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Relationship between parents' child rearing approaches and adaptive behavior among female students.

INTRODUCTION

The behaviorists scientists consist of sociologists consider the social relationships as the basis of man's development and elevation. Therefore, they use the word "individual "for a man who has no social relation with other people, and the word 'person" for a man who has a close relationship with other people and society. A man can learn, experience, be an artist, acquire knowledge, speak, and think within the society. He performs scientific researches, achieves natural classifications, and makes his desirable appearance in society. Every man should consider the regulations, limitations, command and prohibition, criterions and social customs in the process of social agreement, meeting the needs and fulfillment of the requirements. He should adapt himself with this situation so that not only obstacles, problems, and failures for a man are due to social situation, but also his needs, aims and purposes are influenced by social aspects and culture of the environment within which he lives [12].

Certainly, it is clear that family is the foundation and beginning of all required teachings for everybody during his lifetime. The relationship between parents and children determines the way of keeping relations among family members. The relationship between parents and children is always changing, and all family members are responsible to prevent undesirable changes. Children want their parents to change their behavior as they grow up. From the other side, parents expect their children to respect family values and perform them. These matters cause permanent and continuous actions and reactions concerning the relationship between parents and children in family.

Any factor which confuses the balance of one family member, disorders the emotional comfort and balance of all family members [3]. In the recent years, the psychologists have tried to guide the attitude and the way of behavior with children to a clear destination through presenting logical opinions and thoughts.

Freud believed that too much parents' affection and compassion causes sensitivity and early sexual puberty in children, so that they cannot adapt and satisfy themselves with less affection in their future life. In opposition, other groups of psychologists emphasize the necessity of much affection and compassion of mothers to keep children's mental health. But what is certainly clear is that mothers' affection is necessary for every child but excess kindness retards social development till adolescence and youth, and disorders his compatibility with life situation during adulthood [16].

Many researches have been performed about child rearing approaches and adaptive behavior that some of them are as follows:

A research has been done concerning the pattern of capability and agreement among the adolescents of families who follow the patterns of dictatorship, logical dominance, indifference and negligence or extremism. This research was performed by Lamborn, Mounts, Steinberg, Dornbuch among 4100 adolescents who were 14-18 years old. They considered four collections of behavioral findings including psychological development, educational progress, personal anxiety and behavioral problems in this study.

The research findings indicated that those adolescents who lived in families with logical dominance approach has high and meaningful educational capabilities, and other groups who had described their families as dictator or extremist ones, according to all scales, acquired scores at the average level among the scores of logical dominance groups or indifferent ones. In general, the major difference between families with logical dominance approach or indifferent ones was considered from the viewpoint of educational progress and other aspects.

Lee has studied the parents' emotional reactions and the relative importance of child's clinical characteristics in order to train children who suffered from hemophilia. The variables were evaluated in a subject sample consists of 108 boys who were affected by hemophilia between one to twelve years old. The emotional reactions were analyzed as the independent variables and children training functions were studied as the dependent variables. The research findings indicated that the effect of parents' emotional reactions on the characteristic of behavioral changes among children and supporting them is more significant than child's clinical characteristic [15].

Glasgow, Dornbach, Troyer, Stinberg and Ritter studied the relationship between child rearing approaches and educational findings among adolescents and youth. The research results showed that these groups of youth who lived in families within which there was no logical dominance, had the least responsibility concerning class activities and doing their homeworks.Those groups of adolescents who lived in dictator or indifferent families showed negative relationship with doing homework's and educational progress.

Baum rind and Bekr, quoted by Boromand Nasab, confirmed that according to the study of child rearing approaches by their parents with various characteristics through assessing the evidences in kindergartens and homes, there is a meaningful and positive relationship between children and parents' behavior. The research findings [4] indicated that those children who have affectionate and intimate parents are happier. They have more self-confidence and self-respect. In opposition, the parents who follow the approach of care taking training have undesirable effects like anxiety, distress, aggression, social disagreement and lack of moral development on their children.

Maccoby and Martin confirmed in a research that there is some differences between two various kinds of families, some parents follow the independence training approach severely and the other groups of families are indifferent. The parents who observe the children's requirements and expectations at the low level but expect children's response at the high level are extremist, and who do not expect anything and do not show any reaction about their children's behavior are indifferent. Therefore, these two approaches should be studied and evaluated separately to find more precise and brilliant opinions.

Karimi [9] has investigated the relationship between the religious attitudes and child rearing approaches among girls. Statistical data analysis indicated that there is a meaningful and positive relationship between mother's attitude concerning child rearing approaches (logical dominance) and students' educational progress (total average and sciences scores).

