annually, making it the largest producer with about 80 percent of world production. In Pakistan, Punjab is the main production area for guar beans. The world market for guar gum and its derivatives is about 3.0 lac ton. Industrial guar gum accounts for about 45 percent of the total demand. It is used as a controlling agent in oil wells to facilitate easy drilling and prevent fluid loss.

Chemically, guar gum is a polysaccharide composed of the sugars galactose and mannose. The backbone is a linear chain of a 1,4-linked mannose residues to which galactose residues are 1,6-linked at every second mannose, forming short side branches.

In polar solvents, guar gum dissolves and swells on dispersal and form strong hydrogen bonding while in nonpolar solvents there is weak hydrogen bonding. With decreasing pH, increasing temperature and minimizing particle size the guar gum dissolution and viscosity development speed is usually enhanced. It is used as emulsifying agent, thickener and stabilizer in a variety of foodstuffs and contributes to total dietary fiber (TDF) of the seed as soluble dietary fiber (SDF). TDF made up 52 to 58 percent and SDF made up 26 to 32 percent of dry weight of seed. It is used as an additive in frozen food products due to its emulsifying and water binding properties to prevent ice crystals. It is also used to moisturize, stabilize, thicken and suspend numerous liquid solid systems.

Guar Gum powder increases the viscosity of the aqueuos base even at small concentration of approximately 1 percent. Guar based gels are Non- Newtonian, i.e. their viscosity changes with the change in temperature. It has a Galactose to Mannose ratio of 1:2.

Solubility rates of Guar Gum powder could be increased by choosing an appropriate manufacturing process, thus achieving the Quick/Fast Hydrating Guar grades. It is insoluble in organic solvents and soluble in water (hot and cold). Being non-Ionic Guar is not effected by pH, but it is sensitive to high acidic media.

The viscosity of guar in water depends on temperature, concentration, pH, shear rate. Guar shows shear thinning effect i.e. at high temperature it's solutions are less viscous but viscosity is regained when temperature is lowered.

Curative Features

Guar gum is diversified for its miraculous health curing properties:

Its use lowers cholesterol and glucose levels. It helps in prevention of obesity and weight loss. Due to slow gastric emptying by gel forming capability of guar gum an enhanced satiation is attained. Guar gum supplemented diets decrease the hunger, appetite and desire for eating.

Hypotriacyl glycerolemic effects are due to reduction in dietary lipids absorption and fatty acid synthase activity in liver. Guar gum together with xanthan gum delay staling in chapati and gluten free cakes by controlling retro gradation of starch.

Solubility and viscosity

Guar gum is more soluble than locust bean gum and is a better stabilizer, as it has more galactose branch points. Unlike locust bean gum, it is not self gelling. However, either borax or calcium can cross link guar gum, causing it to gel. In water, it is nonionic and hydrocolloidal. It is not affected by ionic strength or pH, but will degrade at pH extremes at temperature (e.g. pH 3 at 50 degC). It remains stable in solution over pH range 5-7.

0Strong acids cause hydrolysis and loss of viscosity, and alkalis in strong concentration also tend to reduce viscosity. It is insoluble in most hydrocarbon solvents.

The gum shows high low shear viscosity but is strongly shear thinning. It is very thyrotrophic above one percent concentration, but below 0.3 percent, the Thixotropy is slight. It has much greater low shear viscosity than that of locust bean gum, and also generally greater than that of other hydrocolloids. Guar gum shows viscosity synergy with xanthan gum.

Thickening

It is economical because it has almost eight times the water thickening potency of cornstarch only a very small quantity is needed for producing sufficient viscosity. Thus, it can be used in various multiphase formulations: as an emulsifier because it helps to prevent oil droplets from coalescing, and/or as a stabilizer because it helps to prevent solid particles from settling.

Ice crystal growth

Gu ar gum r etar ds i ce crys tal grow th nonspecifically by slowing mass transfer across the solid/liquid interface. It shows good stability during freeze thaw cycles.

