Replacing dietary corn with bakery by-products supplemented with enzyme and evaluating performance of laying hens.
Improvements in the efficiency of poultry production must rely on obtaining maximum nutrient utilization from feedstuffs, which would also enable the use of a wide range of ingredients currently considered inferior. Corn has been used consistently as a major ingredient for poultry rations because of its high energy content and low cost. However, its price is increasing because of the limited world yield in covering the demands for both humans and livestock. In addition, as corn markets tighten and corn supplies go to nonagricultural uses such as ethanol production, there appears to be a need for alternative grain sources for pullet and layer rations. So, it is important to search for other alternative cheap energy sources which can solve this problem. Minimizing the feed cost could be achieved through the use of untraditional cheaper feed ingredients or improving utilization of common feeds by using some feed additives (i.g., enzymes). Attention, therefore, should be drawn towards the use of some local by-products. In the last few years, bakery byproduct (BB) had been used as an alternative energy source to substitute corn in poultry diets. The BB could replace corn for its relatively lower cost in poultry feeding. Some of these by-products thrown in the garbage fermented and cause an environmental pollution. Several investigators analyzed BB and found that it contains suitable amounts of nutrients. Slominski et al.  reported 119 g kg-1 protein (as-fed basis), 378 g kg-1 starch, 84 g kg-1 sugars, 81 g kg-1 fat, 87 g kg-1 NSP and 14.34 MJ kg-1 TMEn for BB in Canada. Damron et al.  provided evidence that BB can be included in broiler diets without adversely affecting their performance. Patrick and Schaible  reported that BB might be used to replace part of the grain fed to poultry as energy source. Waldroup et al.  reported that the fat content of the BB samples varies from 5.3 to 14.4%. Dale and Duke,  reported that BB nutritive value varies widely. Radwan,  found that incorporating of 25 % BB into Baladi chick diets at levels 10, 20, 30 or 40 % had no detrimental effect on body weight or dressing %, while, FI was increased, FCR was impaired. On the other hand, inclusion of BB into Baladi chick diets resulted in a higher economical efficiency as compared to the control diet.
Poultry diet is predominantly composed of plant ingredients, mainly cereals and vegetable proteins plus a little amount of animal proteins. Most of feed ingredients contain non-digested parts (cellulose, xylose, arabinose, galactonic acid) which inhibit feed utilization and birds performance . At high dietary concentrations, the feeding value of cereals, particularly those with low apparent metabolizable energy (AME), are reduced and result in a poor bird performance . It is demonstrated that, based on the historical evidence, a laying hen diet composed of 60-65% soybean meal and 20-25% corn contains an amount of galactomannan expected to deteriorate hen performance by about 7.5 points in adjusted feed conversion. Legume seed (including soybean) are known to contain galactomannans. Mannose and galactose are also present as significant proportions of the non-starch polysaccharides of many commonly used feedstuffs such as wheat, maize, sorghum, barley, oats and rye and canola meal . This type of composition data does not establish the exact content of galactomannan since other types of polymers could contain mannose and galactose. It does indicate the upper limit of galactomannan content. Soybean meal, one of the most widely used feed components has the largest mannose and galactose percentages of the feed components. The galactomannan from soybeans has been purified and soybean hulls have a high content of galactomannan .
Hemicell[R] is a patented enzyme-based feed ingredient with primary enzymatic activity, endo-[beta]-D-mannanase which degrades galactomannan polymers. It has been believed the effectiveness of Hemicell[R] in improving the feed/grain performance of poultry and swine feeds is primarily due to the degradation of galactomannans that are present in currently used feed formulations by the endo-[beta]-D-mannanase enzyme activity present in Hemicell[R].
Recent studies on the inclusion of BB in the laying hen diets are rare, so the objectives of this study were to further evaluate the nutritional worth of BB in laying hen diets and to determine the effectiveness of an exogenous dietary enzyme.
