Replacing the fleet.
We tell this story to illustrate the time and effort involved in acquiring (or modernizing) research facilities, like research vessels, with long lead times. Ships generally have a useful lifetime of 20 years without a major upgrade. A midlife refit, including refurbishing all major systems, will usually extend that lifetime by about 10 to 15 years.
In the early 1980s, the academic fleet was facing a crisis. All of its large research ships either needed immediate replacement or soon would (see top figure opposite). This fleet of large ships, built by the Navy as part of its long-standing policy of outfitting US oceanographers with quality research vessels, represented a huge investment. Its modernization would require considerable effort, commitment, and money.
The endeavor kicked off in grand fashion when in July 1984 Secretary of the Navy John Lehman and Chief of Naval Operations Admiral James Watkins announced their "Navy Policy on Oceanography." It stated, in part, "Oceanographic research ship will be procured. Navy will include $35M in the ...87 budget for the procurement of a Navy-owned oceanographic research ship to be utilized by the civilian academic oceanographic research community with a target IOC (Initial Operational Capability) of 1991... The Oceanographer of the Navy and the Chief of Naval Research will jointly develop an oceanographic research ship construction program to be submitted to the Chief of Naval Operations in time for (fiscal year 1987 budget submission). The objective of the program is to insure appropriate deep ocean research platforms are available to meet Navy operational and research requirements." In the following months, this initiative was fleshed out and developed by the Oceanographer of the Navy, the Office of Naval Research (ONR), and the Naval Sea Systems Command, with significant input from the oceanographic community through UNOLS (University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System), an association of ocean science institutions that operate and use the US academic research fleet.
Elements of the UNOLS Fleet Modernization Plan included:
* Retiring four older AGORs, Conrad, Thompson, Washington, and Gyre (AGOg is Navyspeak for Auxiliary General-purpose Oceanographic Research--see figure on page 13 for list of AGORs),
* acquiring new vessels (AGORs 23, 24, and 25),
* initiating major conversions for Knorr and Melville (later this was extended, with National Science Foundation (NSF) funding, to include the intermediate-sized vessels Oceanus, Endeavor, Wecoma, and New Horizon), and
* a major overhaul for Moana Wave.
Time lines for most of this effort are shown above.
The Knorr/Melville conversions were prompted by poor reliability of the ships due to propulsion plant design. Both were experiencing ten months mean time between drydockings. In addition, they were too noisy for acoustic operations, an essential element of oceanographic research, and too small and lacked the seakeeping qualities to accommodate large science parties for long periods to carry out the global scale programs then being contemplated, especially the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS).
The scope of the Knorr/Melville conversion effort was defined by representatives of the operating institutions (WHOI and SIO) and ONR with inputs from NSF, UNOLS, and the user community. This group recommended that the ships be:
* reengined (converted from direct-drive cycloidal to quieter, more reliable diesel electric engines with azimuthing Z-drives),
* repiped, and
* rewired. (Note: It is no secret that this project had a few bad moments and took longer and cost more than was planned--but it is not the purpose of this article to delve into those issues!)
The figure opposite above compares the pre- and post-conversion characteristics of the two vessels.
After their conversions (and a great deal of TLC from the operating institutions and their dedicated crews), these virtually new ships have performed magnificently. The proof of this assertion is in their post-conversion performance: Both ships have since spanned the globe reliably and served science capably. The objectives of the conversions have been tested and exceeded. Both vessels have carried large science parties on long cruises in waters that would have exceeded their preconversion capacities (see cruise track chart, below, and Labrador Sea article on page 18).
The Navy plan that grew out of the Lehman/Watkins initiative called for building three new ships and eventual replacement of all five existing AGORs. (This plan has gone through several modifications since its adoption--notably Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, operator of Conrad (AGOR-2), opted to acquire, with NSF support, a used vessel that was renamed Maurice Ewing for a noted geophysicist and Lamont Director. Gyre was transferred to the state of Texas and remains in service. The fate of Moana Wave is pending, but it will probably be replaced by another AGOR currently in the design stages.
The Lehman/Watkins oceanography initiative had enthusiastic community support. The UNOLS Fleet Improvement Committee (FIC), with major inputs from potential users, wrote a series of scientific mission requirement statements that were used by Navy officials to compose documents that led to awarding of a contract to Halter Marine Inc. of Moss Point, Pascagoula, Mississippi, for construction of the lead ship in the new AGOR-23 class. Through competitive bidding, ONR selected the University of Washington as the operator of the new ship. It would replace and bear the same name as AGOR-9, Thomas G. Thompson. The contract was let in June 1988 and the ship was completed and put into service on 8 July 1991.