There is a meaningful and negative relationship between mother's attitude and student's educational progress. There was no relation between mother's attitudes concerning child rearing approaches (logical dominance indifference, dictatorship) and educational progress (total average, sciences scores and mathematics scores).There was no relation between mother's attitudes about child rearing approaches (logical dominance, indifference, dictatorship) and the control place of student.

There is a meaningful and negative relationship between control place of student and his educational progress(total average and sciences scores),but there is no relation between control place of student and his educational progress(mathematics scores).Moreover, among the variables of mother's attitudes concerning child rearing approaches(logical dominance,indifference,dictatorship) and control place of student, the greatest share belongs to(total average, sciences scores)from the viewpoint of anticipating the student's educational progress.

Bahreini [2] has studied the relationship between child rearing approaches and mental health, depression and the relations between these recent variables with educational functions of third grade female students of guidance school in Ahvaz. The research findings indicated that there is a relationship between child rearing approaches and mental health, but there is no relationship between child rearing approaches with depression and educational function.

Rastgarani by the way of studying the effect and quality of parents' relations on social agreement and compatibility among third grade female students of guidance school in Hamedan, Iran, concluded that the girls who show the high level of social adaptation and adjustment have the parents with good and cooperative relationship.

In opposition, the students who are aggressive and maladjusted have parents with inappropriate relationships. Ebrahimi, in a research with the purpose of studying the effect of mother's occupation on the rate of social compatibility among female students of primary schools in Tehran in the educational year of (1992-93), concluded that there is no meaningful relationship between mother's occupation and girls' social compatibility. But it should be noted that mother's satisfaction about her occupation has positive effect on girls' social compatibility. The family social-economic class has no positive effect on girls' social compatibility [8].

The research questions:

1) Is there a negative relationship between the age of independence, dominance and care taking training with adaptive behavior of third and fourth grade female students of primary school?

2) Is there a negative relationship between three sub-scales of child rearing approaches with adaptive behavior of third and fourth grade female students of primary school?

Hypotheses:

1) There is a negative relationship between the age of independence training and adaptive behavior of female students.

2) There is a negative relationship between the age of dominance training and adaptive behavior of female students.

3) There is a negative relationship between the age of care taking training and adaptive behavior of female students.

4) There is a negative relationship between three sub-scales of child rearing approaches and adaptive behavior of female students.

Method:

The research subjects consist of all third and fourth grade female students of primary school in Ahvaz who were studying in the educational year of (2004-05).After listing all female primary schools, because of the limited number of educational institutions, all the female institutions in Ahvaz were selected. In the next step, after referring these institutions in each district, five students were selected from every third and fourth grade of female primary schools through multiple randomly method.

For example, if there were two third grade classes and two fourth grade classes in the institution 1, five students from each class were selected randomly, so 20 students were selected totally.Therefore, after consulting with the principals of these institutions and teachers of the classes, five students were selected from each third and fourth grade randomly from the lists of students and 264 students were selected totally from all institutions of three cities.

The measurement device:

The questionnaire of child rearing approaches has been used by Winterbottom [17] in his research. This test is especially applied to measure the child rearing approaches (independence, dominance and care taking training) and it has been translated by Bagheri and supervised by Haghighi in the Psychology and Training Sciences College in Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. The results of the previous researches indicated that this questionnaire is a helpful scale concerning psychometry, reliability and validity to measure Winterbottom's opinion [17] from the viewpoint of child rearing approaches.

The questionnaire of adaptive behavior compiled by Lambert and co-workers [10] for the first time and it was tested on the American primary school students. This questionnaire has been translated by Shehni yelagh(1993)into Persian. The findings of previous studies revealed that the mentioned scale has necessary reliability and validity to evaluate the behavior of primary school students.

The performance method and research plan:

To perform the method of this study, the research sample consist of 264 female students of primary schools in Ahvaz were selected. Since the students' mothers were the major subjects of this research, the students were asked to bring their mothers to school at the appointed time. When mothers gathered in a suitable place, the questionnaires of Winterbottom concerning child rearing approaches were distributed among them to fill it carefully.

Then the teachers of each grade were asked to watch student's behavior for 7 to 14 days and then complete the questionnaire of adaptive behavior translated by Shehniyelagh about research subjects. In this research, the correctional research plan is used. In this kind of studies, the researcher aims to study the possible relationship between variables but finding the causal relation is not the major purpose, in fact the research purpose is to define the relation, its destination and significance level. In this study, determining and describing the relationship between parents' training methods at the levels of independence, dominance and care taking training approaches with 11 scales of students' adaptive behavior is the research purpose.

