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Relationship of religious and role variables with marital adjustment among Muslim couples in Bangladesh.

The purpose of the present study was to identify a subset of religious and role variables that are the best predictors of marital adjustment of husbands and wives, data were collected from 300 Muslim couples of Dhaka. The instruments included: a demographic and work characteristic questionnaire," a measure of religious practice," measures of role enactment and disagreement on role enactment," measures of role expectation and disagreement on role expectation; female role perception scale," perceived role conflict scale for wife," and the marital adjustment scale. Standardized Betas from multiple regression analysis confirmed thirteen out of seventy hypothesized relations between predictor variables and husband's marital adjustment. Similar analysis identified twelve out of seventy relations between predictor .variables and wife's marital adjustment.

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The purpose of the present study is to identify a subset of religious and role variables that are the best predictors of marital adjustment. The review of marriage research suggests that the marital adjustment concept has been used most consistently to refer to those processes that are presumed to be necessary to achieve a harmonious and functional marital relationship (Locke, 1951; Spanier, 1976; Spanier & Cole, 1976). In this regard, well-adjusted relationship has been conceived of as one in which the partners frequently interact with one another, seldom disagree on important marital issues, communicate openly with one another, and resolve disagreements in a mutually satisfactory manner (Sabatelli, 1988). In the current study marital adjustment is defined as "a process, the outcome of which is determined by the degree of (i) troublesome marital differences; (ii) interspousal tensions and personal anxiety; (iii) marital satisfaction; (iv) dyadic cohesion; and (v) consensus on matters of importance to marital functioning" (Spanier & Cole, 1976, 127-128).

In this study, by religious variable we mean religious practice of the Muslim population. Here, roles are conceptualized as more or less homogeneous sets of behaviour which are normatively defined and expected of an occupant in a given position (Nye, 1976). Any social position (such as husband, wife, father, mother) may include numerous roles. In some segments of the positions of father, mother, and spouse, the roles are clearly defined and generally accepted by sociologists and psychologists. These include house-keeper, provider, therapeutic, recreation, kinship, child-care, and child-education. In the present study these salient family roles are specified for studying role enactment, disagreement on role enactment, role expectation, and disagreement on role expectation. Here, role enactment, disagreement on role enactment, role expectation, disagreement on role expectation, female role perception (FRP), congruency in FRP, wife's perceived Role Conflict (PRC) are referred to as role variables. Role enactment refers to the perceived competence with which role tasks are performed. It is an evaluation of how well one (self and spouse) is able to carry out various marital roles. Disagreement on role enactment refers to degree of perceived disagreement between husband and wife regarding performance of distribution of role duties between husband and wife. Disagreement on role expectation is the degree of disagreement regarding distribution of role duties between husband and wife. Female role perception refers to responses related to normative conception of appropriate behaviour of females. Wife's perceived role conflict is defined as the perceived conflict between home and non-home roles. It is a form of inter role conflict in which the demands of work and family roles are incompatible in some respect so that participation in either the work or family role is more difficult because of participation in the other role (Greenhaus & Beutell, 1985).

Review of marriage literature indicates that there is proliferation of studies which have searched for empirical referents of marital adjustment among various religious and role variables. For example, a large number of studies to date have demonstrated religiosity is a significant predictor of marital adjustment (Bahr & Chadwick, 1985; Filsinger & Wilson, 1984; Glenn & Weaver, 1978; Hansen, 1981, Hunt & King, 1978). However, findings of these studies cannot be generalized for populations of all religious faiths. Because subjects of all these studies have been only from the Christian population.

Empirical studies have shown that role enactment, role expectation, consensus on role enactment and expectation have a positive influence on marital satisfaction (Bahr, Chappell & Leigh, 1983; Brinley, 1975; Chadwick, Albercht & Kunz, 1976; Cutright, 1971; Laws, 1971; Lee, 1977; Nye, 1976; Rollins & Galligan, 1978). However, influence of role enactment and role consensus on marital satisfaction vary according to type of role. Most of these studies used Nye's (1976) family role typology for determining the influence of specific type of role enactment and role consensus on marital satisfaction. From a review of family literature, Nye (1976) identified eight family roles namely; provider, house-keeper, child-care, child-socialization, sexual, therapeutic, recreation and kinship. Various studies had determined the extent to which role enactment and role consensus in each of these roles affected marital satisfaction. Research indicated that quality of performance in the provider, child socialization, and therapeutic roles are particularly important for marital satisfaction (Brinley, 1975; Chadwick et al. 1976; Nye, 1976).

Findings concerning effects of role expectations, and consensus regarding role expectations is controversial (Chadwick et al. 1976; Laws, 1971). Small and nonsignificant correlations between consensus on role expectations and marital satisfaction in Chadwick et al. study (1976) gave little support to the hypothesis that congruence in role expectation is related to marital satisfaction. However, Laws (1971) reported several studies which had substantiated the hypothesis that congruence in role expectation is significantly related to marital satisfaction.

Although decade of the 1970's saw a growing interest in studying male and female roles (Spanier & Lewis, 1980), very few studies have examined the relationship between sex role (i.e., male-female role) attitude and marital adjustment (Bowen & Orthner, 1983; Scanzoni, 1975; Snyder, 1979). The studies of Scanzoni (1975) and Snyder (1979) found no significant relationship between sex role attitude and marital quality. But in Bowen and Orthner's (1983) study, although it was predicted that couples with congruent sex role attitude (both traditional or both modern) would report higher marital quality than couples with incongruent sex role attitude (husband modern, wife traditional; husband traditional, wife modern), this prediction was only partially supported. The marriages found to have the lowest marital quality were those with a traditional husband and modern wife. The study found no differences in marital quality scores of couples with congruent sex role attitude and modern traditional (i.e., husband modern, wife traditional) sex role attitude. Review of marriage research further indicates that there is a lack of empirical studies which have directly searched relationship of perceived role conflict of women with marital adjustment.