Grading

Guar gum is analyzed for:

Test###Test Method###Test###Test method

Colour###TP/09###Acid-insoluble###TP/115

###residue###

Viscosity###TP/10/04###Fat content###TP/18

Granulation (mesh)###TP/21###Ash content###TP/12

Moisture, pH###TP/1and###Gum content###TP/03

###TP/29###

Protein###TP/05###Heavy metals###TP/13

Insolubles Ash###TP/11###Filterability###TP/20A

PAKISTAN

The production of guar in Pakistan has slightly declined. Churi and Korma are in a good demand for cattle feed in domestic as well as overseas markets as the prices of oil meal are quite high this year the overall guar export looks strong as decline in arrivals expected in the off season is likely to bring some premiums to the prices in the coming months.

There is an urgent need to make a plan to develop varieties with high production of guar gum. The production of guar and guar gum could be increased as it can be used in oil well drilling, ice cream, dairy products, soups and gravies, bakery products, noodles, pet food, textile, cosmetics pharmaceuticals, explosives and mining industries. It is a natural product so it can be used in food products without any fear.

There is possibility to grow two crops of guar in a year provided irrigation facilities are present. The world market for guar gum is estimated at somewhat 2 to 2.5 lac ton per year. Guar should be given special attention and should be treated as a cash crop.

Guar seed prices soar in Pakistan On March 20, 2012 active trading was witnessed on the Karachi wholesale commodity markets during the week as commercial and brokerage housed played on both side of the fence followed by reports of ready stock position.

The week saw fresh massive speculative increase in prices of guar seed, which was quoted higher by PKRs7,000 to 8,000 per 100 kg at Rs25,000 to 26,000, which was said the all time high record. Being an export oriented item, processors were worried over unprecedented rise in its price and sought official intervention to bring the price down to a rational level as exports were being hit, dealers said.

They said in the absence of upcountry buyers, both from Sindh and Punjab, the prices of essentials were sharply lower. Guar seed remained under speculative squeeze as some dealers covered positions at a record higher rate amid active trading.

Pakistan is the 2nd major guar seed producing country. Though its production and trade is comparatively very less than India but still it is one of the main competitors for India. If weather remains conducive for crop, Pakistan produces nearly 130,000 ton per annum.

The details of Guar seed production statistics with speculative to cultivated area, production and yield per hectare is given in table - 1.

Pakistan's Trade

The trade statistics from 2006 to 2009 with major trading partners is given in table-2.

Price

In the year 2011 guar prices were seen the highest increase with a gain of 54 percent on Guar seed and 105 percent increase on guar gum. The prices soared at lifetime high during May 2011, touched Rs3,351 and rose to Rs10,538 for guar seed and gum, respectively.

Industrial applications

In textile it is used for sizing, finishing and printing, paper industry uses it improving sheet formation, folding and denser surface for printing. Explosives industry uses it as waterproofing agent mixed with ammonium nitrate, nitroglycerin, etc. It is used in pharmaceutical industry binder or as disintegrator in tablets; main ingredient in some bulk forming laxatives.

Cosmetics and toiletries industries use this product as thickener in toothpastes, conditioner in shampoos, usually in a chemically modified version. Oil and gas drilling industryuse it hydraulic fracturing. In Hydroseeding it is used for formation of seed bearing "guar tack".

Table-1

Province Wise Area and Production of Guar

Year###Punjab###Sindh###KPK###Balochistan###Pakistan

###Area###Production###Area###Production###Area###Production###Area###Production###Area###Production

2005-06###109.1###81.7###16.5###12.9###2.0###2.5###3.2###1.9###130.8###99.0

2006-07###104.2###81.4###51.1###33.0###1.5###2.0###7.0###4.5###163.8###120.9

2007-08###94.4###74.7###60.3###40.0###1.6###2.1###6.9###3.8###163.2###120.6

2008-09###93.2###60.3###51.4###34.5###1.6###2.3###8.6###5.3###154.8###102.4

Note:Area = 000 hectares

Production = 000 ton

Source: Pakistan Statistical Year Book 2010

Table - 2

Exports to Major Trade Partners of Pakistan

Country###Unit###2006###2007###2008###2009

USA###Value (dollar)###5,242,922###7,903,949###9,971,856###5,763,341

###Quantity (kg)###4,569,059###6,356,942###7,920,311###5,468,832

Japan###Value (dollar)###3,089,558###3,609,632###4,480,447###2,870,068

###Quantity (kg)###2,393,100###2,807,500###3,458,000###2,560,100

Netherland###Value (dollar)###1,412,419###2,170,813###2,688,406###1,298,583

###Quantity (kg)###1,171,000###1,842,632###2,357,000###1,275,000

Denmark###Value (dollar)###857,244###1,172,201###1,275,546###758,791

###Quantity (kg)###684,000###905,281###1,081,000###736,000

Germany###Value (S)###374,239###648,418###1,737,457###724,543

Medical institutions, especially nursing homes use it to thicken liquids and foods for patients with dysphagia. Fire retardant industry thickens its Phos- Chek and Nano particles industry uses it to produce silver or gold nanoparticles, or develop innovative medicine delivery mechanisms for drugs in pharmaceutical industry.

