Printer Friendly

Repellency and bioactivity of Caatinga biome plant powders against Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae).

The Caatinga biome accounts for about 60% of the northeast Brazilian territory and extends to a small part of the northeastern Minas Gerais State (Sampaio et al. 2002). This area is mainly covered by xeric shrub lands rich in aromatic bushes, vines, herbs, and trees (Almeida et al. 2005) with its native plants presenting utilitarian and economic potential (Albuquerque & Andrade 2002; Lucena et al. 2007, 2008; Canuto et al. 2012). Many of the Caatinga plant species are used by native communities as firewood (Ramos et al. 2008), in carpentry (owing to their recognized durability), as seasoning (Canuto et al. 2012), or in folk medicine to treat several diseases (Leal et al. 2000; Albuquerque et al. 2007; Alviano et al. 2008; Cartaxo et al. 2010; Canuto et al. 2012). The great diversity of the Caatinga vegetation is underexploited, and few searches for active biological substances, including those with insecticidal or repellent activity, have been conducted (Almeida et al. 2005; Albuquerque et al. 2007).

Food availability in the Brazilian Caatinga heavily depends on the capacity of farmers (most of them are subsistence producers) to preserve the post-harvest quality of their production. In this region, cereals and beans are grown predominantly by small farmers with little or no technological inputs (Vieira 2004; Ferreira et al. 2013). These farmers have low family income, and they usually keep their production inside their own small storage facilities with high quantitative and qualitative losses, most of them due to insect damage. Natural products from locally available plants with insecticide activity represent a low-cost and sustainable alternative to protect agricultural production. Furthermore, botanical insecticides supposedly pose little threat to the environment or human health compared with synthetic insecticides, and they represent a suitable alternative to controlling mites and insect pests worldwide (Isman 2006; Regnaut-Roger et al. 2012; Kedia et al. 2013).

The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae), damages 20-30% of legume seeds in the tropical countries (Kirado & Srivastava 2010) and can cause up to 100% loss when masses of cowpea beans are untreated (Gbaye et al. 2011). Adults mate after emergence and typically live not more than 2 wk depending on ambient temperature. The females deposit eggs on the surface of maturing cowpea pods and seeds. The newly emerged larvae burrow into and feed on a single seed until pupation, and adults do not need to feed (Mitchell 1975; Southgate 1978). Several holes are left in the seed by the emerging adults with severe weight loss facilitating fungal and mycotoxin contamination, which reduces the commercial bean value (Kirado & Srivastava 2010; Kedia et al. 2013).

Insecticidal natural products, such as powders of locally available plants, used by farmers in developing countries in their storage facilities, appear to be safe and promising (Paul et al. 2009; Silva et al. 2013; Tavares et al. 2013, 2014; Fouad et al 2014; Melo et al. 2014). Thus, we evaluated the repellent activity and the effects of powders from 9 Caatinga plant species on C. maculatus longevity.

Material and Methods


The original population of C. maculatus was field-collected from small farms in the region of Pombal (Paraiba State, Brazil) and established under laboratory conditions (25 [+ or -] 2[degrees]C, 70 [+ or -] 5% RH, and 12:12 h L:D photoperiod), starting with at least 500 individuals. The identification was based on the traits described previously (Athie & Paula 2002). The population was reared on cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.; Fabales: Fabaceae) grains (free of insecticides) bought from the local market. In order to avoid possible infestations from the field and to reduce any potential insecticide residual effect, the bean grains were kept a temperature of -10[degrees]C for 14 d prior to being offered to C. maculatus. To obtain newly emerged C. maculatus of the same generation, adult insects were released in cowpea bean grain masses that were placed in plastic containers (0.4 L capacity) covered with "organza" cloth. After 5 d of colonization, the adults were removed and the egg-infested grains were maintained under laboratory conditions. The new adults emerged after around 4 wk.


The plant powders used in this study were obtained from the leaves and stems of 9 Caatinga plant species, including Amburana cearensis A. C. Smith ("cumuru-nordestino") (Fabales: Fabaceae), Croton sonderianus Mull.Arg. ("marmeleiro-do-mato") (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), Cleome spinosa Jacq. ("mussambe") (Capparales: Cleomaceae), Mimosa tenuiflora Benth. ("jurema-preta") (Fabales: Fabaceae), Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth.) Brenan ("angico-vermelho") (Fabales: Fabaceae), Aspidosperma pyrifolium Mart. ("pereiro") (Gentianales: Apocynaceae), Senna occidentalis (L.) H.S. Irwin & R.C. Barneby ("mangirioba") (Fabales: Fabaceae), Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. ("alfazemabrava") (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), and Ziziphusjoazeiro Mart. ("juazeiro") (Rosales: Rhamnaceae) (Table 1), collected in the region of Pombal (Paraiba State, Brazil). We chose only plant species that are used by native communities to treat several diseases, and some of their biological activities have been described (Table 1). During the period between the years of 2009 and 2012, leaves and stems were randomly collected from the adult plants by using pruning scissors. Samples of these plants were compared with material deposited in the herbarium of the Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido (UFERSA, Mossoro-RN, Brazil). All the plant materials were individually wrapped in plastic bags, identified, and brought to the laboratory. Then, these materials were dried by direct exposure to sunlight over a 7 d period, and leaves and stem were separately milled with a manual grinder to powder. The resulting powder was passed through a 25 mesh sieve to obtain a fine dust. The fine dusts were stored individually in glass containers (hermetically closed) that were maintained at a controlled temperature (5 [degrees]C) to ensure supply of the material throughout the investigation period.