Materials and methods
All procedures used in this six-week experiment were approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of Razi University and complied with the "Guidelines for the Care and Use of Animals in Research". A total number of one hundred and eighty 87-week-old Hy-Line Leghorn hens, with an average laying rate of 56.7 [+ or -] 3.8% (late production phase) and 1470 [+ or -] 14 g live body weight, were obtained from a commercial supplier. After a week of adaptation, the hens were randomly allocated to one of six experimental diets. Six iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous diets were formulated (ME=2900 kcal/kg and crude protein= 15.20 g/100 g diet) based on catalogue of Hy-line (table 1). The experiment was conducted as a 3x2 factorial arrangement of treatments including three replacement levels (0, 50, and 100%) of corn with dried bakery byproduct replacement) and enzyme supplementation (0 and 0.06 g/100 g diet of Hemicell[R], a commercial [beta]-mannanase-based cocktail enzyme product). Each of 6 experimental diet fed hens in 5 replicates with 6 birds per each replicate (cage). The hens were housed in laying cages made from galvanized metal wire which provided approximately 430 cm2/hen. The cages were located in a windowless and environmentally controlled room with the room temperature kept at 21-23[degrees]C and the photoperiod set at 16 h of light (incandescent lighting, 10 lux) and 8 h dark. Each cage had a nipple waterer. Water and feed was available ad libitum throughout the experiment. Feed consumption was measured on a weekly basis. The hens' performance including hen-day egg production% (EP), egg weight (EW) and feed intake (FI) was measured for 4 weeks and egg mass (EM, g/hen/day) as well as feed conversion ratio (FCR, g feed: g egg) was calculated. The data was analyzed based on completely randomized design using GLM procedure of SAS. All statements of significance are based a probability of less than 0.05. The mean values were compared by Duncan's Multiple Range Test.
Results and discussion
Effects of replacing dietary corn with BB on EP (%), EM (g/hen/day) and EW (g) of laying hens in this study are presented in tables 2 to 4, respectively. Replacing dietary corn with BB had no significant effect on egg production (%), except in week 2. Egg production in group of 100% corn-replacement in week 2 was lower than the other dietary groups. However, the overall EP for weeks 1-4 was not significantly affected by replacing dietary corn with BB. In addition, EM and FCR were not significantly affected by dietary treatment. Egg weight was affected by dietary corn-replacement in weeks 1 and 2; however, no significant difference was found in weeks 3 and 4. Egg quality characteristics were not affected by dietary treatment (tables 5 and 6). Enzyme supplementation had no significant effect on performance of hens and egg quality traits. We could not find any record in literature investigating effects of dietary inclusion of BB on laying hens' performance. However, it has been reported that BB could be successfully used in broilers diets. El-Yamny, et al.  reported that incorporating 25% BB in Japanese quail diet as untraditional ingredients enhanced body weight, body gain, FI and FCR at the market age compared with other dietary treatments. Abdullatif et al.  who fed 5 levels of BB (0 , 5, 10, 20 and 30%) to broiler chicks showed that inclusion of up to 30% BB in the broiler diets had no harm effect on the performance of the birds. Boros et al.  reported that the use of BB in concert with an effective enzyme supplement in broiler chicken diets would allow for optimum growth performance. Effective use of BB in poultry diets can be expanded by supplementation with exogenous enzymes to enhance nutrient digestibilities and reduce variability due to negative processing effects.
From the results of this experiment it can be concluded that dietary corn can be totally replaced with bakery by-products with no adverse effect on performance and egg quality. In addition, [beta]-mannanase has no beneficial effect on performance of hens fed on corn- or bakery by-product-based diets.
[1.] Abdullatif, A., Al-Tulaihan1, Huthail Najib and Salah M. Al-Eid, 2004. The Nutritional Evaluation of Locally Produced Dried Bakery Waste (DBW) in the Broiler Diets. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition., 3(5): 294-299.
[2.] Alam, M.J., M.A.R. Howlider, M.A.H. Pramanik and M.A. Haque, 2003. Effect of exogenous enzyme in diets on broiler performance. Inter. J. of Poult. Sci., 2: 168-173.
[3.] Boros, D., B.A. Slominski, W. Guenter, L.D. Campbell and O. Jones, 2004. Wheat byproducts in poultry nutrition. Part II. Nutritive value of wheat screenings, bakery by-products and wheat mill run and their improved utilization by enzyme supplementation. Can. J. Anim. Sci., 84: 429-435.
[4.] Chesson, A., 1987. Supplementary enzymes to improve the utilization of pig and poultry diets. In Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition -1987, Haresign, W. and D.J.A. Cole (eds), pp71-89, Butterworths, Boston, MA.
[5.] Choct, M., R.J. Hughes, J. Wang, M.R. Bedford, A.J. Morgan and G. Annison, 1996. Increased small intestinal fermentation is partly responsible for the anti-nutritive activity of non-starch polysaccharides in chickens. Br. Poult. Sci., 37: 609-621.
[6.] Dale, N. and S. Duke, 1987. True metabolizable energy content of dried bakery product as affected by proximate composition. Poult. Sci., 66:(87) Abstr.