Food applications

The largest market for guar gum is in the food industry. In the US, differing Percents are set for its allowable concentration in various food applications. In Europe, guar gum has EU food additive code E412. Xanthan gum and guar gum are the most frequently used gums in gluten free recipes and gluten free products.

In baked goods, it increases dough yield, gives greater resiliency, and improves texture and shelf life; in pastry fillings, it prevents "weeping" of the water in the filling, keeping the pastry crust crisp. It is mainly used in hypoallergenic recipes that use different types of whole grain flours. Because of the consistency of these flours allows the escape of gas released by leavening, guar gum is needed to improve the thickness of these flours, allowing them to rise as normal flour.

In dairy products, it thickens milk, yogurt, kefir, and liquid cheese products, and helps to maintain homogeneity and texture of ice creams and sherbets.

For meat, it functions as a binder. In condiments, it improves the stability and appearance of salad dressings, barbecue sauces, relishes, ketchups and others.

In canned soup, it is used as a thickener and stabilizer. It is also used in dry soups, instant oatmeal, sweet desserts and canned fish in sauce, frozen food items, and animal feed.

Nutritional and medicinal effects

Guar gum, as a water soluble fiber, acts as a bulk forming laxative, so is claimed to be effective in promoting regular bowel movements and relieving constipation and chronic related functional bowel ailments, such as diverticulosis, Crohn's disease, colitis and irritable bowel syndrome.

0Many studies have found significant decreases in human serum cholesterol levels following guar gum ingestion. The decreases are thought to be a function of its high soluble fiber content.

The gum has been considered of interest in regard to both weight loss and diabetic diets. It is a thermogenic substance. Moreover, its low digestibility lends its use in recipes as filler, which can help to provide satiety, or slow the digestion of a meal, thus lowering the glycemic index of that meal.

In the late 1980s, guar gum was used and heavily promoted in several weight-loss products.

The US Food and Drug Administration eventually recalled these properties due to reports of esophageal blockage from insufficient fluid intake, after one brand alone caused at least 10 users to be hospitalized and of them a death occurs. For this reason, guar gum is no longer approved for use in over-the-counter weight loss aids in the United States. Moreover, a Meta analysis combining the results of 11 randomized, controlled trials found guar gum supplements were not effective in reducing body weight.

Two Japanese studies, using rats, showed guar gum supports increased absorption of calcium occurring in the colon instead of in the small intestine. This means lesser amounts of calcium may be consumed to obtain its recommended minimum daily intake. This has obvious implications for reduced calorie diets, since some calcium-rich dairy products tend to be high in calories.

Guar gum is also capable of reducing the absorbability of dietary minerals other than calcium, when foods or nutritional supplements containing them are consumed concomitantly with it, but this is less of a concern with guar gum than with various insoluble dietary fibers.

Some studies have found guar gum to improve dietary glucose tolerance. Research has revealed the water soluble fiber in it that may help people with diabetes by slowing the absorption of sugars by the small intestine. Although the rate of absorption is reduced, the amount of sugar absorbed is the same overall. This may help diabetic patients by moderating glucose "spikes".

Allergies

Although some studies have found an allergic sensitivityto guar gum develop in a few rare individuals after working in an industrial environment involving much higher almost all reported allergic reactions are due to impurities in guar gum, especially soy protein, which can make up as much as 10 percent of the content of commercial guar products.

Dioxin contamination

In July 2007, the European Commission issued a health warning to its member states after high levels of dioxins were detected in a food additive, guar gum, used as thickener in small quantities in meat, dairy, dessert or delicatessen products.