Thus, the above review indicates that a large number of studies in North America have searched for empirical referents of marital adjustments among various religious and role variables. However, researchers in these studies have searched for single or small groups of religious and role variables which may explain variation in marital adjustment. No studies have investigated the joint effects of all the independent variables mentioned in the present study to the variance of marital adjustment. Moreover, most of these studies have used correlational design, which does not permit inferences regarding causal relationships. Although the number of researches on marriage conducted outside North America has increased considerably in recent times, yet no researches have been undertaken in developing Muslim countries for examining relationship of marital adjustment with religiosity and role variables. It may be observed that religious and psychological characteristics of the Muslim population in developing countries are different from those of Muslim in the developed European and North American countries. In Muslim society, religiosity has a great influence on the individual and social life of a person. These in turn may influence marital adjustment. Expectation regarding appropriate family roles for husbands and wives are also different as conjugal role segregation in Muslim society is higher than that in North American and European society (Badawi, 1977). It is speculated that these two societies also differ widely in female role perceptions. Moreover, rate of divorce in the Muslim population is much lower than that of North American and European population. Variation in divorce rate might differentially affect marital adjustment of these two populations. In addition, employment rate of women, family size (number of children), and type of family (nuclear/extended) in these two societies are also different (Rabbani, 1984). Therefore, it is expected that women's employment status, family size, and family type may work as moderator variables in relationship between role variables and marital adjustment. Due to the reasons stated in the preceding paragraph, it is speculated that pattern of relationship between marital adjustment and religious and role variables might be differing for these two populations. Data of the current study might prove useful in future for verifying this speculation and throw light upon cross-cultural aspects of the research in this area.

Considering the above facts the present study was undertaken for examining the effects of religious practice, role enactment, disagreement regarding role enactment, role expectations, disagreement on role expectation, female role perception, congruency in female role perception, and wife's perceived role conflict on marital adjustment. For examining effects of role enactment, disagreement on role enactment, role expectation, and disagreement on role expectation on marital adjustment, the study specified seven family roles namely, housekeeping, providing, therapeutic, recreation, kinship, childcare, and child education.

The purpose of the present study thus was also to build a regression model for identifying a subset of religious and role variables that would be good predictors of marital adjustment. By building a regression model the study evaluated the relative and simultaneous contribution of independent variables (i.e., religious and role variables) to the variation in the dependent variable of marital adjustment. The study also determined the overall contributions of all the independent variables operating jointly on the variance of marital adjustment.

In the light of the above objectives, it was hypothesized that (i) each of the religious and role variables would contribute significantly to the variation of marital adjustment, (ii) it was also hypothesized that the variation in marital adjustment was accounted for by the joint linear influence of religious practice, quality of enactment of each role by self and spouse, disagreement on each role enactment, role expectation and disagreement on role expectation, female role perception, congruency in female role perception, wife's perceived role conflict.

METHOD

Subjects

The subjects of the present study were Bangladeshi Muslims.

They were selected from four wards of Dhaka city. Wards were selected purposely by emphasizing variation in the socio-economic conditions of the families. Simple Random Sampling technique was used for drawing the households from voters' lists of wards. From each household one couple was selected. In selecting samples, strict random sampling procedure was not possible because voters' lists were not up-to-date and a considerable, number of families were not found in the addresses written in the voters' lists. Moreover, some households were without couples.

The subjects thus consisted of 300 Muslim couples, of whom 285 were in their first marriages, 10 were remarried, and 5 were separated. Two hundred and twenty eight couples were members of the nuclear family and seventy two belonged to the joint family.

At the time of data collection, husband's mean age was 35.05 years (range= 21-84, SD= 8.77) and wife's mean age was 35.52 years (range= 16-72, SD= 8.20). Couples had been married for a mean of 10.63 years (range= 1-35, SD= 8.76) and had a mean of about children (range= 0-8, SD= 1.76). The mean educational level of husband was 15.31 years (range= 3-20, SD= 3.35), whereas for wife it was 12.25 years (range= 0-20, SD= 3.75). The mean monthly income of family was Tk. 5756.93 (range= 445-40090.00, SD= 5577.96). Occupationwise distribution of husbands and wives are presented in Table 1.

Overall, our sample included couples from all ages and educational and income groups. Years of education indicated that on the average husbands had graduation and wives had higher secondary level qualifications. Majority of husbands were professionals, and majority of wives were house-makers.

Instruments

For collecting the data, the present study used the following instruments:

i) Demographic and personal characteristics questionnaire;

ii) Measures of religiosity;

iii) Measures of role enactment, disagreement on role enactment, role expectation, and disagreement on role expectation;

iv) Female role perception scale;

v) Perceived role conflict scale for wife;

vi) Marital adjustment scale.

Demographic and personal characteristics questionnaire

This questionnaire collected data on marital status, family type, age, age at marriage, length of marriage, education, monthly family income, and occupation.

Measure of religiosity

Practice dimension of religiosity was measured by four Likert type items that asked about (i) frequency of performing the 'salat' (saying prayers), (ii) frequency of fasting in the month of 'Ramadan', (iii) frequency of reciting the Holy Quran, (iv) frequency of reading Islamic literature. The response categories for each item included: "always", "some times", and "never". Score 2 indicated always response, score 1 sometimes, and score zero never response. The sum of all the item scores was the total score of religiosity for an individual. Significant item-to-total correlation coefficients (rs) indicated the reliability of the scale. The rs ranged from .2017 to .5922 and each of these rs was significant at p < .0005.

Measure of role enactment, disagreement on role enactment, role expectation, disagreement on role expectation

To measure quality of self and spouse role enactment the subjects were asked: "How well do you and your spouse perform each of the following family roles". The following seven roles were then listed: (a) housekeeping, (b) providing, (c) therapeutic, (d) recreation, (e) kinship, (f) child-care, (g) teaching children. The response categories were "very well", "well", "uncertain", "not well", "not at all well". Score 1 was assigned to the response, "not at all well", score 5 to "very well", and the remaining responses were given in between score.

Disagreement about husband's role enactment was ascertained by subtracting the wife's perception of his performance from the husband's perception of his own performance. Disagreement about wife's role enactment was calculated by subtracting husband's perception of her performance from wife's perception of her own performance.

Role expectations were measured by asking the subjects to indicate who should be responsible for performing the seven family roles. The response categories included: "husband entirely", "husband more than wife", "husband and wife the same", "wife more than husband", and "wife entirely". Scoring for providing and teaching children role were as follows: Husband entirely = 5, husband more than wife= 4, husband and wife the same= 3, wife more than husband= 2, wife entirely= 1. Scoring of the remaining five roles was done in reverse order.