[7.] Damron, B.L., P.W. Waldroup and. R.H. Harms, 1965. Evaluation of dried bakery products for use in broiler diets. Poult. Sci., 63: 1122-1126.
[8.] El-Yamny, A.T., Abd S.A. El-Latif and El-A.A. Ghamry, 2003. Effect of using some untraditional energy sources in growing Japanese quail diet on performance, digestibility, metabolic changes and economic efficiency. Egypt. Poult. Sci., 23: 787-806.
[9.] Patrick, H. and P. Shaible, 1980. Poultry: Feeds & Nutrition. 2nd ed., AVI Publishing Company, INC, Westport, Connecticut, USA.
[10.] Radwan, M.S.M., 1995. Effect of replacing corn by bakery by product diets for growing Baladi chicks. Egypt. Poult. Sci., 15: 415-478.
[11.] Ragab, M.S., M.M. Namra and A.M.R. Osman, 2006. Effect of replacing yellow corn by bakery by-product by broiler performance . Egypt. Poult. Sci., 26(11): 513-534.
[12.] Slominski, B.A. and L.D. Campbell, 1990. Nonstarch polysaccharaides of canola meal: quantification, digestibility in poultry and potential benefit of dietary enzyme supplementation. J. Sci. Food Agric., 53: 175184.
[13.] Slominski, B.A., D. Boros, L.D. Campbell, W. Guenter and O. Jones, 2004. Wheat by-products in poultry nutrition. Part I. Chemical and nutritive composition of wheat screenings, bakery by-products and wheat mill run. Can. J. Anim. Sci., 84: 421-428.
[14.] Waldroup, P.W., D.L. Whelchel and Z.B. Johnson, 1982. Variation in nutrient content of samples of dried bakery product. Anim. Feed Sci. Tec., 419-421.
[15.] Whistler, R.L. and J. Saarnio, 1957. Galactomannan from soybean hulls. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 79: 6055-6057.
M. Torki and V. Kimiaee Animal Science Department, Agriculture Faculty, Razi University, Imam Avenue, Kermanshah, Iran, Pos Cod: 67155-1158,
M. Torki, Animal Science Department, Agriculture Faculty, Razi University, Imam Avenue, Kermanshah, Iran, Pos Cod: 67155-1158, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Table 1: Composition and ingredients of the experimental diets Level of corn replacement with bakery byproduct (%) 0 50 100 Corn 62.22 29.80 -- Bakery byproduct -- 29.70 56.99 Soybean meal 21.49 19.38 17.40 Wheat bran 0.20 5.00 9.50 Vegetable oil 4.02 4.02 4.02 Limestone 4.72 4.56 4.42 Dicalcium phosphate 1.05 1.17 1.28 Oyster shell 5.00 5.00 5.00 Common salt 0.35 0.35 0.35 Vit. & Min. premix (1) 0.50 0.50 0.50 Lys-HCl 0.22 0.24 0.26 DL-Met 0.28 0.29 0.30 Hemicell (2) -- -- -- Calculated analysis ME (Kcal/ kg) 2900 2900 2900 Crude protein (%) 15.20 15.20 15.20 Ether extract 6.16 8.53 10.71 Crude fiber 2.89 2.92 2.95 Calcium 4.00 4.00 4.00 Available phosphate 0.31 0.31 0.31 Linoleic acid 3.75 3.28 2.84 Arg 0.91 0.91 0.91 Lys 0.90 0.90 0.90 Met 0.51 0.51 0.511 The vitamin and mineral premix provide the following quantities per kilogram of diet: vitamin A, 10,000 IU (all-trans-retinal); cholecalciferol, 2,000 IU; vitamin E, 20 IU ([alpha]-tocopheryl); vitamin K3, 3.0 mg; riboflavin, 18.0 mg; niacin, 50 mg; D-calcium pantothenic acid, 24 mg; choline chloride, 450 mg; vitamin B12, 0.02 mg; folic acid, 3.0 mg; manganese, 110 mg; zinc, 100 mg; iron, 60 mg; copper, 10 mg; iodine, 100 mg; selenium, 0.2 mg; and antioxidant, 250 mg; (2) Hemicell: A commercial cocktail enzyme with main activity of [beta]-mannanase Table 2: Effects of dietary replacement of corn with bakery byproduct on hen-day egg production (%) during4-week experimental period Treatments Hen-day egg production (%) Weeks 