Production of Guar in India

The annual production is related to rainfall. The production will be higher if the crop receives good rainfall and will result in decline in prices. From the year 2005 the availability of rainfall was steady which maintained the production of crop in a range bound. The price of gaur seed was also steady from the year 2005 till 2008.

In 2009-2010 the production was 3.5 lac ton due to unfavorable rainfall and the price hit all time high in the spot and futures market.

During that season (2009-2010) the farmers shifted to profitable crops as the availability of rain was only 392.1MM.

This year the overall fundamentals are favorable for guar seed productions and have received 688.2 MM rain. The output is estimated to increase in this fiscal year at around 10 lac bags against 3.5 lac bags in 2009-2010.

The major producing regions of this crop in India are: Rajasthan, Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab, Uttar P r ades h, M adhya P r ades h, Tamil Nad u, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.

Rajasthan is the largest guar producing state in the world as it dominates the Indian production scenario contributing to around 420,000 ton of this crop, i.e. over 70 percent of the total production in India. Haryana and Gujarat are the second and third regarding the production in India with 12 percent and 11 percent, respectively.

In Rajasthan, the main districts are Churu, Bikaner, Jaisalmer, Barmer, Nagaur, Hanuman Garh, Jodhpur, Ganganagar, Jaipur, Sirohi, Dausa, Jhunjhunu and Sikar. The districts in Haryana are Bhiwani, Gurgaon, Mahendragrh and Rewari and the districts in Gujarat are Kutch, Banaskantha, Mehsana, Sabarkantha, Vadodara and Ahmedabad.

India is the leading exporter of guar seeds and guar gum. The major importing countries of Indian guar products are EU, USA, China, UK, SouthAfrica and Japan. In 2005-06, the top importing countries were US with 75,000 ton, China with 27,000 ton, Germany with 17,700 ton, Italy with 4,500 ton and Netherlands with 4,500 ton. The country exported about 2,05,000 ton of guar gum during the year 2006-07 as compared to 1,86,000 ton in 2005-06. The exports are expected to climb slightly higher to 2,10,000 ton in 2007-08 as production in Pakistan was expected lower this year.

Major Exporters of Guar Gum

India, Pakistan, USA, Italy, Morocco, Spain, France, Greece, Germany is the major exporter of Guar Gum.

Major importers of Guar Gum

Canada, China, Chile,Australia, Austria, Brazil, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, USA, Ireland, Sweden, Greece, Portugal, Mexico are the major importers of Guar gum.

Before 90s, in Pakistan 80 percent of the guar was cultivated in irrigated conditions so there was a higher yield per hectare. At that time guar was produced in Punjab, Muzaffargarh, Multan, Sargodha and Mianwali. It is also cultivated in Bahawalnagar, Bahawalpur and Sind Province. Production of guar gum was between 180 and 250k million ton in Pakistan.

Structure and composition

The kernel of guar comprises of many layers, i.e. outer covering the husk which is 16 to 8 percent, the endosperm 34 to 40 percent and 43 to 46 percent germ. It is the endosperm that contains guar gum.

Guar belongs to the galactomannan family chemically. The composition of guar gum includes soluble fiber 75 percent moisture contents 9.55 percent, insoluble fibers 7.6 percent crude protein 2.16 percent ash 0.54 percent and fat 0.78 percent. In guar gum, total dietary fiber is present in soluble form (80-85%) that may aid to reduce the glucose and cholesterol levels.

Guar (derived from word guaran) is extracted from the seed of the Guar plant which is a leguminous shrub Cyamopsis tetragonoloba. Guar bean Gum is known for its water retention properties. It is an annual leguminous plant harvested at the end of year in semi- arid regions of India and Pakistan. Guar fruit is a pod; its beans have an average radius of approximately 2-3 mm. Guar seed comprise of hull, the albumen or endosperm, which is light cream in colour. Seed is made up of two hemispherical segments (splits) which surround the germ. Its major constituent is the polysaccharides and protein rich germ.

Gum of guar is an amazingly versatile and efficient high polymer hydrophilic hydrocolloid, economical in use and easy to handle. Its ability to form highly viscous colloidal dispersions at low concentrations, without heating, makes it one of the most interesting of the hydrocolloids. It is few of naturally available water soluble gums, chemically classified as a galactomannan and possessing a molecular weight reported to be of order 200,000-250,000.