Disagreement about role expectation was calculated by subtracting the wife's response to an item of role responsibility from the husband's response to that item of role responsibility.

The Female Role Perception (FRP) Scale

The FRP scale (Ilyas & Zaman, 1988) contains 21 items. Items are in Bengali. Each of the first 20 items of the scale includes statements dealing with adult female role situations particularly related to family, occupation, and social life. The items are all short statements expressing either traditional or nontraditional role preferences with three response alternatives "yes", "uncertain" and "no" (1).

The last item contains two paragraphs. Paragraph A states that women should focus attention on home and family affairs, while paragraph B states that women should be equal to men in opportunities, pay, and type of occupation chosen. Ss were asked too respond to this item by selecting one of the two paragraphs. (2) The scale was reported to be reliable and valid.

The Perceived Role Conflict (PRC) Scale

The PRC scale is also a 21 item Likert type instrument (Begum & Tasneem, 1984). The items of the scale cover statements that describe conflict between home and nonhome roles. The home roles or traditional roles include the feminine role characteristics of a woman such as role of a mother, wife, and housekeeper. The nonhome roles include role of a boss, subordinate, and colleague. For each item there are five response alternatives: "strongly disagree", "disagree", "undecided", "agree", "strongly agree". This scale contains 11 positive and 10 negative items1. The scale is reported to be reliable and valid (Begum & Tasneem, 1984).

The Marital Adjustment Scale

The adapted Bengali version of Spanier's Dyadic Adjustment Scale (Illyas, 1986) was used to measure marital adjustment. The scale is chosen because it is consistent with the definition of marital adjustment used in the present study. Moreover, it has content, criterion-related, and construct validity. It is reliable and also has high correlation with an other well established measure of marital adjustment.

The adapted scale has 29 items. Three items that ask about frequency of kissing, differences for being too tired for sex, and for not showing love has been dropped from the scale. These items were omitted because it was feared that these items would offend the respondents and reduce the response rate. The remaining 29 items were translated into Bengali. Then both English and Bengali versions of the scale were given to six judges for carefully examining whether each item of both the versions convey the same meaning or not. The judges were also requested to give suggestions for improving the translations. Some changes in the translations were made according to suggestions of judges. Then, English and Bengali versions of the scale were administered to 50 subjects. Half of the Ss were administered the English version first and then after an interval of 20 days the Bengali version was administered. The remaining half of the Ss were administered the Bengali version first and then the English version with 20 days gap between the two administrations.

Significant correlations r(48)= .78, p < .0001 between scores of English and Bengali versions indicated that the English and Bengali versions measured the same thing.

Procedure

Data of the study were collected by a combination of interviewing and self-administered questionnaires. Four interviewers (two male and two female) were given training for collecting the data. The interviewers were M. Sc. final year students of psychology department of Dhaka University. Husband and wife of every family were interviewed separately and completed separate questionnaire forms.

For administering instruments each subject was given the following general instructions: "This questionnaire asks about personal characteristics, religious practice, family roles, and marital attitude and behaviour. Your answers will be completely anonymous and confidential, and will be used only for research purposes. Try to answer all questions as honestly as possible. Give each question a moment's thought and then answer it. Please answer each question independent of your partner. Your partner should not see or help with the answers".

Beside this general instructions, each S was given separate instructions for each of the measures and scales.

RESULTS

The methods of analyses in the present study are Mean and Standard Deviation, Zero-order Pearson Correlation, and Step-wise Multiple Regression. Table 2 shows the means and Standard Deviation of all variables tested in the model as well as zero-order pearson correlations between marital adjustment and each of religious and role variables. Tables 3 to 6 present output from the multiple regression analysis. The step-wise regression analysis is used for identifying a subset of religious and role variables that are best predictors of marital adjustment. In step-wise regression procedure inclusion of an independent variable in the equation is determined by its contribution to the explained variance and tolerance. Sometimes inter-relationships between independent and dependent variables are confounded by interrelationships among independent variables. For overcoming this difficulty tolerance (i.e., indicator of interrelationship between independent variables) is considered. Tolerance is the proportion of variability in an independent variable not explained by the other independent variables in the equation. If an independent variable has a small tolerance, then it can be predicted from other independent variables (Norusis, 1983). In the present study, the direct effect of each independent variable on marital adjustment is estimated by the partial standardized regression coefficient beta (B) with all other independent variables in the regression equation (Tables 3 & 4). R2-change is also calculated for determining relative importance of each independent variable (Table 5 & 6). The joint effects of religious and role variables on marital adjustment are estimated by R-square (Table 5 & 6).

Religious Practice

Zero-order correlation coefficients (rs)of Table 2 indicated that religious practice of husband and wife were positively related to marital adjustment of husband and wife. However, standardized betas (Bs) in Table 3 indicated that only religious practice of husband was the significant predictor of marital adjustment of husband (B= . 1602, p< .0007) and wife (B= .1516, p< .001). R2-change indicated that 2.47% of variance of marital adjustment of husband and 3.09% of variance of marital adjustment of wife were accounted for by the religious practice of husband.

Role Enactment

Mean of perceived role enactments showed that husbands perceived their wives' role enactment as being superior to their own for every role with exception of provider. Wives also perceived their own role enactment superior to their husbands' for every role with exception of provider (Table 2). Correlation coefficients (rs) indicated that spouse role enactment and self role enactment (with exception of provider role) were positively related to marital adjustment of self. But r between husband's perception of own provider role enactment and his marital adjustment was not significant, while r between husband's perception of own provider role enactment and marital adjustment of wife r(298)= . 154, p < .0005 was significant. Moreover, rs of wife's perception of own provider role enactments with marital adjustment of husband r(298)= -.116 p< .05, and marital adjustment of wife r(298)= -.112, p>.05 were significant and negative. However, standardized betas (Bs) did not confirm all these relationships. Betas (Bs) indicated that significant predictors of marital adjustment of husband were husband's perception of own recreation role enactment (B= . 1417, p < .003), his perception of wife's childcare (B= .2016, p<.0001), and therapeutic (B= .1703, p< .0007) role enactment; wife's perception of husband's kinship (B= .1712, p< .0007) and housekeeping (B = . 1101, p < .0245) role enactment (Table 3).