Findings:

The method of descriptive statistics was used to describe the data from the viewpoint of central tendency and dispersion (like average and standard deviation) and parametric tests including Pearson correlation coefficient, multi-variable regression were used to test the research hypotheses.. To test each research hypotheses, the correlation coefficients have been registered in Table 1 among other research variables. As you can see in Table 1 and according to the significance level, there is not a meaningful and negative relation between the age of independence training and adaptive behavior. There is a negative relation between the age of dominance training and adaptive behavior. There is not a negative relation between the age of care taking training and adaptive behavior. There is a negative relation between three sub-scales concerning child rearing approaches with adaptive behavior.

In order to identify the share of each predictive variables (i.e. independence training, dominance training and care training), the regression analysis is shown in Table 2.The purpose of this table is to show that whether there is a linear relationship between the variables. This task could be done through the calculation of the proportion of F mean square regression to residual of square of mean. Thus, there is a linear significant correlation at p < 0.05.

To predict criterion variable by means of predictive variables, we used two statistical approaches of Enter and Stepwise multivariable regression. In Enter approach, none of predictive variables (independence, dominance and care taking training variables)did not predict the criterion variable. Therefore, we used the second approach (i.e. Stepwise) in regression analysis. The results are shown in Table 3:

The results in Table 3 show the regression analysis and multi-variable regression via Stepwise are provide a more powerful predictive variable to identify the adaptive behavior. The weight of Beta can clarify the range of one standard deviation happened similarly in both predictive variable (i.e.0.138 (p < 0.05)) as well as in criterion variable to weigh adaptive variable. With regard to this, the dominance training variable plays an important role in between the other variables; because the amount one standard deviation change in independence training

variable can cause 0.138 change in the adaptive behavior.However, there is no multiple correlations between independence training and care taking approaches and the adaptive behavior in the third and fourth grade of primary school in Ahvaz , Iran.

Discussion and Conclusion:

The results of the present study show that there is not a meaningful and negative relationship between the age of independence training approach and the adaptive behavior. As MacCobi and Martin (cf. Lamborn. et al, 1991)proposed that there are two differentiated types of families:(1)the parents who are extremist in children independence training and parents who are too much relax and indifferent in child rearing. The latter are the parents who have low level of expectations and high level of responsibility. The latter are the parents who have neither expectations nor responsibilities. Thus, to arrive at a clarified viewpoint, we need to study these two child rearing approaches separately.

However, we may say that the parents, who are hardliners in independence training of child rearing, have low level of control toward their children's activities. The low level of parental control causes the children to feel that there is no limitation and they can do anything they like. Therefore, these students who feel that there is a little control on their activities and it may cause them to be indifferent to their social and adaptive behavior. Thus, moderate and rational control make to children to form their personal structure such as self-esteem and effectiveness which have positive effect on adaptive behavior indirectly. The other result show that the extremist parents have a high level of responsibility and the low level of expectations because of their behavior of acceptance and being warm towards children. Therefore, they naturally study their children's behaviors all the time very closely.

In this case, the parents' involvement in the children's activities causes the children to be dependent to their parents and consequently they lose their independence in their life. This matter can degrade the level of adaptive behavior in the students. This finding is matched with Karimi [9] and Bahreini's [2] studies.Karimi (Ibid)in his research concluded that there is no relationship between the viewpoints of child rearing approaches (i.e. the mother's rational dominance, freedom and dictatorship behavior) and children's educational achievement(i.e. in mathematics).

In the other research, Bahreini(1998)found that there is no relationship between child rearing approaches and depression as well as educational achievement. The other reason of this hypothesis rejection would be the child rearing approaches which associate with rational relationship and kindness that help the children to progress and develop their personality for the future.This way of life affects the children's viewpoints in adolescence and even in adulthood and make them have a rational contact with the world's facts. The child rearing approaches give the chance to the parents in making conditions in which the children can be able to evaluate their relationships with others and make positive self-image.

In this case, they will be able to achieve appropriate social adaptation accepted in the society. The parental independence training approach will provide the children with condition in which the children make a valuable personality in their social relationships and interactions. This viewpoint causes self-esteem and self-confidence in children which will be shown in their successful relationships with peers and friends. In the other hand, the level of expectations in between the parents and the children causes the high level of child's expectations towards him/herself returns to his/her family appropriate adaptive behavior which was not reviewed in this article because of the research purposes. There may be the other causes such as cultural and social contexts of families and tribes which are limited and they make children live with their parents even after marriage.