It is non-toxic and non-ionic, could be used with other synthetic and natural hydrocolloids. It is one of the most powerful water binder and viscosity enhancer, superior to practically all known water soluble gums.

Chemical Structure:

Guar gum is a galactomannan similar to locust bean gum consisting of a (1-4)-linked b-D- mannopyranose backbone with branch points from their 6-positions linked to a-D-galactose (i.e. 1-6 linked-a-D-galactopyranose). There are between 1.5- 2 mannose residues for every galactose. Higher Degree of substitution(D.S.) and Molar Substitution of guar gum gives by carboxyalkyl and hydroxyalkyl groups respectively gives improved solubility, dispersion and emulsification, this is the main reason for popularity of its derivatives in various Industries.

Import Custom Duty: 25%

Guwar Gum imports from Pakistan Jan2012 to Dec 2012, totaled $313,975.

0Guar gum is prepared by removing the husk and germ portions before extracting the gum from the endosperm. Guar Gum is mainly used as natural thickener, emulsifier, stabilizer, bonding agent, hydrocolloid, gelling agent, soil stabilizer, natural fiber, flocculants and fracturing agent.

Grades of Guar Gum Powder

There are two types of Guar Gum Powder:

1) Food grade Guar Gum Powder

2) Industrial grade Guar Gum Powder

The grade of Guar Gum Powder depends upon active matter content, granulation, viscosity, pH and degree of substitution. The Physical Characteristics of Guar Gum Powder it is a white to yellowish white powder and is nearly odorless. Fine finished Guar Gum Powder is available in different viscosities and granulometries depending on the desired viscosity development and applications.

Table - 3

S.no###S.Code###Description of Goods###Cumulative assessed###Country

###value in US(dollar)

1###1302.3210###GUAR GUM###303,201.32###UNITED STATES

2###1302.3210###GUAR GUM###21,500.00###CHINA

3###1302.3210###GUAR GUM###20,080.00###SINGAPORE

4###1302.3210###GUAR GUM###17,600.00###INDIA

5###1302.3210###GUAR GUM###17,600.00###ITALY

6###1302.3210###GUAR GUM###14,051.25###FRANCE

7###1302.3210###GUAR GUM###40.61###UNITED ARAB EMIRATES

Global Trade of Guargum and India % Share of the guar seeds from guar pods of the plant bot anic allyknowna sCyamops is tetragonolobu as Leguminosae family

(b) be free from added starch, extraneous matter, added colouring matter, visible mould growth, insect infestation and obnoxious smell.

(c) pass through 300 micron sieve/as per specific sieve requirements of the buyers. Tolerance for Guar gum as natural gums is advantageous as natural gelling agent for different industrial purposes. Guar Gum and its derivatives are widely used in various industries such as food, animal feed, textile, pharmaceuticals, personal care, health care, nutrition, cosmetics, paper, explosives, mining and oil drilling. The commercial usages of guar gum are given in table-4

Global Trade of Guargum and India (Percent) Share

###India Trade###World Trade

year###Net Weight (Mt)###Value US(dollar) Mill###Net Weight (Mt)###Value US(dollar) Mill###India (Percent) Share

2009###153398.67###210.29###449926.98###1052.47###19.98

2008###92966.66###290.90###348114.96###1384.60###21

2007###145138.49###231.00###459396.54###1244.22###18.57

Table-5

India Export Statistics

###2007 - 2008###2008 - 2009###2009 - 2010

Country###Qty (MT)###Val US (dollar) Mill###Qty (MT)###Val US (dollar) Mill###Qty (MT)###Val US (dollar) Mill

UNITED STATEs###8177.56###119.66###97149.28###135.47###71922.86###98.83

Source: http://agmarknet.nic.in/guargumgmr.pdf

Export to USA

In order to obtain pure galactomanan, the endosperm is separated from the hull and germ. The relative composition of a guar seed comprises 14 to 17 percent hull, 43 to 47 percent germ and 34 to 36 percent endosperm. The production process is optimized to extract maximum levels of galactomanan from seeds of differing content by using a multi stage grinding and shifting process.

The project is related to setting up Guar Split Processing Unit. The document highlights all the marketing, management, and financial aspects required for the establishment and successful running of the project.