Standardized Bs further indicated that significant predictors of marital adjustment of wife were husband's perception of wife's housekeeping (B= .1637, p<.0013), therapeutic (B= .1692, p < .0005), and child-care role enactment; (B = . 1027, p < .46) wife's perception of husband's recreation (B= .2179, p<.0005), housekeeping (B= .1512, p<.0029), and childcare (B= .1448, p < .0049) role enactment (Table 4).

Disagreement on Role Enactment

Data on husband-wife disagreement about husband's perceived role enactment revealed that highest disagreement occurred in the evaluation of enactment of husband's kinship role, while for wife's perceived role enactment highest disagreement occurred in the evaluation of enactment of wife's provider role (Table 2). Correlation coefficients (rs) indicated that for both husband and wife, degree of disagreement (i.e., smaller the disagreement greater the consensus) regarding enactment of each role was negatively related to marital adjustment of self and spouse (Table 2). Standardized betas indicated that husband-wife disagreement in the evaluation of wife's provider (B = -. 1765, p < .0001), husband's childcare (B = -. 1740, p < .0004), and wife's child education (B= -.1368, p<.0075) role enactment were the significant predictors of marital adjustment of husband. R2change indicated that husband-wife disagreement in the evaluation of wife's provider and teaching children role, and husband's childcare role enactment explained respectively 4.57%, 1.18% and 1.42% of variance of marital adjustment of husband. Standardized betas further indicated that husband-wife disagreement in the evaluation of husband's provider (B= -. 1279, p < .0047) role enactment were two significant predictors of marital adjustment of wife. Disagreement in the evaluation of husband's and wife's provider role enactment explained respectively 1.82 % and 1.12 % of the variance of the marital adjustment of wife.

Role Expectation

Correlations (rs) between husband's role expectations and marital adjustment suggested that husband's role expectations in housekeeping, kinship, and chiidcare were negatively related to marital adjustment of husband. Similarly, husband's role expectations inhousekeeping, therapeutic, kinship and childcare were negatively related to marital adjustment of wife. But husband's provider role expectation was positively related to marital adjustment of wife (Table 2). However, standardized betas (Bs) did not confirm any of the hypothesized relations between role expectation and marital adjustment.

Husband-Wife Disagreement on Role Expectations

Data on husband-wife agreement on role expectation indicated that roles where the least disagreement occurred were childcare and providing roles, while roles where the highest disagreement occurred were therapeutic and kinship roles. Significant negative rs indicated that husband-wife disagreement on expectation about distribution of housekeeping r(298) = -. 173, p < .01, and childcare r(298) = -. 154, p < .01 roles are negatively related to marital adjustment of husband. Standardized betas (Bs) also indicated that husband-wife disagreement on expectation about distribution of housekeeping (B= -.1267, p<.0055), childcare (B= -.1001, p<.0265), and recreation (B= .0898, p < .049) roles are significant predictors of marital adjustment of husband. Significant negative rs further indicated that husband-wife disagreement on expectation about distribution of housekeeping r(298)= -.161, p< .01, kinship r(298)= -.135, p <.05 and childcare r(298)= -.181, p< .01 roles are negatively related to marital adjustment of wife. But standardized betas (Bs) indicated that husband-wife disagreement on expectation regarding distribution of childcare (B= . 1006, p < .0238) role between husband and wife were two significant predictors of marital adjustment of wife.

Female Role Perception

Correlation coefficients (rs) suggested that FRP of husband was positively related to marital adjustment of husband and wife; while FRP of wife was negatively related to marital adjustment of husband and wife. However, these correlations were not significant. Positive and significant rs of husband-wife incongruency in FRP with marital adjustment of husband r(298) = -. 166, p < .01 and marital adjustment of wife r(298) = -. 163, p < .01 indicated that incongruency increases marital adjustment. However, standardized betas indicated that husband's FRP (B=. 1473, p < .0011) was a significant predicator of husband's marital adjustment, and husband-wife incongruency in RFP (B= .1286, p<.003) was a significant predicator of marital adjustment of wife.

Wife's Perceived Role Conflict

Zero-order pearson correlations indicated that perceived role conflict of wife was negatively related to marital adjustment of husband (r= -.045, P<.444) and (r= -.050, p<.389). However, these rs were not significant. Standardized betas also indicated that perceived role conflict of wife was not a significant predictor of marital adjustment of husband and wife.

DISCUSSION

Religious and role variables are employed in this causal model to predict marital adjustment. The study has tested the seventy hypothesized relations between predictor variables (religious and role variables) and marital adjustment of husband. It has also tested another seventy hypothesized relations between predictor variables and marital adjustment of wife. For testing these hypothesized relations zero-order correlations (rs) and stepwise multiple regression analysis are used. However, zero-order correlations (rs) [Table 2] do not necessarily indicate causal relationship between predictor variables and marital adjustment. For testing causal relationship between predictor variables and marital adjustment, stepwise multiple regression analyses were done.

Zero-order coefficients (rs) indicate religiosity of self and spouse is related to marital adjustment. However, standardized B indicates that religious practice of husband is one of the significant predictors of marital adjustment of husband and wife. The probable reason for this significant relationship is that the religious husband obeys the Islamic rules of married life. Islam recognizes rights of wife and emphasizes kind treatment to wife. The Holy Quran states: "But consort with them in kindness, for if you hate them it may happen that you hate a thing wherein God has placed much good" (al-Quran, 4: 19). Islam further emphasizes the importance of taking counsel from wife and husband-wife agreement in family decision making. The Holy Quran gives us an example: "If they (husband and wife) desire to wean the child by mutual consent and (after) consultation, there is no blame on them" (al-Quran, 2:233). Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) strongly recommended good treatment of wife. Prophet (PBUH) says "The most perfect believers are the best in conduct and the best of you are those who are best to their wives" (Ahmad, 1977). Thus if a husband is kind, and considerate to his wife, the wife's marital adjustment may improve, and she also may become kind and responsive to her husband. This in turn increases the marital adjustment of husband. However, religious practice of wife has failed to show hypothesized relation with marital adjustment.