The effects of each plant powder on insect longevity were assessed in survival bioassays conducted according to previously described methods (Procopio et al. 2003). Briefly, a pair of newly emerged weevils was confined in a plastic container (100 mL) containing 45 g of untreated (control) or plant powder treated cowpea bean seeds. Each weevil pair in 45 g of bean seeds was an experimental unit. In the treated bean unit, 2 g of the plant powder had been homogeneously distributed among the seeds. Five replicates were used for each plant powder tested, and the male and female insect mortality was monitored daily until the last day of survival. As these insects are excellent fliers, we customized an escape-proof cage that allowed measurements of mortality. This cage had the following dimensions: 40 cm length x 20 cm width x 20 cm height, and its base, back, and front sides were made of wood. Openings of 10 cm diameter were drilled in the back and front sides and were closed with organza cloth. These openings facilitated the insertion and handling of experimental materials. Furthermore, complete and easy viewing and handling of the experimental materials were achieved through the glass used at the top and lateral sides of the cage. The bean seeds were carefully poured onto the plastic trays placed inside the cage. After counting the number of dead insects, all the live insects, bean grains, and plant powders were added back into the experimental units. The insect longevity measurements were subjected to analysis of variance and subsequently to Tukey's test ([alpha] = 0.05), when appropriate.


The repellent activity of each plant powder was assessed in bioassays conducted in custom-made plastic arenas (35 cm diameter, 12 cm high), according to the modified protocols reported previously (Burkholder & Dicke 1966; Phillips & Burkholder 1981). Six 50 mL plastic containers were placed at equidistance inside the arena, with 30 g of cowpea bean seeds in each container. Plant powder to be tested (1.5 g per container) was added to alternate containers (3 per arena). To facilitate odor removal, a 5 cm diameter hole was drilled in the center of the arena's lid for the insertion of a 5 cm diameter polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tube 10 cm in height. The external extremity of this tube was covered with organza cloth to prevent escape of the insects. Thirty adult females (aged 1-5 d) were released into the center of the arena, and after 24 h, the total number of insects per container was registered. Five replicates were used for each plant powder tested. In preliminary tests, we found even distribution of insects among containers when all the 6 plastic containers were filled only with untreated cowpea, so there was no indication of a position effect within the arena.

A binomial test (P < 0.01) was used to evaluate the significance of differences between the percentages of females that moved to untreated and powder treated bean seeds. The percentage of repellency was calculated as proposed by Mazzonetto & Vendramin (2003): RI = (2 x T) / (T + C) x 100, where RI = repellency index, C = number of insects in the untreated container, and T = number of insects in the treated container. The RI values ranged between 0 and 2, which denoted the following: RI = 1, neutral activity; RI > 1, attraction; and RI < 1, repellency. As a safety margin for this classification, the standard deviation (SD) of each treatment was added/subtracted from the value of 1 (indicative of neutrality). The repellency index results were subjected to analysis of variance, and the averages were compared by using the Scott-Knott groupment analysis test (Scott & Knott 1974) at a probability level of 0.05.



There were no significant differences ([F.sub.8,76] = 1.99; P > 0.05) among the longevities of females exposed to leaf or stem powders of each plant tested, which allowed us to pool these longevity data and compare them with the longevity of females on untreated bean masses (Fig. 1). In general, the average longevity of females treated with plant powders was 7.4 [+ or -] 1.01 d and did not differ significantly ([F.sub.1,76] = 0.86; P > 0.05) from that of the control females (7.8 [+ or -] 1.09 d; Fig. 1A). Likewise, the males showed similar longevities ([F.sub.8,76] = 0.82; P > 0.05) when exposed to leaf or stem powders of each plant tested. Flowever, the average longevity of males was significantly reduced ([F.sub.1,76] = 8.15; P < 0.01) from 7.8 [+ or -] 1.79 d (control males) to 6.06 [+ or -] 1.25 d (males that lived on plant powder-treated beans) (Fig. IB).


All of the Caatinga plant powders were strongly repellent to females. The percentages of the females that preferred untreated beans ranged from 77% to 94% and were significantly greater (P < 0.01, binomial test) than those of females that preferred the leaf powder-treated beans (Fig. 2A). Similar results were obtained in the repellency bioassays with stem powders, where females significantly preferred (P < 0.01, binomial test) untreated bean seeds (Fig. 2B).

Although all the plant powders significantly repelled females, the leaf powders of A. pyrifolium, S. occidentalis, H. suaveolens, and Z joazeiro exhibited greater repellency levels (Table 2). With regard to the stem powders, the plant species C. sonderianus, C. spinosa, H. suaveolens, and Z joazeiro presented greater repellency levels. Furthermore, the leaf and stem powders of A. pyrifolium and S. occidentalis showed differential repellent activities (Table 2), with the leaf powders presenting greater repellency levels.


