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Removal of chloroform and water hardness from drinking water by combination of two methods of magnetic field and AOP.


In water treatment process, some impurities are produced by mixing with organic contents in water. For example chlorine in refinery condition change humic acid divides into THM effectively humic acids and natural organic compounds which make water colorful. Their molecular weight varies from hundreds to hundred thousands.

THM are general by products of chlorination of drinking water and are more concentrated than other pollutants.

[O.sub.2 + NH3+ HUMIC ACID [right arrow] organic compound+ N2 +CO2+ SMALL HUMIC ACID] (1)

In 1975, USEPA announced THM can be as a carcinogenic compound for humans, and who confirmed that compounds should be removed from drinking water. Other effects are reported from (THM)S and specially chloroform as index of these compounds. (THM)s influences reproduction incidence of congenital malformations, damages to special organs like liver and kidney. Based on the standard set total chloroform concentration in water should not be more than 1 ppm. [31,32].

Nowa days treatment water as most important concern for human survival has became a global concern. growing population therefor using more water. In one hand and on the other hand pollution of the water because of different biological agricultural and industrial processes has become more and more of a concern, therefor keeping physical and chemical and biological duality of water resource is the main goal of organizations that work with resources. The application of ultraviolet (UV) based advanced oxidation processes for the removal of trace contaminants from drinking water is steadily growing. Leading the way incommercial applications is the ultraviolet plus hydrogen peroxide (UV/H2O2) advanced oxidation process. There is a deep collection of literature reporting on the ability of UV/H2O2 to treat a wide array of organic pollutants. [29].


Batch reactor was used in this experiment with the length of 9.5m and 8mm glass. For the protection of a 15 w UV lamp, a quartz tube was built inside the glass. In order to create a magnetic field with the power of 3 to 4 mT, armature winders covered all around the mentioned reactor.

It's considerable that in this experiment, the minimum field's intensity should be around 15 mT, but the armature winders can only create 3 to 4 mT. in order to increase or decrease the intensity of the field, magnetic field-maker machine was used.

2-1-[GC.sub.mass] analysis:

For analyzing the samples by GC mass machine, first 1cc from samples with concentrations of 2, 5 and 10 ppm poured into 1cc water and settled in the shaker machine for 1.5 hour. After this period two phases were seen. From the upper phase, 1cc was taken and 1cc toluene was added. For great mixture, the complex was settled in the shaker machine for another 1.5 hour. Then the complex was infused to the [GC.sub.mass] machine to analyze. The following results was recorded:

a- After analyzing, for each of the samples 3 picks was observed. In the sample with the concentration of 2 ppm, the surface under the 3 picks was 181793 on the whole, which %68 of the surface under the graph was subjected to the presence of Chloroform.

b- In the sample with the concentration of 5 ppm, %79 of the surface under the graph was subjected to the presence of Chloroform.

c- In the sample with the concentration of 10 ppm, %90 of the surface under the graph was subjected to the presence of Chloroform.

2-2- specifying chloroform:

Chloroform samples were prepared at 2,5,10 ppm. each sample was separately set into a shaker for an hour so set samples would be divided into two portions, then top portion which included water was separated and was mixed with equal amount of toluene and then was set into shaker with the rotation rate of 300 rpm for an hour so the solution would be transformed into two portions upper and lower. The upper portion was separated from the lower and transfered it to GC mass analyser. Then chloroform was measured by GC mass analyser.After evaluating the general chloroform rate in each sample, the primirly prepared samples were transfered to batch reactor which contained the 15 watt lamp uv and provided samples were exposed to the UV lamp in various duration of 15,20,30,45 minutes, then samples were transfered to GC mass analyser so the remaining chloroform in each sample would be determined After evaluating the results. before and after exposure to UV lamp results illustrated the termination of chloroform within the solution.

2-3-Specifying the water hardness:

Sample of 50,100,150,200 Mg CaCO3 were primarily and separately through hardness relation was specified and each sample separately were put in the magnetic fields 4,6,8,10 MT force after retrieving from each field hardness was measured and specified after evaluating. The water hardness rate results showed the field with force of 10 MT was the ideal result between the force of other magnetic fields.

2-4-Omission percentage calculation method:

For calculating the omission percentage, the following formula was used:

%Omission = (1- x/[x.sub.0]) x 100

In this formula x is the secondary value and [x.sub.0] is the initial value.

3- Results:

3-1- figures:

When uv lamp was used for chloroform solutions, percent elimination of Chloroform in 15,20, 30 was upper than 45 45 minutes was decreased. .percent of elimination In this conditions 20 minutes was optimum.

When UV/[H.sub.2][O.sub.2] method was used in 30 and 45 minutes, % elimination of Chloroform was decreased but % elimination of Chloroform was increased in and 20 minutes. 20 minutes was optimum condition.

Compariaton between UV/[O.sub.3] and UV/[H.sub.2][o.sub.2] shows that, % elimination of Chloroform was increased when UV/[O.sub.3] method was used.

4-Discussion and conclusion:

4-1- Effect of mixing RPM:

H-% Elimination of hardness by using UV + Magnetic field.

50mg     70%
100mg    81%
150mg    85%
200mg    87.5%

Note: Table made from pie chart.

At the beginning, the amount of Chloroform was measured in the samples of 2, 5, 10ppm with theGC mass analyser, which were respectively %63, %79, %90. Each of the samples were exposed to the UV lamp in the different periods of 15, 20, 30 and 45minutes, in which 20min was the optimum period, because in this specific period, the amount of existing Chloroform percent in the samples of 2, 5, and 10ppm were %14, %21 and %28 respectively. In which the amount of omission percent of Chloroform reached to %79.4, %73, and % 68.8. [28].