Mean of self and spouse's perceived role enactment shows that husbands perceived their wife's role enactment as superior to their own for every role with the exception of that of the provider. Wives also perceived their own role enactment as superior to their husbands for every role with the exception of that of the provider (Table 2). Those perceptions are consistent with values and norms of Muslim society. Man in Muslim society is fully responsible for the care of his wife, his children, and even in some cases, his needy relatives, specially females (Badawi, 1977). While a woman is responsible for household and child related duties. Although there is no decree in Islam which forbids a woman from seeking employment whenever there is a necessity for it, Islam regards her roles in society as mother, wife, and housekeeper as the most scared and essential.

Correlations indicate perception of spouse role enactment and self role enactment in each role (with exception of provider role) are positively related to marital adjustment of self. Correlation further indicates husband's perception of own provider role enactment is positively related to marital adjustment of wife. This finding is consistent with findings of Brinley (1975). However, wife's perceived own provider role enactment is negatively related to marital adjustment of both spouses. Why is wife's perceived own provider role enactment negatively related to marital adjustment of husband? The explanation is because wife's perception of own provider role enactment diminishes man's position as head of household. Due to such perception of wife, man also realizes his failure in fulfilling central duty of his life - the very core of his manhood - role of family provider. This feeling produces deep frustration and lowers his marital adjustment. Now why is wife's own provider role enactment is negatively related to her marital adjustment? We may explain this by saying that when a wife takes outside employment she can hardly devote as much time as desired for housekeeping and childcare. This work/family conflict may lower her marital adjustment.

However, standardized betas (Bs) do not confirm all these relationships. Betas (Bs) confirm five of the twenty eight hypothesized relations between perceived role enactment variables and marital adjustment of husband. Results suggest that significant predictors of marital adjustment of husbands are husband's perception of own recreation role enactment, husband's perception of wife's therapeutic, and childcare role enactment; and wife's perception of husband's housekeeping and kinship role enactment. Among these predictors strongest predictor is husband's perception of wife's childcare role enactment which explained 16.60% of the variance in husband's marital adjustment.

For marital adjustment of wife, Bs confirm six of the twenty eight hypothesized relations between role enactment variables and marital adjustment of wife. Here, significant predictors are husband's perception of wife's therapeutic, housekeeping, and childcare role enactment; wife's perception of husband's recreation, housekeeping, and childcare role enactment. R-square change indicates that among these predictors the most important one is husband's perception of wife's housekeeping role enactment which explained 8.45% of the variance in wife's marital adjustment.

Thus, results of regression suggest that husband's perception of wife's childcare and therapeutic role enactment, and wife's perception of husband's housekeeping role enactment affected the marital adjustment of both spouses.

Correlation data on husband-wife consensus, indicate that degree of disagreement (i.e., smaller the disagreement, the higher the consensus) regarding enactment of roles are negatively related to marital adjustment of spouse and self (Table 2). However, standardized Bs confirmed three of the fourteen hypothesized relations between disagreement variables and marital adjustment of husband. Among disagreement variables significant predictors are disagreement on husband's childcare, and wife's provider and teaching children role enactment. In case of wife, Bs confirmed only two of the fourteen hypothesized relations between disagreement variables and marital adjustment of wife. Disagreement about husband's provider role enactment and wife's provider role enactment are two significant predictors of marital adjustment of wife.

Small and non-significant (Bs) do not give support to the hypothesized relations between role expectation variables and marital adjustment. This finding is consistent with finding of Chadwick et al. (1976).

Mean of husband-wife disagreement on role expectation indicates that there is less disagreement on childcare, recreation, and housekeeping role expectations, while there is more disagreement on therapeutic, teaching children, and kinship role expectations. Correlations coefficients (rs) suggest husband-wife disagreement on housekeeping and childcare role expectations are negatively related to marital adjustment of husband. Bs also suggest husband-wife disagreement on housekeeping, childcare, and recreation role expectation are three significant predictors of marital adjustment of husband. Correlation coefficients (rs) further suggest marital adjustment of wife is negatively related to husband-wife disagreement on housekeeping, kinship, and childcare role expectation. But Bs indicate that husband-wife disagreement on childcare and provider role expectation are two significant predictors of marital adjustment of wife.

Standardized betas (Bs) confirm one of the three hypothesized relations between FRP and marital adjustment of husband. Beta (B) indicates that husband's FRP is the only significant predictor of marital adjustment of husband. But in case of wife, B reveals that husband-wife incongruency in FRP is the only predictor of marital adjustment of wife. If a husband is modern and wife is traditional in FRP, then husband-wife incongruency in FRP may occur. Incongruency in FRP increases marital adjustment of wife, because modern husbands honour the rights of wife to pursue independent interests. They also realize their joint responsibility for household and child-rearing activities and also participate in these activities. On the other hand, although traditional women see their interests as subordinate to the interests of the family and the husband in particular, they probably would find it reinforcing to know that they could pursue careers and received help at home if they so desired.

Non-significant rs and Bs give no support to the hypothesized relations of PRC with marital adjustment of husband and wife.

Thus, it was observed that for both husband and wife, almost all the correlations (rs) between independent variables and marital adjustment were significant. However, betas (Bs) indicated that only thirteen variables (i.e., religious and role variables) are causally related to marital adjustment of husband. These variables are husband's own recreation role enactment; husband's perception of wife's childcare, and therapeutic role enactment; husband-wife disagreement on husband's childcare role enactment; husband-wife disagreement on wife's provider, and teaching children role enactment; husband-wife disagreement on expectation regarding housekeeping, childcare, and recreation role; husband's religious practice; and husband's female role perception. These independent variables jointly explained 47.61% of the variance in marital adjustment of husband. However, for wife's betas (Bs) indicated that only twelve variables are causally related to her marital adjustment. These significant variables are husband's perception of wife's housekeeping, therapeutic, and childcare role enactment; wife's perception of husband's childcare, recreation, and housekeeping role enactment; husband-wife disagreement on husband's provider role enactment, and wife's provider role enactment; husband-wife disagreement on expectation regarding childcare, and provider role; religious practice of husband; and husband-wife congruency in female role perception. These significant independent variables jointly explained 48.59% of the variance in marital adjustment of wife.