Despite its great territorial expanse and significant biodiversity, the Caatinga biome is still an underexploited source of molecules with insecticidal/repellent activities. Most studies with plant products from this ecological region have focused on extracts or essential oils to control insect disease vectors (Lima et al. 2006; Farias et al. 2010; Souza et al. 2011; Santos et al. 2012; Barbosa et al. 2014). Few studies investigated the potential of Caatinga plant powders as commodity protectants, and they normally evaluated only mortality effects (Souza & Trovao 2009; Cruz et al. 2013). Here, we evaluated the insecticidal and repellent activities of 9 Caatinga plant species (A. cearensis, C. sonderianus, C. spinosa, M. tenuiflora, A. macrocarpa, A. pyrifolium, S. occidentalis, H. suaveolens, and Z. joazeiro) against the cowpea weevil, C. maculatus. Leaf and stem powders from these plants had major insecticidal effects on males and repelled the females, demonstrating their potential for use in the integrated management of C. maculatus in storage facilities.

Similar to the lack of insecticide activity against C. maculatus females observed here for all the plant powders, root powder of M. tenuiflora showed very small insecticidal activity against termites (Isoptera) (Cruz et al. 2013), and powders of A. macrocarpa did not show any insecticidal activity against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (Souza & Trovao 2009). Furthermore, powders from other medicinal plants (thyme, Thymus vulgaris L. [Lamiales: Lamiaceae]; lavender cotton, Santolina chamaeyceparissus L., and stinking bean trefoil, Anagyris foetida L. [Fabales: Fabaceae]) neither affected the longevity of southern cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus chinensis L. (Coleoptera: Chysomelidae) males nor females (Righi-Assia et al. 2010). These differential insecticidal activities of plant powders might have resulted from multiple factors involving the way they work and the resistance mechanisms of the insects. Plant powders can control insects by eroding the cuticle layer and causing dehydration (Kedia et al. 2013); blocking the spiracles and causing asphyxiation (Denloye 2010); or impairing physiological processes by penetrating the insect body via the respiratory or alimentary system (Ofuya & Dawodu 2002). Plant powders of S. occidentalis caused significant mortality in C. maculatus (Adesina et al. 2011), and insecticidal properties of A. pyrifolium (Torres et al. 2006), C. sonderianus (Morais et al. 2006; Lima et al. 2006, 2013), A. cearensis (Farias et al. 2010; Souza et al. 2011), and Z. joazeiro (Souza et al. 2011) have been documented in different insect species. The repellent activities of Caatinga plant powders need further study although the repellency of many other plant powders against stored pests has been reported (Elhag 2000; Keita et al. 2001; Mazzonetto & Vendramin 2003; Silva-Aguayo et al. 2005; Sanon et al. 2006; Kabir & Muhammad 2010).

The present study extends knowledge on Caatinga plants for use as stored product protectants because it demonstrates that the leaf and stem powders of 9 Caatinga plants show strong repellent activities against C. maculatus females. Leaf powders of A. pyrifolium and S. occidentalis repelled C. maculatus more efficiently than the stem powders of these plants, suggesting that these plants possess different active constituents or that they have the same constituents but with different concentrations in various plant parts (Ravi Kiran et al. 2006; Autran et al. 2009). Such differential activities of the powders of leaves and stems of other plants such as neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Sapindales: Meliaceae) (leaf and stem bark powders), have been described, with the leaf powder showing higher repellent activities against C. maculatus than the stem powder (Kabir & Muhammad 2010). The striking repellency results obtained here for M. tenuiflora and A. macrocarpa powders are noteworthy, because these plant products had been previously reported to have no (Souza & Trovao 2009; Santos et al. 2012) or very low insecticidal activity (Cruz et al. 2013). We also found that S. occidentalis strongly repels C. maculatus females, which differs from the results described by Palsson & Jaenson (1999), who observed no repellent activities of this plant against mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), reinforcing the hypothesis that repellent activity of plant products might be species specific.

Furthermore, H. suaveolens plant products demonstrated noticeable repellent activity against C. maculatus females, as demonstrated with other insect species (Sanon et al. 2006; Ilboudo et al. 2010; Benelli et al. 2012). However, products from this plant species can cause detrimental effects on natural enemies in storage environments (Sanon et al. 2011), thus requiring caution when used as grain protectants. In addition, other plant species of the Cleome genus showed repellent actions against ticks (Parasitiformes) and insects (Ndungu et al. 1995; Nyalala & Grout 2007), but the present study is the first to report on the insecticidal/repellent potential against C. spinosa.

The application of plant materials with insecticidal or repellent properties to stored grains is a common traditional method in rural areas around the world (Regnault-Roger et al. 2012; Kedia et al. 2013). Tropical ecosystems (such as the Caatinga biome) are particularly rich in plants that are used by local communities to treat diseases, thus indicating the potential to discover new compounds (Albuquerque et al. 2007, 2008). Further investigations exploring the toxicological aspects of the major constituents or identifying the principal volatiles produced by the Caatinga plants tested here will provide new insights on how these plants exhibit their insecticidal/repellent activities.