In FY '91 and FY'92, Congress appropriated funds for AGORs 24 and 25 respectively to complete the class. Again ONR solicited bids for operator institutions. The Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, was awarded operation of AGOR-24 to replace Thomas Washington. The new ship was named Roger Revelle after Roger Randall Dougan Revelle, a distinguished Scripps graduate (Ph.D., 1936) and former director (1951-1964), who died in 1991 at age 82.
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution also submitted a bid for one of the AGORs. Our proposal involved taking Atlantis II out of service, selling it, and converting Knorr to be the support ship for Alvin. Eventually this plan was modified at the Navy's behest to make the new Atlantis the National Deep Submergence Support Ship instead of Knorr. There followed some remarkable cooperation and rapid action between federal agencies (especially ONR and NSF), the Naval Sea Systems Command, the shipbuilder, and WHOI to change the ship's mission statement and the associated SOB (the governing document for building Atlantis) to develop a ship change proposal and negotiate a price. All this was accomplished without delaying completion of the ship. In fact, Atlantis was completed ahead of schedule. In my experience, this sort of major change late in the construction of a ship with the customer (WHOI) providing equipment (the Alvin A-frame) as well as technical and design advice and guidance is unprecedented. It is a tribute to all involved that this effort turned out so well.
During the construction of the large ships, WHOI Marine Operations Manager Joe Coburn and the other operators initiated a plan for major midlife refits of the Oceanus class ships: Oceanus (WHOI), Endeavor (University of Rhode Island), and Wecoma (Oregon State University), built in the mid 1970s. This effort was vetted by the UNOLS Fleet Improvement Committee and supported, at a fixed cost of $3 million each by NSF, owner of these ships. The figure opposite below shows the work involved for Oceanus.
WHOI and URI cooperated in developing detailed design and contract specifications. NSF and the operators agreed to space these midlife overhauls over three years. They were completed in 1993 (Endeavor) and 1994 (Oceanus and Wecoma). The work packages were tailored to the individual ships (each ship of the class had differences) and to the ships' perceived clientele. WHOI emphasized open deck area to support mooring work and physical oceanographers. The work on Endeavor was similar to that on Oceanus, except that Endeavor's after-deck was also extended. Wecoma's refit was limited to work below the 01 deck.
In 1996, the Scripps ship New Horizon was overhauled, completing the UNOLS intermediate-class modernization.
There is a very important lesson here. This process took 13 years to complete from the time it was endorsed by Navy leaders, who were responding to oceanographic community suggestions. Even with full support and high priority in Washington from both the Federal agencies and Congress, replacement of ships is a decadal process. Given a nominal ship service life of about 30 years, planning for ship replacement must begin before the ships to be replaced are 20 years old.
SHIP Operator Built Age in 1983 Conrad Lamont-Doherty Geological 1962 21 years Observatory Thompson University of Washington 1965 18 years Washington Scripps Institution of 1965 18 years Oceanography Melville Scripps Institution of 1969 14 years Oceanography Knorr Woods Hole Oceanographic 1970 13 years Institution Gyre Texas A & M 1973 10 years Moana Wave University of Hawaii 1973 10 years
RELATED ARTICLE: U.S. Navy AGORs(*)
(AGOR: Auxillary General-purpose Oceanographic Research vessels)