However, the results of the study should be interpreted with some limitations in mind for several reasons. Firstly, the sampling procedure employed in this study places limits on the generalizability of the findings. The couples were urban and belonged to the middle class. Majority of husbands were professionals, and most of the wives were house-wives. Secondly, this study did not control some variables that might have potential impact on relationship between role variables and marital adjustment. Some of these variables could be as the following: (a) presence of children, (b) density of children, (c) age of children, (d) employment status of wife, and (e) type of family (i.e., nuclear/extended family). These variables may influence marital adjustment by their impact on perceived role enactment, role expectation and role consensus variables. Inclusion of these variables in the model are necessary for better understanding of relations between role variables and marital adjustment.

The article was receive in February, 1993.

REFERENCES

Ahmad, K. (1977). Islam: Its meaning and message. New Delhi: Ambika Publications.

Al-Quran, Sura 2: Verse 233.

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(1) For items phrased in traditional way, score zero indicates "yes" response, score 1 "uncertain" and score 2 "no" response. Responses of nontraditionally phrased items are scored in reverse order (i.e., yes= 2 uncertain= 1, no= 0).

(2) Score zero is assigned to the response "complete agreement with A', score 4 to "complete agreement with B', and the remaining responses are given in-between scores. A subject's total score in the scale is the sum of numerical values of responses to all items.

(1) For positive items of PRC scale score 1 indicates "strongly disagree', score 2 "disagree', score 3 "undecided', score 4 "agree', and score 5 "strongly agree'. For negative items scoring was in reverse order (i.e., strongly disagree= 5, disagree= 4, undecided= 3, agree= 2, strong agree= 1). The sum of scores of all items was the total score of the scale for an individual.

Quazi Shamsuddin Md. Ilyas *

Department of Psychology

University of Dhaka

Dhaka, Bangladesh

Quazi Shamsuddin Md. Ilyas, This research project was supported by a grant from the Bangladesh University Grants Commission.
Table 1
Occupation-wise Distribution of Husbands and Wives

Occupation                                 Husband   Wife
                                             (n)     (n)

College University Teacher                   17       12
Primary/Secondary School Teacher              3       23
Doctor                                       22        3
Engineer                                     37        1
Scientist                                    14        8
Judges/Lawyer                                10        2
Civil Servant/Administrator                  59        6
Manager/Accountant                           43       11
Army Official                                16        2
Poet/Writer/Journalist/Television and
  Radio Artist                                7        5
Secretary/Clerk/Typist/Telephone
  Operator/Skilled Labour                    11        9
Unskilled Labour/Domestic Servant             7        3
Business                                     44       --
Unemployed                                   10       --
Housewives                                   --      215

Table 2
Means, Standard Deviations, and Zero-order Correlations for
Variables Tested in Models of Marital Adjustment of Husband and Wife

                                    X       SD
Independent Variables

Religiosity

  Religious practice of husband    8.31    2.04
  Religious practice of wife       9.01    1.63
  Husband-Wife difference in
  religious practice              -0.685   1.83

Husband's Perception of Self Role Enactment

  Housekeeping                     3.50    1.23
  Providing                        4.72     .74
  Therapeutic                      3.55    1.04
  Recreation                       3.24     .90
  Kinship                          3.72    1.05
  Childcare                        4.02    1.04
  Teaching Children                4.34     .99

Husband's Perception of Spouse Role Enactment

  Housekeeping                     4.56     .83
  Providing                        2.60    1.60
  Therapeutic                      3.74     .98
  Recreation                       3.49     .90
  Kinship                          4.01     .98
  Childcare                        4.62     .80
  Teaching Children                4.55     .85

Wife's Perception of Self Role Enactment

  Housekeeping                     4.65     .69
  Providing                        2.27    1.48
  Therapeutic                      3.81     .90
  Recreation                       3.41     .87
  Kinship                          4.14     .88
  Childcare                        4.72     .69
  Teaching Children                4.62     .82

Wife's Perception of Spouse Role Enactment

  Housekeeping                     3.56    1.41
  Providing                        4.67     .90
  Therapeutic                      3.65    1.08
  Recreation                       3.32     .94
  Kinship                          3.83    1.08
  Childcare                        3.98    1.11
  Teaching Children                4.25    1.05

Husband-Wife Disagreement on Husband's Role Enactment (a)

  Housekeeping                    -0.06    1.24
  Providing                        0.05     .89
  Therapeutic                     -0.10    1.12
  Recreation                      -0.08    1.00
  Kinship                         -0.11    1.08
  Childcare                        0.05    1.01
  Teaching Children                0.09    1.00

Husband-Wife Disagreement on Wife's Role Enactment

  Housekeeping                     0.09     .78
  Providing                       -0.33    1.61
  Therapeutic                      0.07    1.02
  Recreation                      -0.08     .96
  Kinship                          0.12    1.01
  Childcare                        0.09     .77
  Teaching Children                0.08     .79

Husband's Role Expectation

  Housekeeping                     3.55     .89
  Providing                        4.26     .83
  Therapeutic                      3.11     .46
  Recreation                       3.00     .43
  Kinship                          3.25     .51
  Childcare                        3.52     .67
  Teaching Children                2.80     .59

Wife's Role Expectation

  Housekeeping                     3.51     .91
  Providing                        4.23     .79
  Therapeutic                      2.97     .48
  Recreation                       2.95     .45
  Kinship                          3.14     .50
  Childcare                        3.52     .67
  Teaching Children                2.92     .59

Husband-Wife Disagreement Role Enactment

  Housekeeping                     0.04    1.07
  Providing                        0.03     .96
  Therapeutic                      0.14     .60
  Recreation                       0.05     .63
  Kinship                          0.11     .64
  Childcare                         .003    .84
  Teaching Children               -0.12     .79

Female Role Perception (FRP)

  FRP of Husband                  21.97    6.51

  FRP of Wife                     21.82    6.21

  Husband-Wife Congruency
    in FRP                          .09    6.79

Perceived Role Conflict

  Perceived Role Conflict
    of Wife                       67.75    12.56

Marital Adjustment

  Marital Adjustment
    of Husband                    111.29   22.52

Marital Adjustment of Wife        112.56   21.14

                                  r between        r between
                                  Husband's        Wife's
Independent Variables             Marital          Marital
                                  Adjustment and   Adjustment and