These customs and social regulations cause the children to be affected by the parents' independence child rearing approaches which prohibit the individuality and independence of the young in the tribe and traditional families. This study showed there is not a significant relationship between the age of dominance training and adaptive behavior As it is shown in other researches [4,5],the children who have warm, kind and accepted parents show high level of independence and self-confidence and have high level of self-esteem. This is clear that all of these factors can affect the children's adaptive behavior positively. In contrast, the care taking parents have negative effects such as depression, mental disorder, aggression, social maladjustment, and the lack of behavior development on their children.

Baumrind's [4] and Baker'sresearches showed that there is a positive and meaningful relationship the parents and children's behaviors. These studies were based on the survey of child rearing approaches in terms of the family and kindergarten studies. This result is matched with Rastgarani's report. He studies the relationships between parents and their girls in third grade high school in Hamedan, Iran. He concludes that the girls who show the high level of social adaptation and adjustment have the parents with good and cooperative relationship. In opposite, the students who are aggressive and maladjusted have parents with inappropriate relationships.

One of the reasons which approve this hypothesis may due to the case in which families try to teach their children the value of positive expectations and help them to identify the facts and evaluate the rational events freely.

These parents are cooperative; and they behave rational through tenderly. These children can adapt themselves with the social norms and achieve mental balance in the society. One of the other reasons would be the fathers' jobs who are farmers or businessmen which affect the children's behavior in terms of being cooperative and responsible in making money. This may cause children to be dominant and skillful in their life.

In this study, there is not a negative and meaningful relationship between the age of care taking and adaptive behavior. As it is shown in Glasgow, et al [7] with regard to child rearing and educational achievement relationships, it is indicated that the adolescents who live in irrational dominant families have the lowest level of engagement in class activities and home tasks. There is a negative relationship between dictatorship and indifferent child rearing approaches and educational achievement. This results matched with Ebrahimi He studies the effects of mothers' job on the girls' social adaptation in primary schools. He concludes that there is no significant and meaningful relationship between the mothers' jobs and the girls' adaptation. It means the mothers' jobs have no effect on the girls' adaptive behavior; however, the level of the mothers' educational level has positive effects on the girls' adaptive behavior.

The families' social-economic level has no positive effects on the girls' adaptable behavior. One of the reasons of this hypothesis rejection can be the lack of cognitive development ignored by parents. These violate the children's mental balance and make them to face serious problems in the future.

In severe care taking training approach, the parents do not give their children the chance of good self-progress and self-image of facts and conceptions.Thus, these children may have social problems in their social relations and adaptive behaviors. On the one hand and through extremism done by severe care taking approach which manipulated through extremist parents, the children cannot regulate their activities toward the goals successfully. They also have the affective, cognitive and mental problems led the children toward maladjustment and social depression.

Finally, there is a negative and meaningful relationship among the three sub-scales of child rearing approaches and adaptive behavior. As it is mentioned in Lamborn, et al [11] the adolescents which described their parents as extremists or dictatorships have average scores between the adolescents with the parents with rational dominance and indifferent ones who showed the difference between two types of child rearing approaches.

Lee concludes that the effect of parental affective behaviors plays a great role in children's unstability. Among the three sub-scales of child rearing approaches, the age of dominance training is more predictive variable concerning the adaptive behavior. In general, it seems that the most important reasons of rejection or approval of the above hypotheses show that the parents can behave moderately in child rearing tasks. This is due to avoid dealing with being too extremist or too indifferent. Rational freedom and cooperation can help the parents to control the children appropriately and make the children develop their adaptive behavior.

ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Received 11 June 2014

Received in revised form 21 August 2014

Accepted 25 September 2014

Available online 25 November 2014

REFERENCES

[1] Bagheri, M., 1993.The survey of child rearing approaches and Achievement motivation and its relationships with educational achievement in guidance school boys. Unpublished M.A. dissertation.Ahwaz:Chamran University of Ahwaz.

[2] Bahreini, S., 1998.The survey of child rearing approaches Relationships with mental health, depression and self-reliance and educational achievement in third grade of guidance school boys. Unpublished M.A. dissertation.Ahvaz:IAU of Ahwaz.

[3] Banijamali, S. and H. Ahadi, 1995. Developmental psychology: An Introduction to child psychology (8th ed.). Tehran:Bonyad.

[4] Baumrind, D., 1973.The Development of instrumental competence through socialization. In A.D.pick(Ed) Minneapolis University of Minnesota Press.

[5] Berent, T.S., 1997. Child development. Second edition.London, Brown and benchmark publishers.

[6] Boromand Nasab, M. 1994.The relationship of child rearing viewpoints and educational achievement of third grade of guidance school in Dezful, Iran. Unpublished M.A. dissertation. Ahvaz:Chamran University of Ahwaz.