Our findings not only extend the knowledge on the Caatinga plants but also provide information about plants that can be used to protect cowpeas against C. maculatus infestations. All the plants tested are readily available in the Caatinga Region, and these anti-insect materials are affordable to low-income farmers who are normally constrained to sell their production early after harvest or, even worse, have their stored bean seeds (normally saved on the farm from the previous harvest) prone to infestation by stored product pests.


This work was supported by grants of the "Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientffi'co e Tecnologico (CNPq)" and "Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior (CAPES)" to all authors, and by grants of "Fundacao Arthur Bernardes (FUNARBE)" and "Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (FAPE-MIG)" to EEO.

References Cited

Adesina JM, Afolabi LA, Aderibigbe ATB. 2011. Efficacy of Senna occidentalis leaves powder on oviposition, hatchability of eggs and emergence of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab) on treated cowpea seeds. South Asian Journal of Experimental Biology 1: 168-171.

Akah PA, Nwambie AI. 1993. Nigerian plants with anti-convulsant properties. Fitoterapia 64: 42-44.

Albuquerque UP, Andrade LHC. 2002. Uso de recursos vegetais da caatinga: o caso do agreste do estado de Pernambuco (Nordeste do Brasil). Interciencia 27: 336-346.

Albuquerque UP, Medeiros PM, Almeida ALS, Monteiro JM, Freitas Lins Neto EM, Melo JG, Santos JP. 2007. Medicinal plants of the Caatinga (semi-arid) vegetation of NE Brazil: a quantitative approach. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 114: 325-354.

Albuquerque UP, Silva VA, Cabral MC, Alencar NL, Andrade LHC. 2008. Comparisons between the use of medicinal plants in indigenous and rural Caatinga (dryland) communities in NE Brazil. Boletin de la Sociedad Latinoamericana y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromaticas 7: 156-170.

Almeida CFCBR, Lima e Silva TC, de Amorim ELC, Maia MBDS, Albuquerque UP. 2005. Life strategy and chemical composition as predictors of the selection of medicinal plants from the Caatinga (Northeast Brazil). Journal of Arid Environments 62: 127-142.

Alviano WS, Alviano DS, Diniz CG, Antoniolli AR, Alviano CS, Farias LM, Carvalho MAR, Souza MMG, Bolognese AM. 2008. In vitro antioxidant potential of medicinal plant extracts and their activities against oral bacteria based on Brazilian folk medicine. Archives of Oral Biology 53: 545-552.

Araujo Jr JX, Antheaume C, Trindade RCP, Schmitt M, Bourguignon J-J, Sant'Ana AEG. 2007. Isolation and characterisation of the monoterpenoid indole alkaloids of Aspidosperma pyrifolium. Phytochemistry Reviews 6: 183-188.

Araujo TAS, Alencar NL, Amorim ELC, Albuquerque UP. 2008. A new approach to study medicinal plants with tannins and flavonoids contents from the local knowledge. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 120: 72-80.

Athie I, Paula D.C. 2002. Insetos de graos armazenados: aspectos biologicos e identificacao, 2nd edition. Varela, Sao Paulo, Brazil. 244 pp.

Autran ES, Neves IA, da Silva CSB, Santos GKN, Camara CAGD, Navarro DMAF. 2009. Chemical composition, oviposition deterrent and larvicidal activities against Aedes aegypti of essential oils from Piper marginatum Jacq. (Piperaceae). Bioresource Technology 100: 2284-2288.

Barbosa PBBM, de Oliveira JM, Chagas JM, Rabelo LMA, de Medeiros GF, Giodani, RB, da Silva EA, Uchoa AF, Ximenes MDDM. 2014. Evaluation of seed extracts from plants found in the Caatinga biome for the control of Aedes aegypti. Parasitology Research 113: 3565-3580.

Benelli G, Flamini G, Canale A, Molfetta I, Cioni PL, Conti B. 2012. Repellence of Hyptis suaveolens whole essential oil and major constituents against adults of the granary weevil Sitophilus granarius. Bulletin of Insectology 65: 177-183.

Bravo JAB, Sauvain M, Gimenez TA, Munoz OV, Callapa J, Le Men-Olivier L, Massiot G, Lavaud C. 1999. Bioactive phenolic glycosides from Amburana cearensis. Phytochemistry 50: 71-74.

Burkholder WE, Dicke RJ. 1966. Evidence of sex pheromones in females of several species of Dermestidae. Journal of Economic Entomology 59: 540-543.

Canuto KM, Silveira ER, Bezerra AME, Leal LKAM, Viana GSB. 2012. Phytochemistry, pharmacology and agronomy of medicinal plants: Amburana cearensis, an interdisciplinary study, pp. 353-374 In Rao V [ed.], Phytochemicals --A Global Perspective of their Role in Nutrition and Health. InTech, Rijeka, Croatia.

Cartaxo SL, De Almeida Souza MM, Albuquerque UP. 2010. Medicinal plants with bioprospecting potential used in semi-arid Northeastern Brazil. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 131: 326-342.

Collins DO, Reynolds WF, Reese PB. 2004. New cembranes from Cleome spinosa. Journal of Natural Products 67: 179-183.

Cruz CSA, Medeiros MB, Gomes JP, Souza FC. 2013. Uso de plantas em po seco com propriedades termiticida sobre a mortalidade de cupins arboreos. Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentavel 7: 1-5.