Religiosity

  Religious practice of husband   .293 ****        .314 ****
  Religious practice of wife      .138 *           .181 **
  Husband-Wife difference in
  religious practice              .201 ***         .179 **

Husband's Perception of Self Role Enactment

  Housekeeping                     .230 ***         .174 **
  Providing                        .095             .154 ****
  Therapeutic                      .229 ****        .289 ****
  Recreation                       .239 ****        .227 ****
  Kinship                          .302 ***         .265 ****
  Childcare                        .179 **          .219 ****
  Teaching Children                .165 *           .236 ****

Husband's Perception of Spouse Role Enactment

  Housekeeping                     .347 ****        .397 ****
  Providing                        .118 *           .041
  Therapeutic                      .354 ****        .408 ****
  Recreation                       .191 **          .215 ****
  Kinship                          .321 ****        .327 ****
  Childcare                        .409 ****        .430 ****
  Teaching Children                .315 ****        .335 ****

Wife's Perception of Self Role Enactment

  Housekeeping                     .159 **          .198 ***
  Providing                       -.116 *          -.112 *
  Therapeutic                      .238 ****        .260 ****
  Recreation                       .052             .195 ***
  Kinship                          .212 ****        .284 ****
  Childcare                        .098             .205 ****
  Teaching Children                .105             .153 **

Wife's Perception of Spouse Role Enactment

  Housekeeping                     .329 ****        .375 ****
  Providing                        .238 ****        .339 ****
  Therapeutic                      .376 ****        .446 ****
  Recreation                       .263 ****        .381 ****
  Kinship                          .387 ****        .421 ****
  Childcare                        .312 ****        .388 ****
  Teaching Children                .271 ****        .361 ****

Husband-Wife Disagreement on Husband's Role Enactment (a)

  Housekeeping                    -.148 *         -.254 ****
  Providing                       -.158 **        -.216 ****
  Therapeutic                     -.148           -.162 **
  Recreation                      -.031           -.153 **
  Kinship                         -.092           -.164 **
  Childcare                       -.155 **        -.200 ***
  Teaching Children               -.120 *         -.145 *

Husband-Wife Disagreement on Wife's Role Enactment

  Housekeeping                    -.231 ****      -.246 ****
  Providing                       -.228 ****      -.144 *
  Therapeutic                      .127 *         -.164 **
  Recreation                      -.130 *         -.026
  Kinship                         -.126 *         -.072
  Childcare                       -.328 ****      -.265 ****
  Teaching Children               -.224 ****      -.203 **

Husband's Role Expectation

  Housekeeping                    -.183 *         -.155 **
  Providing                        .096            .165 **
  Therapeutic                     -.015           -.118 *
  Recreation                       .061           -.057
  Kinship                         -.153 **        -.167 **
  Childcare                       -.126 *         -.165 **
  Teaching Children                .031            .053

Wife's Role Expectation

  Housekeeping                     .020            .037
  Providing                        .047           -.039
  Therapeutic                     -.019            .011
  Recreation                      -.010           -.013
  Kinship                         -.056            .004
  Childcare                        .068            .063
  Teaching Children               -.050           -.055

Husband-Wife Disagreement Role Enactment

  Housekeeping                    -.173 **        -.161 **
  Providing                        .043           -.175 **
  Therapeutic                      .004           -.099
  Recreation                       .048           -.029
  Kinship                         -.076           -.135 *
  Childcare                       -.154 **        -.181 **
  Teaching Children                .061            .081

Female Role Perception (FRP)

  FRP of Husband                   .094            .089

  FRP of Wife                     -.084           -.081

  Husband-Wife Congruency
    in FRP                         .166**          .163 **

Perceived Role Conflict

  Perceived Role Conflict
    of Wife                       -.045           -.050

Marital Adjustment

  Marital Adjustment
    of Husband

Marital Adjustment of Wife

(a) The greater the number the more the disagreement.

* Significant at p <. 05

** Significant at p<.01

*** Significant at p <. 001

**** Significant at p <. 0005

Table 3
Stepwise Multiple Regression of Husband's Marital Adjustment on
Religous and Role Variables

Independent Variables                        Standardized   F Value
                                               Beta (B)      for B
Husband's perception of wife's child care
role enactment                                  .2016      15.968

Wife's perception of husband's
kinship role enactment                          .1712      11.737

Husband's perception of wife's
therapeutic role enactment                      .1703      11.636

Husband-wife disagreement on wife's
provider role enactment                        -.1765      15.380

Religious practice of husband                   .1602      11.807

Husband's female role perception                .1473      10.944

Husband's perception of own recreation
role enactment                                  .1417       9.880

Husband-wife disagreement husband's
childcare role enactment                       -.1740      13.033

Husband-wife agreement on expectation
about distribution of housekeeping role        -.1267       7.825

Husband-wife disagreement on wife's
child education role enactment                 -.1368       7.258

Wife's perception of husband housekeeping
role enactment                                  .1101       5.112

Husband-wife disagreement on expectation
about distribution of childcare role           -.1001       4.978

Husband-wife disagreement on expectation
regarding distribution of recreation role       .0898       3.909

Independent Variables                        Significant
                                                  F
Husband's perception of wife's child care
role enactment                                  .0001

Wife's perception of husband's
kinship role enactment                          .0007

Husband's perception of wife's
therapeutic role enactment                      .0007

Husband-wife disagreement on wife's
provider role enactment                         .0001

Religious practice of husband                   .0007

Husband's female role perception                .0011

Husband's perception of own recreation
role enactment                                  .0031

Husband-wife disagreement husband's
childcare role enactment                        .0004

Husband-wife agreement on expectation
about distribution of housekeeping role         .0055

Husband-wife disagreement on wife's
child education role enactment                  .0075

Wife's perception of husband housekeeping
role enactment                                  .0245

Husband-wife disagreement on expectation
about distribution of childcare role            .0265

Husband-wife disagreement on expectation
regarding distribution of recreation role       .0490

Note: Standardized betas or only significant variables are present
here. Criteria for inclusion of independent variable in the model
are PIN (0.05) and TOLERANCE (0.01).