4-2- Effect of UV+[H.sub.2][O.sub.2]:

Using UV plus [H.sub.2][O.sub.2] method, the amount of Chloroform elimination in the solutions of 2, 5 and 10ppm reached %92.6, %89.8 and %86.6. Chlorform decomposes under the influence of light, air, and moisture. After storage, it therefore contains phosgene (carbonyl dichloride, COCl2), HCl, chlorine and other chlorinated

methane products. For this reason most purchased chloroform contains from 0.5- 1.0% ethanol as a stabilizer.. The formation of phosgene and HCl can be represented as follows: [7,9,29].

CHCl3 + H2O + O2 --> COCl2 + H2O2 + HCl (2)

CHCl3 + H2O2 --> COCl2 + H2O

4-3- Effect of UV+ [O.sub.3]:

Using [O.sub.3] plus UV method, the amount of Chloroform omission percent in the solution of 2ppm reached to %94.1. It should be mentioned that in this study, the optimum period of UV lamp was 20min and the optimum period for using it, was 5 min.

C[H.sub.3] CL [right arrow] CL + C[H.sub.3] C[H.sub.3]CL + OH * [right arrow] ... [right arrow] CL* CL * + [O.sub.3] [right arrow] CLO * + [O.sub.2] CLO* + O [right arrow] CL* + [O.sub.2] [o.sub.3] + o [right arrow]2 [o.sub.2] (3)

most (99%) stratospheric chlorine exists as non-radical, inactive forms (HCL, CLONO2) that cannot catalyse ozone destruction. [12, 13,30].

CLO* +N[O.sub.2*] [right arrow] CLON[O.sub.2] CL* + C[H.sub.4] [right arrow] HCL + C[H.sub.3] (5)

4-4- Effect of magnetic field:

The initial amounts of hardness of CaCO3 were 50, 100, 150 and 200mg, that for each of the samples, the fields with the intensities of 4, 6, 8 and 10mt at the period of 5min were used. As an example, in CaCO3 with the concentration of 50mg, after applying the above field intensities, the amount of hardness omission increased to %20, %30, %40 and %60 respectively. But it is considerable that, the field with the intensity of 50mt was applied separately to each of the samples of CaCO3 with the concentrations of 50, 100, 150 and 200mg for 10min. and in almost every samples, the amount of water hardness omission were about 100, but as the lack of affordable it was not being used [26],[27,33,34].

4-5- Effect of UV+magnetic field:

By composing the UV plus magnetic field methods, with the intensity of 10mt and using UV lamp for 20min, the amount of Chloroform omission reached to %100 that in the analyzed sample there were no sign of Chloroform either. In this way, in 10 MT field, the amount of water hardness omission reached to almost %70(50 mg CaC[O.sub.3]).

4-6- Effect of UV+magnetic field:

By composing the UV plus magnetic field methods, with the intensity of 10mt and using UV lamp for 20min, the amount of Chloroform omission reached to %100 that in the analyzed sample there were no sign of Chloroform either. In this way, in 10 MT field, the amount of water hardness omission reached to almost %70(50 mg CaC[O.sub.3]).


Article history:

Received 26 September 2014

Received in revised form 20 November 2014

Accepted 25 December 2014

Available online 20 January 2015


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(1) M.jafari.Jahaghi, (1) K.Tahvildari, (2) N.Alavi, (1) A. Sharif, 2P.Nazarpoor

(1) Departament of chemistry faculty islamic azad university Tehran north branch, Adress:Iran-Tehran-zafar street-Daftari alley chemistry faculty

(2) Department of environmental sinence, Islamic Azad University, science and research Branch, Tehran, Iran

Corresponding Author: K.Tahvildari, Departament of chemistry faculty islamic azad university Tehran north branch, Adress:Iran- Tehran-zafar street-Daftari alley chemistry faculty

Tel. +982122262563; Email:

3-2- Table 1:

Amount of hardness            Time and intense of magnetic field

                        20MT         10MT         8MT          6MT
                     10 Minutes   10 Minutes   10 Minutes   10 Minutes

(mg/lit CaCO3) 50        0           22.5          30          37.5
(mg/lit CaCO3) 100       0            44           58           74
(mg/lit CaCO3) 150       0           65.5          89         112.5
(mg/lit CaCO3) 150       0           93.5         122          148

                              Time and intense of magnetic field

Amount of hardness     100MT         70MT         50MT         20MT
                     5 Minutes    5 Minutes    5 Minutes    5 Minutes

(mg/lit CaCO3) 50        0            0            0            0
(mg/lit CaCO3) 100       0            0            0            0
(mg/lit CaCO3) 150       0            0            0            0
(mg/lit CaCO3) 200       0            0            0            0

Amount of hardness

                         10 Minutes

(mg/lit CaCO3) 50    45 (mg/lit CaCO3)
(mg/lit CaCO3) 100   89 (mg/lit CaCO3)
(mg/lit CaCO3) 150   132 (mg/lit CaCO3)
(mg/lit CaCO3) 150   180 (mg/lit CaCO3)

Amount of hardness       5 Minutes

(mg/lit CaCO3) 50            0
(mg/lit CaCO3) 100           0
(mg/lit CaCO3) 150           0
(mg/lit CaCO3) 200           0
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Author:Jahaghi, M. Jafari.; Tahvildari, K.; Alavi, N.; Sharif, A.; Nazarpoor, P.
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Date:Dec 1, 2014
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