NO. NAME LENGTH LIFE SPAN 1 Gibbs 311' 1944-82 2 Manning (ex T-514) 65' 1953-70s 3 Conrad 208' 1962-89 4 Gilliss 208' 1963-84 5 Davis 208' 1963-80 6 Sands 208' 1964-79 7 Lynch 208' 1964-79 8 Eltanin 266' 1965-91 9 Thomas G. Thompson 208' 1957-72 10 Thomas Washington 208' 1965-92 11 Mizar 266' 1957-90s 12 DeSteiguer 208' 1969-92 13 Bartlett 208' 1969-93 14 Melville 279' 1969-2014 15 Knorr 279' 1970-2015 16 Hayes 246' 1971-pres 17 Chain 213' 1944-79 18 Argo 213' 1944-70 19 } AGORs 19 and 20 were 20 } cancelled and not built. 21 Gyre 182' 1973-2003 22 Moana Wave 210' 1973-2004 23 Thomas G. Thomson 274' 1991-2021 24 Roger Revelle 274' 1996-2026 25 Atlantis 274' 1997-2027 NO. NAME OPERATING INSTITUTION 1 Gibbs Seaplane tender San Carlos 1944-58, Hudson Labs of Columbia University 1958-68, Naval Research Labs 1968-82 2 Manning (ex T-514) Army T-514 cargo boat 1953-55, Hudson Labs and Crumb School of Mines, Columbia University 19570s 3 Conrad Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia University 4 Gilliss Military Sealift Command for West Coast Navy labs 5 Davis Military Sealift Command for West Coast Navy Labs 6 Sands Military Sealift Command for East Coast Navy Labs 7 Lynch Military Sealift Command (MSC) for East Coast Navy labs 8 Eltanin Navy cargo ship 1957-62, NSF Antartic research 1962-72 9 Thomas G. Thompson University of Washington 10 Thomas Washington Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC-San Diego 11 Mizar Navy cargo ship 1957-64, MSC for various commands 1964-90s 12 Desteiguer Military Sealift Command for West Coast Navy labs 13 Bartlett Military Sealift Command for West Coast Navy labs 14 Melville Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC-San Diego 15 Knorr Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 16 Hayes Military Sealift Command for Naval Research Laboratory 17 Chain Woods Holes Oceanographic Institution (1958-79) 18 Argo Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC-San Diego (1959-70) 19 } AGORs 19 and 20 were 20 } cancelled and not built. 21 Gyre Texas A&M University 22 Moana Wave University of Hawaii 23 Thomas G. Thomson University of Washington 24 Roger Revelle Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC-San Diego 25 Atlantis Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
(*) Sources include: Office of Naval Research, Navy Contemporary History Branch, Oceanographic Ships Fore and Aft by Stewart B. Nelson (1971), The Ships and Aircraft of the US Fleet by Norman Polmar (1981), Jane's Fighting Ships 1988-89.
RELATED ARTICLE: R/V Knorr Characteristics Before and After Refit
Former New Change Length Overall (feet) 245 279 +34 Beam (feet) 46 46 - Draft (feet) 16 15.5 -.5 Full Load Displacement (tons) 2,415 2,670 +255 Propulsion Horsepower 2,800 3,000 +200 Cruising Speed (knots) 10 12 +2 Maximum Speed (knots) 12 14 +2 Fuel Capacity (gals) 12,2000 155,000 +33,000 Cruising Range (miles) 10,000 12,000 +2,000 Crew 25 23 -2 Scientists 24 34 +10 Lab Space (sq. ft.) 1,540 3,130 +1,590 Science Storage (sq. ft.) 1,020 1,776 +756 Main Deck Working Area (sq. ft.) 3,424 3,764 +340
RELATED ARTICLE: On the Naming of US Navy Ships
Generally, the Secretary of the Navy authorizes the naming of a Navy ship based on recommendations from the Naval Historian and a board convened to review naval vessel names. Individuals involved with Navy oceanography, meteorology, mathematics, and astronomy have usually been favored in the naming of ships. In the cases if the three newest AGORs, this tradition was expanded to include the traditions and sentiments of the operating institutions: Thomas G. Thompson founded oceanography at the University of Washington, Roger Revelle was long-time director of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution has had a ship named Atlantis since its founding in 1930. Because Navy tradition does not include the numbering of ships, the WHOI vessel is called simply Atlantis rather than Atlantis III.
In honor of 1998 at the United Nations-designated Year of the Ocean and to encourage young people's interest in ships, oceanography, maritime studies, and use of the Internet, Oceanographer of the Navy Rear Admiral Paul Tobin initiated a different ship naming procedure for the Navy's newest T-AGS 60 class oceanographic survey ship. Teams of elementary and secondary school students are encouraged to submit names for the ship, scheduled for launch in late 1998, along with educational projects to support and justify their proposed name. Projects were to begin in September 1997 and be submitted to a state Navy League office by December 31, 1997.
Further information on the contest is available on the World Wide Web at the following address:
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|Title Annotation:||includes related article on naming of US Navy ships; University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System fleet modernization program|
|Author:||Pittenger, Richard F.|
|Date:||Mar 22, 1997|
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