Table 4
Stepwise Multiple Regression of Wife's Marital Adjustment on Religious
and Role Variables

Independent Variables                             Standardized  F Value
                                                    Beta (B)      for B
Husband's perception of wife's housekeeping
role enactment                                       .1637      10.508

Wife's perception of husband's childcare
role enactment                                       .1448       8.041

Religious practice of husband                        .1516      11.045

Wife's perception of husband's recreation role
enactment                                            .2179      21.943

Husband-wife disagreement on husband's
provider role enactment                             -.1200       7.342

Husband's perception of wife's therapeutic
role enactment                                       .1692      12.495

Wife's perception of husband's housekeeping
role enactment                                       .1512      9.0923

Husband-wife disagreement on expectation
regarding distribution of childcare role            -.1182       7.266

Husband-wife congurency in female role
perception                                           .1286       8.589

Husband-wife disagreement on wife's provider
role enactment                                      -.1279       8.117

Husband-wife disagreement on expectation
regarding distribution of provider role              .1006       5.163

Husband's perception of wife's childcare
role enactment                                       .1027       4.017

Independent Variables                              Significant
                                                        F
Husband's perception of wife's housekeeping
role enactment                                       .0013

Wife's perception of husband's childcare
role enactment                                       .0049

Religious practice of husband                        .0010

Wife's perception of husband's recreation role
enactment                                            .0005

Husband-wife disagreement on husband's
provider role enactment                              .0072

Husband's perception of wife's therapeutic
role enactment                                       .0005

Wife's perception of husband's housekeeping
role enactment                                       .0029

Husband-wife disagreement on expectation
regarding distribution of childcare role             .0075

Husband-wife congurency in female role
perception                                           .0037

Husband-wife disagreement on wife's provider
role enactment                                       .0047

Husband-wife disagreement on expectation
regarding distribution of provider role              .0238

Husband's perception of wife's childcare
role enactment                                       .0460

Note: Standardized betas or only significant variables are presented
here. Crltena for inclusion of independent variable in the model are
PIN (0.05) and TOLERANCE (0.01).

Table 5
Selected Statistics from Regression of Husband'sMarital Adjustment on
Religious and Role Variables

Independent Variables              Multiple   R-square   [R.sup.2]
                                      R                   Change

Husband's perception of wife's
childcare role enactment            .4074     .1660      .1660

Wife's perception of husband's
kinship role enactment              .5005     .2505      .0845

Husband's perception of wife's
therapeutic role enactment          .5473     .2995      .0490

Husband-wife disagreement on
wife's provider role enactment      .5876     .3452      .0457

Religious practice of husband       .6082     .3699      .0247

Husband's female role
perception                          .6264     .3923      .0224

Husband's evaluation of own
recreation role enactment           .6388     .4081      .0157

Husband-wife disagreement on
husband's childcare role
enactment                           .6498     .4223      .0142

Husband-wife agreement on
expectation regarding
distribution of housekeeping
role                                .6623     .4387      .0164

Husband-wife disagreement on
wife's child education
role enactment                      .6712     .4505      .0118

Wife's perception of husband's
houskeeping role enactment          .6785     .4603      .0098

Husband-wife disagreement on
expectation regarding
distribution of childcare role      .6846     .4687      .0084

Husband-wife disagreement on
expectation regarding
distribution of reaction role       .6900     .4761      .0074

Independent Variables                F      Significant
                                   Change        F

Husband's perception of wife's
childcare role enactment           57.123        .0005

Wife's perception of husband's
kinship role enactment             32.251        .0005

Husband's perception of wife's
therapeutic role enactment         19.935        .0005

Husband-wife disagreement on
wife's provider role enactment     19.825        .0005

Religious practice of husband      11.097        .001

Husband's female role
perception                         10.406        .001

Husband's evaluation of own
recreation role enactment           7.464        .007

Husband-wife disagreement on
husband's childcare role
enactment                           6.873        .009

Husband-wife agreement on
expectation regarding
distribution of housekeeping
role                                8.171        .005

Husband-wife disagreement on
wife's child education
role enactment                      5.951        .015

Wife's perception of husband's
houskeeping role enactment          5.054        .025

Husband-wife disagreement on
expectation regarding
distribution of childcare role      4.346        .038

Husband-wife disagreement on
expectation regarding
distribution of reaction role       3.909        .049

Table 6
Selected Statistics from Regression of wife's Marital Adjustment
on Religious and Role Variables

Independent Variables                 Multiple   R-square   [R.sup.2]
                                         R                   Change
Husband's perception o wife's
housekeeping role enactment             .5005     .2505      .0845

Wife's perception of husband's
childcare role enactment                .5938     .3526      .0712

Religious practice of husband           .5938     .3526      .0309

Wife's perception of husband's
recreation role enactment               .6207     .3852      .0326

Husband-wife disagreement on
provider role enactment                 .6351     .4034      .0182

Husband's perception of wife's
therapeutic role enactment              .6485     .4206      .0172

Wife's perception of husband's
housekeeping role enactment             .6599     .4354      .0148

Husband-wife consensus on
expectation regarding
distribution of childcare role          .6693     .4480      .0126

Husband-wife disgreement on
wife's provider enactment               .6843     .4683      .0112

Husband-wife disagreement on
expectation regarding
distribution of provider role           .6917     .4784      .0102

Husband's perception of wife's
childcare role enactment                .6971     .4859      .0075

Independent Variables                   F       Significant
                                      Change         F
Husband's perception o wife's
housekeeping role enactment           32.226      .0005

Wife's perception of husband's
childcare role enactment              29.913      .0005

Religious practice of husband         13.563      .0005

Wife's perception of husband's
recreation role enactment             15.027      .0005

Husband-wife disagreement on
provider role enactment                8.593      .004

Husband's perception of wife's
therapeutic role enactment             8.347      .004

Wife's perception of husband's
housekeeping role enactment            7.464      .007

Husband-wife consensus on
expectation regarding
distribution of childcare role         6.357      .012

Husband-wife disgreement on
wife's provider enactment              5.872      .016

Husband-wife disagreement on
expectation regarding
distribution of provider role          5.411      .021

Husband's perception of wife's
childcare role enactment               4.017      .046
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Author:Shamsuddin, Quazi
Publication:Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research
Geographic Code:9BANG
Date:Jun 22, 1991
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