Denloye AA. 2010. Bioactivity of powder and extracts from garlic, Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae) and spring onion, Allium fistulosum L. (Alliaceae) against Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp (Leguminosae) seeds. Psyche 2010: article ID 958348.

Desmarchelier C, Lisboa Romao R, Coussio J, Ciccia G. 1999. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities in extracts from medicinal trees used in the 'Caatinga' region in northeastern Brazil. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 67: 69-77.

Elhag EA. 2000. Deterrent effects of some botanical products on oviposition of the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). International Journal of Pest Management 46: 109-113.

Farias DF, Cavalheiro MG, Viana MP, Queiroz VA, Rocha-Bezerra LCB, Vasconcelos IK, Morais SM, Carvalho AFU. 2010. Water extracts of Brazilian leguminous seeds as rich sources of larvicidal compounds against Aedes aegypti L. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias 82: 585-594.

Farias DF, Souza TM, Viana MP, Soares BM, Cunha AP, Vasconcelos IM, Ricardo NMPS, Ferreira PMP, Melo VMM, Carvalho AFU. 2013. Antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of plant seed extracts from Brazilian semiarid region. BioMed Research International 510736, 9 pp.

Faulkner DJ. 2001. Marine natural products. Natural Product Reports 18: 1-49.

Ferreira LVM, Nobrega RSA, Nobrega JCA, Aguiar FL, Moreira FMS, Pacheco LP. 2013. Biological nitrogen fixation in production of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, family farming in Piarn, Brazilian Journal of Agricultural Science 5: 153-160.

Figueredo FG, Ferreira EO, Lucena BFF, Torres CMG, Lucetti DL, Lucetti ECP, Silva JMFL, Santos FAV, Medeiros CR, Oliveira GMM, Colares AV, Costa JGM, Coutinho HDM, Menezes IRA, Silva JCF, Kerntopf MR, Figueiredo PRL, Matias EFF. 2013. Modulation of the antibiotic activity by extracts from Amburana cearensis A. C. Smith and Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth.) Brenan. BioMed Research International 640682, 5 pp.

Fontenelle ROS, Morais SM, Brito EHS, Brilhante RSN, Cordeiro RA, Nascimento NRF, Kerntopf MR, Sidrim JJC, Rocha MFG. 2008. Antifungal activity of essential oils of Croton species from the Brazilian Caatinga biome. Journal of Applied Microbiology 104: 1383-1390.

Fouad HA, Faroni LRD, Tavares, WD, Ribeiro RC, Freitas SD, Zanuncio JC. 2014. Botanical extracts of plants from the Brazilian cerrado for the integrated management of Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in stored grains. Journal of Stored Product Research 57: 6-11.

Gbaye OA, Millard JC, Holloway GJ. 2011. Legume type and temperature effects on the toxicity of insecticide to the genus Callosobruchus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Journal of Stored Product Research 47: 8-12.

Hanson JR. 2002. Diterpenoids. Natural Product Reports 19: 125-132.

Ilboudo Z, Dabire LCB, Nebie RCH, Dicko IO, Dugravot S, Cortesero AM, Sanon A. 2010. Biological activity and persistence of four essential oils towards the main pest of stored cowpeas, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Journal of Stored Product Research 46: 124-128.

Isman MB. 2006. Botanical insecticides, deterrents and repellents in modern agriculture and an increasingly regulated world. Annual Review of Entomology 51: 45-66.

Kabir HY, Muhammad S. 2010. Comparative studies of seed oil extract, leaves and stem bark powders of Azadirachta indica Linn (Meliaceae) on adults Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera Bruchidae). Bioscience Research 22: 345-350.

Kedia A, Prakash B, Mishra PK, Singh P, Dubey NK. 2013. Botanicals as eco friendly biorational alternatives of synthetic pesticides against Callosobruchus spp. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)--a review. Journal of Food Science and Technology 51: 2210-2215.

Keita SM, Vincent C, Schmit J-P, Arnason JT, Belanger A. 2001. Efficacy of essential oil of Ocimum basilicum L. and O. gratissimum L. applied as an insecticidal fumigant and powder to control Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Journal of Stored Product Research 37: 339-349.

Kirado MM, Srivastava M. 2010. A comparative study on the efficacy of two Lamiaceae plants on egg--laying performance by the pulse beetle Callosobruchus chinensis Linn. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Journal of Biopesticides 3: 590-595.

Leal LKAM, Ferreira AAG, Bezerra GA, Matos FJA, Viana GSB. 2000. Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and bronchodilator activities of Brazilian medicinal plants containing coumarin: a comparative study. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 70: 151-159.

Lima JKA, Albuquerque ELD, Santos ACC, Oliveira AP, Araujo APA, Blank AF, Arrigoni-Blank MDF, Alves PB, Santos DDA, Bacci L. 2013. Biotoxicity of some plant essential oils against the termite Nasutitermes corniger (Isoptera: Termitidae). Industrial Crop Production 47: 246-251.

Lima MGA, Maia ICC, Sousa BD, Morais SM, Freitas SM. 2006. Effect of stalk and leaf extracts from Euphorbiaceae species on Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae) larvae. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo 48: 211-214.