1 2 3 4 1-4 Corn replacement 0 % replacement 56.54 65.27a 57.93 56.15 55.35 50 % replacement 60.11 63.09a 54.56 51.38 57.34 100 % replacement 58.13 52.97b 56.54 53.76 58.92 Enzyme (E) No enzyme 58.46 60.05 55.15 54.49 56.91 Hemicell 58.06 60.84 57.53 53.04 57.50 SEM 1.663 1.662 1.161 1.155 0.982 CV 16.82 16.49 12.37 12.89 10.29 P values Bakery (B) 0.61 0.00 0.47 0.25 0.36 Enzyme (E) 0.89 0.69 0.29 0.52 0.77 B x E 0.06 0.06 0.08 0.31 0.71 a-b Means within a column (within main effects) with no common superscript differ significantly (p <0.05). SEM = Standard error of means. Table 3: Effects of dietary replacement of corn with bakery byproduct on egg mass (g-hen-day) during 4-week experimental period Treatments Egg mass (g/hen/day) Week 1 2 3 4 1-4 Corn replacement 0 % replacement 38.90 39.88 37.31 35.28 37.84 50 % replacement 40.09 42.05 38.73 36.36 39.31 100 % replacement 41.11 42.67 39.81 38.44 40.51 Enzyme (E) No enzyme 40.04 42.97 37.20 36.07 39.07 Hemicell 40.03 40.09 40.02 37.32 39.36 SEM 1.087 1.205 0.833 0.853 0.709 CV 16.28 17.40 12.95 13.95 10.83 P values Bakery (B) 0.99 0.63 0.48 0.33 0.33 Enzyme (E) 0.73 0.25 0.10 0.47 0.84 B x E 0.54 0.75 0.79 0.56 0.62S EM= Standard error of means. Table 4: Effects of dietary replacement of corn with bakery byproduct on egg weight (g)during 4-week experimental period-2 Treatments Egg weight (g) Week 1 2 3 4 1-4 Corn replacement 0 % replacement 71.67 (a) 69.40 (a) 68.85 68.28 68.89 50 % replacement 66.46 (b) 68.55 (ab) 67.58 68.04 68.63 100 % replacement 68.77 (ab) 67.92 (b) 68.32 68.22 69.75 Enzyme (E) No enzyme 69.08 69.13 67.74 68.37 68.64 Hemicell 68.86 68.12 68.76 67.99 69.54 SEM 0.834 0.221 0.475 0.301 0.450 CV 7.24 1.93 4.17 2.64 3.90 P values Bakery (B) 0.03 0.01 0.52 0.94 0.58 Enzyme (E) 0.88 0.06 0.27 0.54 0.33 B x E 0.27 0.91 0.07 0.43 0.36 (a-b) Means within a column (within main effects) with no common superscript differ significantly (p <0.05). SEM = Standard error of means. Table 5: Effects of dietary replacement of corn with bakery byproduct on egg characteristics for egg sampling on week 5 of experiment Treatments Egg characteristics Week Yolk weight Egg index Yolk height Haugh unit Corn replacement 0 % replacement 19.70 73.46 1.64 89.83 50 % replacement 19.92 72.37 1.64 88.59 100 % replacement 19.98 73.91 1.64 88.03 Enzyme (E) No enzyme 19.82 73.27 1.63 89.66 Hemicell 19.91 73.22 1.64 87.98 SEM 0.178 0.486 0.009 0.851 CV 5.38 3.97 3.04 5.74 P values Bakery (B) 0.82 0.41 0.99 0.68 Enzyme (E) 0.81 0.95 0.52 0.33 B x E 0.65 0.16 0.40 0.23 SEM = Standard error of means. Table 6: Effects of dietary replacement of corn with bakery byproduct on egg characteristics for egg sampling on week 5 of experiment-continue Treatments Egg characteristics Week Yolk color Shell % Shell weight Shell thickness Corn replacement 0 % replacement 6.00 10.95 7.84 0.323 50 % replacement 6.25 10.92 7.63 0.327 100 % replacement 6.75 10.78 7.56 0.323 Enzyme (E) No enzyme 6.22 10.99 7.69 0.328 Hemicell 6.44 10.77 7.67 0.321 SEM 0.281 0.181 0.125 0.002 CV 26.69 9.92 9.76 4.62 P values Bakery (B) 0.54 0.91 0.67 0.83 Enzyme (E) 0.69 0.54 0.96 0.21 B x E 0.13 0.08 0.99 0.59 SEM = Standard error of means.
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|Title Annotation:||Original Article|
|Author:||Torki, M.; Kimiaee, V.|
|Publication:||Advances in Environmental Biology|
|Date:||Mar 1, 2011|
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