Guar Split Processing is obtaining semi finished product of guar split that is further sold to refinery to obtain guar powder of special grades. Apart from this the guar split can also be utilized for different commercial purposes. In addition, the by products obtained from the process are Churi and Korma that are used as feed for cattle and poultry.

Export to USA

In order to obtain pure galactomanan, the endosperm is separated from the hull and germ. The relative composition of a guar seed comprises 14 to 17 percent hull, 43 to 47 percent germ and 34 to 36 percent endosperm. The production process is optimized to extract maximum levels of galactomanan from seeds of differing content by using a multi stage grinding and shifting process.

The project is related to setting up Guar Split Processing Unit. The document highlights all the marketing, management, and financial aspects required for the establishment and successful running of the project.

Guar Split Processing is obtaining semi finished product of guar split that is further sold to refinery to obtain guar powder of special grades. Apart from this the guar split can also be utilized for different commercial purposes. In addition, the by products obtained from the process are Churi and Korma that are used as feed for cattle and poultry.

Agri Exchange - Product Profile - Guargum

Page 39 General Characteristics

The guar gum powder shall:

(a) be the produce obtained after multistage grinding

Source : http://agmarknet.nic.in/guargumgmr.pdf

Guar gum as natural gums is advantageous as natural gelling agent for different industrial purposes. Guar Gum and its derivatives are widely used in various industries such as food, animal feed, textile, pharmaceuticals, personal care, health care, nutrition, cosmetics, paper, explosives, mining and oil drilling. The commercial usages of guar gum are given in table-4.

Table - 6

Uses of Guargum

Technical Industry/description Applications

Textile Gives excellent film formatting and thickening properties when used for sizing, finishing and printing.

Reduces wrap breakage, reduce dusting while sizing and gives better efficiency in production.

Paper Improve sheet formation, folding and denser surface for the printing.

Improved erasive and writing pro pert ies, bet ter bond ing strength and increased hardness.

Dairy Thickens milk, yogurt, kefir and liquid cheese products.

Helps maintain homogeneity and tex ture of icecreams and sherbets.

Frozen Food Guargum reduces crystal formation.

Products Act as a binder and stabilizer to extend shelf life of ice cream.

Meat Function as lubricant and binder.

Dressing and

Sauces Improve the stability and appear ances of salad dressing,barbecue sauces, relishes. Ketchups and others

Pet Food Forms gels and retains moisture.

Act as thickening, stabilizer and suspending agent for veterinary preparations.

Misc. Dry soups, instant oatmeal, sweet desserts, canned fish in sauce and animal feed etc.

Others Industry/description Applications

Pharmaceutical As binder or as disintegrator in tablets.

Main ingredient in some bulk- forming laxatives.

Cosmetics and Thickener in toothpaste.

Toilertries Conditioner in shampoos

Guar gum is more soluble than locust bean gum and is a better emulsifier as it has more galactose branch points. Unlike locust bean gum, it is not self- gelling. However, either borax or calcium can cross- link guar gum, causing it to gel. In water it is nonionic and hydrocolloidal. It is not affected by ionic strength or pH, but will degrade at pH extremes at temperature (e.g. pH 3 at 50degC). It remains stable in solution over pH range 5 to 7. Strong acids cause hydrolysis and loss of viscosity, and alkalies in strong concentration also tend to reduce viscosity. It is insoluble in most hydrocarbon solvents.

Guar gum shows high low shear viscosity but is strongly shear thinning. It is very thixotropic above concentration 1 percent, but below 0.3 percent the thixotropy is slight. It has much greater low shear viscosity than that of locust bean gum, and also generally greater than that of other hydrocolloids.

Guar mealis a source of protein, and used for cattle as well as poultry feeding. To improve its nutritive value, the guar meal is toasted. It can be used up to 10% in poultry and can replace up to 100% protein supplements such as ground nut oil cakes and ruminants.

Guar meal typically comes in different forms: a guar meal Churi, which is in powder form used as poultry feed, and guar meal Korma in granular form used for cattle feed. Processed guar meal can be used either in conjunction with other feed stuffs, or by itself, as it is a complete nutritional feed.

It forms highly viscous colloidal dispersions when hydrated in cold water. The time required for complete hydration in water and to achieve maximum viscosities depends on various factors i.e. the ph; temperature; grade of powder used; Equipment etc.

Due to improve adhesion it gives better breaking, mullen and folding strengths.