Lucena RFP, Albuquerque UP, Monteiro JM, De Fatima C, Almeida CBR, Florentino ATN, Ferraz JSF. 2007. Useful plants of the semi-arid Northeastern region of Brazil--a look at their conservation and sustainable use. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 125: 281-290.

Lucena RFP, Nascimento VT, Araujo EL, Albuquerque UP. 2008. Local uses of native plants in an area of Caatinga vegetation (Pernambuco, NE Brazil). Ethnobotany Research and Applications 6: 3-13.

Mazzonetto F, Vendramin JD. 2003. Efeito de pos de origem vegetal sobre Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) em feijao armazenado. Neotropical Entomology 32: 145-149.

McChesney JD, Clark AM, Silveira ER. 1991. Antimicrobial diterpenes of Croton sonderianus, 1. Hardwickic and 3,4-secotrachylobanoic acids. Journal of Natural Products 54: 1625-1633.

Melo BA, Molina-Rugama AJ, Leite, DT, de Godoy MS, de Araujo EL. 2014. Bioatividade de pos de especies vegetais sobre a reproducao de Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr. 1775) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Bioscience Journal 30: 346-353.

Mitchell R. 1975. Evolution of oviposition tactics in bean weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F). Ecology 56: 696-702.

Morais SM, Cavalcanti ESB, Bertini LM, Oliveira CLL, Rodrigues JRB, Cardoso JHL. 2006. Larvicidal activity of essential oils from Brazilian croton species against Aedes aegypti L. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 22: 161-164.

Ndungu M, Lwande W, Hassanali A, Moreka L, Chhabra SC. 1995. Cleome monophylla essential oil and its constituents as tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus) and maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) repellents. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 76: 217-222.

Nyalala, S, Grout B. 2007. African spider flower (Cleome gynandra L./Gynandropsis gynandra (L.) Briq.) as a red spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) repellent in cut-flower rose (Rosa hybrida L.) cultivation. Scientia Horticulturae 114: 194-198.

Ofuya TI, Dawodu EO. 2002. Aspects of insecticidal action of Piper guineese Schum and Thonn fruit powders against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Niger Journal of Entomology 19: 40-50.

Palsson K, Jaenson TGT. 1999. Plant products used as mosquito repellents in Guinea Bissau, West Africa. Acta Tropica 72: 39-52.

Paul UV, Lossini JS, Edwards PJ, Hilbeck A. 2009. Effectiveness of products from four locally grown plants for the management of Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (both Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in stored beans under laboratory and farm conditions in northern Tanzania. Journal of Stored Product Research 45: 97-107.

Peerzada N. 1997. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Hyptis suaveolens. Molecules 2: 165-168.

Phillips JK, Burkholder WE. 1981. Evidence for a male-produced aggregation pheromone in the rice weevil (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). Journal of Econeconomic Entomology 74: 539-542.

Procopio SO, Vendramin JD, Ribeiro Junior JI, Santos J.B. 2003. Bioatividade de diversos pos de origem vegetal em relacao a Sitophiluszeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Ciencia e Agrotecnologia 27: 1231-1236.

Ramos MA, Medeiros PM, Almeida ALS, Feliciano ALP, Albuquerque UP. 2008. Use and knowledge of fuelwood in an area of Caatinga vegetation in NE Brazil. Biomass Bioenergy 32: 510-517.

Ravi Kiran SR, Bhavani K, Devi PS, Rao BRR, Reddy KJ. 2006. Composition and larvicidal activity of leaves and stem essential oils of Chloroxylon swietenia DC against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. Bioresource Technology 97: 2481-2484.

Regnault-Roger C, Vincent C, Arnason JT. 2012. Essential oils in insect control: low-risk products in a high-stakes world. Annual Review of Entomology 57: 405-424.

Ribeiro BD, Alviano DS, Barreto DW, Coelho MAZ. 2013. Functional properties of saponins from sisal (Agave sisalana) and jua (Ziziphus joazeiro): critical micellar concentration, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Colloids and Surfaces A 436: 736-743.

Righi-Assia AF, Khelil MA, Medjdoub-Bensaad F, Righi K. 2010. Efficacy of oils and powders of some medicinal plants in biological control of the pea weevil (Callosobruchus chinensis L.). African Journal of Agricultural Research 5: 1474-1481.

Sampaio EVSB, Giuiietti AM, Vfrginio J, Gamarra-Rojas CFL. 2002. Vegetacao e flora da Caatinga, 1st edition. Associacao Plantas do Nordeste, Recife, PE, Brazil, p. 176.

Sanon A, Ilboudo Z, Dabire CLB, Nebie RCH, Dicko IO, Monge JP. 2006. Effects of Hyptis spicigera Lam. (Labiatae) on the behaviour and development of Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), a pest of stored cowpeas. International Journal of Pest Management 52: 117-123.

Sanon A, Ba MN, Dabire LCB, Nebie RCH, Monge JP. 2011. Side effects of grain protectants on biological control agents: how Hyptis plant extracts affect parasitism and larval development of Dinarmus basalis. Phytoparasitica 39: 215-222.

Santos EA, Carvalho CM, Costa ALS, Conceicao AS, Moura FBP, Santana AEG. 2012. Bioactivity evaluation of plant extracts used in indigenous medicine against the snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and the larvae of Aedes aegypti. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 846583: 1-9.