[7] Glasgow, K.L., S.M. Dornbusch, L. Toyer, L. Steinberg and P.L. Ritter, 1997. Parental styles, adolescent's attrivutions, and child development, 68(3): 507-529.

[8] Hoshangi, B., 2003.The comparison of individual-social relationship And educational achievement in third grade of high school boys in Ahwaz based on the five levels of educational continuation program. Unpublished M.A. dissertation. Ahwaz: Chamran University of Ahwaz.

[9] Karimi, M. 2001. The survey of the relationship between religious viewpoints of parental child rearing approaches and their girls' religious viewpoints in Tehran. Unpublished M.A. dissertation. Tehran: Al-Zahra (A. S) University.

[10] Lambert, N., M. Windmiller, Colel, R. Figueroa, 1974. Manual and AAMD Adaptive Behavior scale,Berkeley:University of California.

[11] Lamborn, S.D., N.S. Mounts, L. Steinberg, D.S.M. Dornbusch, 1991. Parents of competence and adjustment among adolescents from authoritarian,indulgent,and neglectful families.Child Development, 62: 1049-1065.

[12] Shearynejad, A.A., 1994. Developmental psychology(11th ed.). Tehran. Etelaat.

[13] Shehniyelagh, M., 1995.The scale of adaptive behavior made for primary school students.Educational Psychological science, 3/2.1-2.

[14] Steinberg, L., S.D. Lamborn, S.M. Dornbush, N. Darling, 1992. Impact of parenting practices on adolescent achivement: authoritative parenting, school involvement, and encouragement to succeed. Child development, 63: 1266-1281.

[15] Tahmtan, K., 1998.The survey of child rearing approaches and achievement motivation in the guidance school boys and girls in Fasa.Unpublished M.A. dissertation.Shiraz:Shiraz University.

[16] Tamimipour, H., 1980.The comparison of family affective atmosphere and educational achievement of the addicted and non-addicted families having four boys. Unpublished M.A. dissertation. Ahwaz: IAU of Ahwaz.

[17] Winter bottom, M.R., 1953. The Relation of childhood training in dependence to achievement motivation University of Michigan. Abstract of University micro films. Publication, 5113. Cited by D.C. Mcclelland, Et al. The Achievement motive, New York; Appleton-century crofts.

Reza Pasha

Department of Humanities, college of psychology, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University Ahvaz, Iran

Corresponding Author: Reza Pasha, Department of Humanities, college of psychology, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University Ahvaz, Iran
Table 1: Corretional matrix among the research variables. N=264.

Child rearing                         Adaptive behavior
approaches
                       aggression   anti-social   outlaw   distrust

Independence             0.136         0.101      0.132     0.093
training approach

Dominance training       0.131         0.130      0.140     0.109
approach

Care taking training     0.039         0.047      0.051     0.020
approach

Total                    0.130         0.135      0.120     0.086

Child rearing                         Adaptive behavior
approaches
                       loneliness   Strangedeeds   Social malad
                                                     aptation

Independence             0.049         0.000          0.043
training approach

Dominance training       0.063         0.042          0.102
approach

Care taking training     0.003         0.023          0.010
approach

Total                    0.052         0.035          0.075

Child rearing                              Adaptive behavior
approaches
                       Noise    Impol      hyper      Mental    Total
                               itedeeds   activity   disorder

Independence           0.122    0.106      0.039      0.055     0.119
training approach

Dominance training     0.163    0.121      0.015      0.080     0.138
approach

Care taking training   0.044    0.047      0.104      0.023     0.038
approach

Total                  0.162    0.131      0.029      0.075     0.141

* p < 0.05 ** p < 0.01

Table 2: Variance analysis in criterion variable.

Model        Total Square   DF    Mean Square     F     Significance
                of SS                (MS)                  Level

Regression     3909.758      1     3909.758     5.119      0.024
Residual      200117.94     262     763.809      --          --
Total         204027.69     263       --         --          --

1. Predictive variable is the dominance training variable.

2. Criterion variable is the adaptive behavior variable.

Table 3: Summary of regression analysis between predictive and
criterion Variables through Stepwise approach.

Model                Non standard regression
                           coefficient

                  Regression    Standard Error
                  coefficient   of Regression
                       B        coefficient B

The profile         11.347          6.043
from the source

Dominance            1.871          0.828
training

Model              Standard       T       P
                  regression
                  coefficient

                  The weight
                    of Beta

The profile           --        1.878   0.62
from the source

Dominance            0.138      2.262   0.024
training
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Author:Pasha, Reza
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
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Date:Nov 15, 2014
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