Explosive As waterproofing agent mixed with ammoni umnitrate, nitroglycerin etc.

Cross linking agents for gel and slurry explosive systems.

Mining Used as flocculants to produce liquid solid separation.

It acts as a depressant for talc or insoluble gangue mined along with the valuable minerals.

Used in flotation.

Food Industry/description Applications

Baked Goods Increases dough yield, gives greater resiliency and improves texture and shelf life.

In pastry filling it prevents weeping (syneresis) of the water in filling keeping the pastry crust crisp.

Beverages Provide outstanding viscosity control and reduces calories in low calories beverages.

Confections Control viscosity, bloom, gel creation, glazing and moisture retention to produce the highest grade confectionary.

Table - 7

Guwar Gum Export to Pakistan (Jan 2012 to Dec 2012)

January to December 2012

Description of Good LAC;NATURAL GUMS, RESINS,GUM RESIN

HSCode 1302.3210

Cumulative Assessed Value 163,608,743.83 in US (dollar)

Country of Export ARGENTINA, AUSTRALIA, BELGIUM, BRAZIL, CANADA, CHILE,

CHINA, COSTA RICA, DENMARK, EL SALVADOR, GERMANY,

INDIA, ITALY, JAPAN, KOREA REPUBLIC OF, MALAYSIA, MEXICO,

NETHERLANDS, NORWAY, PAKISTAN, PERU, PHILIPPINES,

POLANO, QATAR, RUSSIAN FEDRATION, SAUDI ARABIA,

SINGAPORE, SOUTH AFRICA, SPAIN, SRI LANKA, SWAZILAND,

SWEDEN, TAIWAN/SEP CUSTOMS TERRITORY 0, THAILAND,

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES, UNITED KINGDOM, UNITED STATES,

VENEZUELA, BOLIVARIAN REPUBLIC

Detailed Report : Note Detail Report is order by cumulative Assessed value from higher to lower value

S.no S.Code Description of Goods Cumulative assessed Country

###value in US(dollar)

1###1302 - 3210###GUWAR GUM###42,867,260.39###UNITED STATES

2###1302 - 3210###GUAR GUM###36,403,400.03###CHINA

3###1302 - 3210###GUAR GUM###12,395,148.01###JAPAN

4###1302 - 3210###GUAR GUM###5,884,800.00###CHINA

5###1302 - 3210###GUAR GUM###5,710,100.01###DENMARK

6###1302 - 3210###GUAR GUM###5,654,725.00###GERMANY

7###1302 - 3210###GUAR GUM###5,537,550.11###UNITED STATES

8###1302 - 3210###GUAR GUM###5,375,502.02###ITALY

9###1302 - 3210###GUAR GUM###4,956,070.00###UNITED KINGDOM

10###1302 - 3210###GUAR GUM###4,094,600.01###NETHERLANDS

11###1302 - 3210###GUAR GUM###4,033,100.00###ITALY

12###1302 - 3210###GUAR GUM###3,592,200.00###CANADA

13###1302 - 3210###GUAR GUM###3,560,000.00###SPAIN

14###1302 - 3210###GUAR GUM###2,156,574.40###MALAYSIA

15###1302 - 3210###GUAR GUM###1,693,035.00###KOREA REPUBLIC OF

16###1302 - 3210###GUAR GUM###1,503,041.15###PHILIPPINES

17###1302 - 3210###GUAR GUM###1,421,070.00###SWEDEN

18###1302 - 3210###GUAR GUM###1,366,700.00###TAIWAN/SEP

###Customs Territory of

19###1302.3210###GUAR GUM###1,080,000.00###CANADA

Table - 8

Global Trade of Guargum and India (Percent) Share in Global Trade

###2007###2008###2009

Exporting Country###Qty(Mt)###Val us (dollar) Mill###Qty(Mt)###Val us (dollar) Mill###Qty(Mt)###Val us (dollar) Mill