Santos FA, Jeferson FA, Santos CC, Silveira ER, Rao VSN. 2005. Antinociceptive effect of leaf essential oil from Croton sonderianus in mice. Life Sciences 77: 2953-2963.

Scott AJ, Knott M. 1974. A cluster analysis method for grouping means in the analysis of variance. Biometrics 30: 507-512.

Silva M.L, Silva LB, Fernandes RM, Lopes GS. 2013. Efeito do extrato aquoso e etanolico do angico preto sobre larvas de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia 65: 637-644.

Silva-Aguayo GI, Kiger-Melivilu R, Hepp-Gallo R, Tapia-Vargas M. 2005. Control de Sitophilus zeamais con polvos vegetales de tres especies del genero Chenopodium. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira 40: 953-960.

Southgate BJ. 1978. The importance of the Bruchidae as pests of grain legumes, their distribution and control, pp. 219-229 In Singh SR, van Emden HF, Taylor TA. [eds.], Pests of Grain Legumes: Ecology and Control. Academic Press, London, United Kingdom.

Souza MCC, Trovao MBM. 2009. Bioatividade do extrato seco de plantas da Caatinga e do Nim (Azadiractha indica) sobre Sitophilus zeamais Mots em milho armazenado. Revista Verde de Agroecologia e Desenvolvimento Sustentavel 4: 120-124.

Souza TM, Farias DF, Soares BM, Viana MP, Lima GPG, Machado LKA, Morais SM, Carvalho AFU. 2011. Toxicity of Brazilian plant seed extracts to two strains of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and nontarget animals. Journal of Medical Entomology 48: 846-851.

Tavares WD, Grazziotti GH, de Souza AA, Freitas SD, Consolaro HN, Ribeiro PED, Zanuncio JC. 2013. Screening of extracts of leaves and stems of Psychotria spp. (Rubiaceae) against Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) for maize protection. Journal of Food Protection 76: 1892-1901.

Tavares, WD, Faroni LRD, Ribeiro RC, Fouad HA, Freitas SD, Zanuncio JC. 2014. Effects of astilbin from Dimorphandra mollis (Fabaceae) flowers and Brazilian plant extracts on Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Florida Entomologist 97: 892-901.

Torres AL, Boi$a Junior AL, Medeiros CAM, Barros R. 2006. Efeito de extratos aquosos de Azadirachta indica, Melia azedarach e Aspidosperma pyrifolium no desenvolvimento e oviposicao de Plutella xylostella. Bragantia 65: 447457.

Trevisan MTS, Macedo FVV. 2003. Selecao de plantas com atividade anticolinesterase para tratamento da doenca de Alzheimer. Qufmica Nova 26: 301-304.

Vieira C. 2004. Memorias de meio seculo de estudo sobre a cultura do feijao. Editora UFV, Vicosa-MG, Brazil. 214 pp.

Bruno Adelino de Melo (1), Adrian Jose Molina-Rugama (1,2), *, Khalid Haddi (3), Delzuite Teles Leite (1), and Eugenio Eduardo de Oliveira (3), *

(1) Unidade Academica de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Pombal, Parafba 58840-000, Brazil

(2) Current address: Departamento de Ciencias Vegetais, Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido, Mossoro, Rio Grande do Norte 59625-900, Brazil

(3) Departamento de Entomologia, Universidade Federal de Vigosa, Vigosa, Minas Gerais 36570-900, Brazil

* Corresponding authors; E-mail:,

Caption: Fig. 1. Average longevity of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) females (A) and males (B) in the presence of the powders of 9 Caatinga plant species. Bars with the same letter indicate that no significant differences were noted among C. maculatus by Tukey's test ([alpha] = 0.05). The following plant species were tested: Amburana cearensis ("cumaru"), Croton sonderianus ("marmeleiro"), Cleome spinosa ("mussambe"), Mimosa tenuiflora ("juremapreta"), Anadenanthera macrocarpa ("angico-vermelho"), Aspidosperma pyrifolium ("pereiro"), Senna occidentalis ("manjerioba"), Hyptis suaveolens ("alfazema-brava"), and Ziziphus joazeiro ("juazeiro").

Caption: Fig. 2. Percentage of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) that moved toward bean seeds untreated and treated with leaf (A) and stem (B) powders. An asterisk by a bar indicates a significant difference in repellency between leaf powder-treated and untreated bean seeds (binomial test, P < 0.01). The following plant species were tested: Amburana cearensis ("cumaru"), Croton sonderianus ("marmeleiro"), Cleome spinosa ("mussambe"), Mimosa tenuiflora ("jurema-preta"), Anadenanthera macrocarpa ("angico-vermelho"), Aspidosperma pyrifolium ("pereiro"), Senna occidentalis ("manjerioba"), Hyptis suaveolens ("alfazema-brava"), and Ziziphus joazeiro ("juazeiro").

Table 1. Caatinga plant species collected in the county of
Pombal, Paraiba State, Brazil.

Scientific name           Family          Common name

Am buran a cearensis   Fabaceae        "cumaru"
A. C. Smith

Croton sanderianus     Euphorbiaceae   "marmeleiro"
Mull. Arg.