###India###144929.54###229.77###92700.76###239.29###153124.66###208.37

###Spain###8292.16###85.89###6600.13###31.42###6826.68###60.47

###USA###16046.37###62.71###17434.06###66.30###11081.68###50.01

###Italy###6619.94###42.58###5141.70###39.02###4976.21###34.65

###Genneny###9038.52###25.40###11353.27###29.66###9761.36###24.62

###France###2622.80###24.67###2493.06###23.77###2697.46###23.40

###Pakistan###22937.28###31.32###18962.26###37.65###18512.89###22.17

###MOrOCCO###1284.55###18.36###983.23###15.37###1300.08###14.09

###Denmark###1555.09###17.45###1505.88###18.17###1222.40###13.73

###Other Country###16199.37###83.78###17145.81###91.59###15437.54###74.61

###Total###229526.31###621.92###174320.16###692.24###224940.95###526.13

Table - 9

Major Importing Countries of Guar

###2007###flOI###2009

Importing County###Qty(Mt)###Val us (dollar) Mill###Qty(Mt)###Val us (dollar) Mill###Qty(Mt)###Val us (dollar) Mill

USA###75510.89###157.03###0.00###200.63###71407.15###136.28

Germany###27539.10###69.30###30596.50###73.06###31984.55###70.80

Japan###7571.59###39.13###7421.46###39.59###6381.67###29.19

France###5257.30###27.10###9967.40###37.79###7589.40###28.79

Russian Federation###14889.89###27.05###19445.38###25.41###14235.02###26.65

China###11048.97###22.16###14398.8O###28.67###15798.80###25.68

Denmark###5775.97###36.24###5266.75###34.87###4587.10###24.63

Italy###9897.02###29.14###9081.84###25.90###11210.48###18.35

Canada###7692.87###22.88###9420.18###26.67###5631.73###17.80

Others###64686.64###192.27###68896.48###199.78###56160.15###148.18

Total###229870.23###622.30###174494.80###692.37###224986.03###526.35

Table - 10

India Export Statistics

###2007 - 2008###2008 - 2009###2009 - 2010

Country###Qty(Mt)###Val us (dollar) Mill###Qty(Mt)###Val us (dollar) Mill###Qty(Mt)###Val us (dollar) Mill

UNITED STATES###81774.56###119.66###97149.28###135.47###71922.86###98.83

CHINA P RP###34298.99###39.07###39225.76###38.5###25261.49###25.74

GERMANY###17899.67###24.05###22509.03###26.69###20598.92###21.97

RUSSIA###3805.09###4.9###6692.98###9.08###6100.98###8.26

ITALY###4896.89###6.56###5904.97###5.92###6754.81###5.87

NETHERLAND###4439.48###6.64###3862.24###4.47###3361.7###5.07

FRANCE###1037.45###1.48###1492.07###2.18###2872.91###4.69

AUSTRALIA###3858.67###4.81###6534.38###7.18###4039.48###4.5

TURKEY###1089.5###1.56###1480.91###1.08###10701.58###4.46

Others###58062.28###69.52###73711.65###60.57###66843.81###50.68

Total###211162.58###278.25###258563.27###291.14###218458.54###239.07

Table - 10 (a)

India Export Statistics

###2009-2010

Country###Qty(MT)###Val in us (dollar) Mill

MALAYSIA###8203.59###2.59

VIETNAM SOC REP###8060.92###2.53

INDONESIA###2140.97###2.23

THAILAND###2279.85###1.78

PHILIPPINES###4392.56###1.77

SINGAPORE###203.91###0.24

BRUNEI###40###0.05

Total###25321.2###11.19

Table - 10 (b)

India Export Statistics

###2009 - 2010

Country###Qty(MT)###Val in us (dollar) Mill

GERMANY###20598.92###21.97

ITALY###6754.81###5.87

NETHERLAND###3361.69###5.07

FRANCE###2872.91###4.69

U.K###3402.55###3.71

BELGIUM###1691###2.73

DENMARK###1721.81###1.99

SPAIN###1242.53###1.37

POLAND###946.81###0.96

OTHERS###1002.2###0.87

Total###43595.23###49.23

Table - 10 (c)

India Export Statistics

Country###Qty###Value

IRAN###4382.17###2.95

EGYPT A RP###921.32###1.4

SAUDI ARAB###587.09###0.95

SYRIA###384.99###0.42

ISRAEL###418.43###0.41

JORDAN###407.55###0.37

U ARAB EMTS###322.84###0.36

IRAQ###220###0.26

QATAR###147.53###0.16

OThERS###543.22###0.44

Total###8335.14###7.72
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Publication:PIAR Report
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Date:Mar 15, 2013
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