Cleome spinosa Jacq.   Cleomaceae      "musambe"

Mimosa tenuiflora      Fabaceae        "jurema-preta"
Willd. Benth.

Anadenanthera          Fabaceae        "angico-vermelho"
macrocarpa (Benth.)

Aspidosperma           Apocynaceae     "pereiro"
pyrifolium Mart.

Senna occidentalis     Fabaceae        "mangirioba "
(L.) H.S. Irwin &
R.C. Barneby

Hyptis suaveolens      Lamiaceae       "alfazema-brava"
(L.) Poit.

Ziziphus joazeiro      Rhamnaceae      "juazeiro"

Scientific name        Biological activity     Isolated compounds

Am buran a cearensis   anticholinesterase,    courmarin, phenolic
A. C. Smith            antinociceptive,       glyscosides

Croton sanderianus     antinociceptive,       clerodane and
Mull. Arg.             antimicrobial,         cleisthantane type
                       antifungal             diterpenes;

Cleome spinosa Jacq.   neuroprotection,       unsaturated
                       cytotoxicity against   polyprenols,
                       a number of human      cembranoids,
                       cancer cell lines, a   diterpenes
                       nti-H IV activity

Mimosa tenuiflora      anti-inflammatory,     tannins and
Willd. Benth.          antioxidant,           flavonoids
                       antifungal, healing

Anadenanthera          antibacterial,         phenols, flavonoids,
macrocarpa (Benth.)    anti-inflammatory      free xanthones,
Brenan                                        leucoantho-cyanidins

Aspidosperma           antiplasmodial         monoterpenoid indole
pyrifolium Mart.                              alkaloids

Senna occidentalis     anti-inflammatory,     tannins and
(L.) H.S. Irwin &      antioxidant,           flavonoids
R.C. Barneby           antifungal, healing

Hyptis suaveolens      anti-inflammatory,     tannins and
(L.) Poit.             antioxidant,           flavonoids, (3-
                       antifungal, healing    Caryophyllene, 1,8-
                       properties,            cineole

Ziziphus joazeiro      antimicrobial,         saponins
Mart.                  antioxidante,

Scientific name             References

Am buran a cearensis   (Bravo et al. 1999;
A. C. Smith            Leal et al. 2000;
                       Trevisan & Macedo
                       2003; Figueredo
                       etal. 2013)

Croton sanderianus     (McChesney et al.
Mull. Arg.             1991; Santos et al.
                       2005; Fontenelle et
                       al. 2008)

Cleome spinosa Jacq.   (Faulkner 2001;
                       Hanson 2002; Collins
                       et al. 2004)

Mimosa tenuiflora      (Araujo et al. 2008)
Willd. Benth.

Anadenanthera          (Desmarchelier et
macrocarpa (Benth.)    al. 1999; Figueredo
Brenan                 etal. 2013)

Aspidosperma           (Araujo et al. 2007)
pyrifolium Mart.

Senna occidentalis     (Araujo et al. 2008)
(L.) H.S. Irwin &
R.C. Barneby

Hyptis suaveolens      (Akah & Nwambie
(L.) Poit.             1993; Peerzada 1997;
                       Araujo etal. 2008)

Ziziphus joazeiro      (Alviano et al.
Mart.                  2008; Farias et al.
                       2013; Ribeiro et al.

Table 2. The repellency index (RI) obtained for each plant powder
tested against Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

Plant species                     Repellency index (a)

                             Leaves                     Stems

Amburana cearensis   0.46  [+ or -]  0.05 Aa   0.42  [+ or -]  0.04 Aa
Croton sonderianus   0.22  [+ or -]  0.10 Ba   0.15  [+ or -]  0.03 Ba
Cleome spinosa       0.35  [+ or -]  0.08 Aa   0.26  [+ or -]  0.06 Ba
Mimosa tenuiflora    0.39  [+ or -]  0.07 Aa   0.54  [+ or -]  0.07 Aa
Anadenanthera        0.46  [+ or -]  0.05 Aa   0.42  [+ or -]  0.06 Aa
Aspidosperma         0.20  [+ or -]  0.06 Bb   0.43  [+ or -]  0.07 Aa
Senna occidentalis   0.16  [+ or -]  0.03 Bb   0.36  [+ or -]  0.08 Aa
Hyptis suaveolens    0.11  [+ or -]  0.04 Ba   0.20  [+ or -]  0.07 Ba
Ziziphus joazeiro    0.25  [+ or -]  0.02 Ba   0.14  [+ or -]  0.04 Ba

(a) Means followed by the same lowercase letter in a row or the same
capital letter in a column are not significantly different based on
the Scott-Knott groupment analysis test at P < 0.05.


Please note: Some tables or figures were omitted from this article.
COPYRIGHT 2015 Florida Entomological Society
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2015 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:de Melo, Bruno Adelino; Molina-Rugama, Adrian Jose; Haddi, Khalid; Leite, Delzuite Teles; de Oliveir
Publication:Florida Entomologist
Article Type:Report
Date:Jun 1, 2015
Previous Article:Movement of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) adults between huanglongbing-infected and healthy citrus.
Next Article:Impact of fluctuating and constant temperatures on key life history parameters of Sipha flava (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2018 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters