Relationship between Social Intelligence and Religious Orientations of University Students.
Purpose of the current study was to find out relationship between social intelligence and religious orientations of the university students in Pakistani context. 500 Pakistani university students participated in the study. We used religious orientation scale and social intelligence scale to collect the information. Results show that the prevalence of social information processing and social skills is comparatively higher among the students than their social awareness. The presence of intrinsic and extrinsic religious orientations is also comparatively higher among the respondents than the prevalence of extrinsic social religious orientation. Data show that students' social intelligence is directly correlated with their intrinsic and extrinsic personal religious orientations in Pakistani context.
Key Words: Social intelligence, Religious orientations, Social experiences, social adjustment
Social intelligence has an important function that may help in explaining individual differences in personality, motivation and cognition. Social intelligence is versatile and consists of a number of aspects. There are five major domains of social intelligence including social attitude, societal talent, sympathy expertise, and affecting community nervousness. Wong, Day, Maxwell, and Mearza (1995) differentiate cognitive social intelligence (social perception, social awareness and public approaching) from behavioral social aptitude (effectiveness in interactions). They postulate that social perception, social knowledge and efficiency in relations can be differentiating from educational intelligence (Grieve and Mahar, 2013). Social intelligence is an individual's appropriateness for the human being and capability to survive well with life's situations (Wentzel, 1991).
It may be defined as social thinking and ability to estimate oneself and others on the basis of social attitudes as well as the social reality. It combines and adjusts relationships between cognitive processes and the indication of social services. Social intelligence is a group of mental abilities related with the processing of social information for solving the problems successfully (Ackerman and Heggestad, 1997). Social intelligence is not the same to the general intelligence and it is developed in a social environment (Yermentaeyeva, Aurenova, Uaidullakyzy, Ayapbergenova, and Muldabekova, 2014)
Religion is also an essential feature which plays an important role in people's personal and social lives. Allport (1967) has divided religious orientations into two categories. Intrinsic religious orientation is to follow religion for internal and spiritual satisfaction. Extrinsic religious orientation was further divided into two categories. Extrinsic personal religious orientation claims that people follow religion for social and personal acceptance in the society. Extrinsic social religious orientation on the other hand postulates that people follow religion for social protection and security (Merrill, Steffen, and Hunter, 2010). McFarland and Warren (1992) point out that people having intrinsic religious orientation are more self-satisfied internally than those having extrinsic religious orientation. Because those who have extrinsic religious orientation use religion for self-defense and getting a good standard in society in order to keep their cultural values alive in the society.
In other words, the concern of extrinsic religious orientation is only with external matters of the individual and they use religion for their social, cultural, financial and political matters.
Social intelligence has a great role in the process of learning as well as in social adjustment of our university students. Religion on the other hand is also an important feature of our universities students' social experiences. The current study examines the relationship between social intelligence and religious orientations of university students in Pakistani context.
The research instrument containing two parts i.e. social intelligence scale and religious orientation inventory was adopted to collect the data. The first part of the instrument (demographic variables) was self-developed by the researcher. Demographic characteristics contain information about age, gender, location, education level, department, semester, previous qualification and their marks in previous degree.
Secondly social intelligence scale originally developed by Silvera, Martinussen, and Dahl (2001) was adopted for this study. It had three subscales including social information process, social skills and social awareness. Each subscale contains seven questions. The third part of the questionnaire consists of religious orientation inventory originally developed by Allport and Ros (1967) and revised by Gorsuch and Venable (1983). It had three subscales intrinsic religious orientation, extrinsic personal religious orientation and extrinsic social religious orientation. Intrinsic religious orientation that was the subscale of religious orientation contains eight questions, and other two subscales of the religious orientation inventory i.e. extrinsic personal religious orientation and extrinsic social religious orientation hold three questions each.
In order to assure the validity of the research instrument, we consult five experts in the field of education and items recommended by more than 80% of educational experts were included in the instrument. We also checked reliability of the research tool by getting data from 100 respondents (other than included in the sample) and analyzed it by Cronbach's alpha reliability test. All sub scales demonstrated the Cronbach alpha value of more than .82. A sample of 500 students studying in different departments of a public sector university was selected following multi-phase random sampling technique. The data were analyzed using special package for social science (SPSS). Mean scores were calculated to reach on the findings. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to check relationship between the variables.
Data shows that mean score representing social information process skill among university students in the sample is 3.53 (Table 1). The mean scores showing the presence of social skills and social awareness among the students are 3.32 and 2.78 respectively. Accumulative mean score to demonstrate social intelligence among the university students included in the sample is 3.20. Data demonstrate that the mean scores showing students' intrinsic, extrinsic personal and extrinsic social religious orientations are 3.64, 4.17 and 2.90 respectively.
Data further demonstrate that the value of Pearson correlation coefficient .204 is significant at the level of 0.01. This shows that students skill of social information process is significant and direct correlated with their intrinsic religious orientation. The value of Pearson correlation coefficient .334 is significant at the level of 0.01. This shows that students skill of social information process is significant and direct correlated with their extrinsic personal religious orientation. The value of Pearson correlation coefficient .245 is significant at the level of 0.01. This shows that students skill of social information process is significant and direct correlated with their extrinsic social religious orientation. The value of Pearson correlation coefficient .167 is significant at the level of 0.01. This shows that students skill of social skills is significant and direct correlated with their intrinsic religious orientation.
The value of Pearson correlation coefficient .098 is significant at the level of 0.05. This shows that students skill of social skills is significant and direct correlated with their extrinsic personal religious orientation. The value of Pearson correlation coefficient -.138 is significant at the level of 0.01. This shows that student's skill of social awareness is significant and indirect correlated with their extrinsic personal religious orientation. The value of Pearson correlation coefficient -.156 is significant at the level of 0.01. This shows that student's skill of social awareness is significant and indirect correlated with their extrinsic social religious orientation. The value of Pearson correlation coefficient .166 is significant at the level of 0.01. This shows that students skill of social intelligence is significant and direct correlated with their intrinsic religious orientation. The value of Pearson correlation coefficient .138 is significant at the level of 0.01.
This shows that students skill of social intelligence is significant and direct correlated with their extrinsic personal religious orientation.
Table 1 Mean Scores Showing the Presence of Different Indicators of Social Intelligence
1###Social information processing###3.53###.580
Table 2 Mean Scores Showing the Presence of Different Indicators of Religious Orientations
Sr. ####Religious Orientation###Mean###SD
1###Intrinsic religious orientation###3.64###.538
2###Extrinsic personal religious orientation###4.17###.896
3###Extrinsic social religious orientation###2.90###1.022
Table 3 Values of Pearson Correlation Coefficient Showing Relationship among Different Indicators of Students' Religious Orientations and Their Social Intelligence
###Extrinsic personal###Extrinsic social
This study was an attempt to explore relationship between social intelligence and religious orientations of the university students. One objective of the study was to analyze the social intelligence of university students. The result shows the presence of social information process among university students. Majority of the students can understand feeling and wishes of others. Cherniss, Roche and Barbarasch (2016) found social intelligence to explain that intelligence could visible itself in different aspects. Landy (2005) regarded social intelligence as the skill to achieve social responsibilities.
The students acknowledged that they often feel difficulty to understand others choices.
Weis and Conzelmann (2015) defended that social intelligence stating it to the social calm, relating the networks between atmospheres and the attitudes, necessities, needs, attitude situations, awareness and judgments about the others. The students enjoy reading about their religion and they give importance to spend time in private thoughts and prayers and they have often had strong sense of God. People having this type of religious orientation pray to God for their needs in society and they try their best to lead their whole life according their religion. The most important thing in their lives is their religion because they follow it for their internal satisfaction. Gordon W. Allport, Vernon and Lindzey (1960) denotes intrinsic religiousness as mature religion where religion is used as a self-serving agent.
According to the followers of intrinsic religions their religion is a dynamic force and they got spiritual satisfaction from their religion rather than considered it as a tool for gaining their desired goals. People having this orientation considered their religion to be the most essential feature of their lives. These people had either no correlation or a negative correlation for cultural intolerance. But on the other side of the coin, they often had a positive correlation for intolerance when someone from other religion or their own tried to say something against their religion (Belmont and Marolla, 1973).
McFarland and Warren (1992) explored the idea of intrinsic religion orientation. They assume that intrinsically spiritual people are devoted with the core beliefs of their religion and values for their internal self-satisfaction. The data more reveals that accumulative mean score and standard deviation showing the high level presence of extrinsic personal religious orientation among university students. Lavric and Flere (2008) found similar presence of extrinsic personal religious orientation among different peoples belong to different religions. However Schmid, Stidwill, Bally, Marcum and Tardent (1981) stated stronger affiliation with intrinsic religiousness than extrinsic personal and extrinsic social religion orientations. Khan, Watson, and Habib (2005) disclosed that Pakistani Muslim University students demonstrated higher extrinsic personal religiousness than their intrinsic and extrinsic social religious orientations.
Students in the sample possess comparatively higher intrinsic religiousness than extrinsic religious orientation. Gordon W. Allport et al. (1960) define extrinsic religiosity (personal and social) as immature religion where religion is used as mean to meet personal and social objectives. According to Allport, (1967) the use of religion for the achievement of personal objectives instead of religious objectives is called Extrinsic Religious Orientation. When some people who go to religious congregation and declared confidently religious thoughts for launching or preserving social set of connections, they involved in extrinsic religious orientation. People having prominent sense of external religious orientation are more expected to be traditional to social standards and domination of societal demands that would be preferred by them on requirements or beliefs of their religion.
The data show that there is a strong relationship between student's intelligence and religious orientation. The findings of the present study indicate significant relationship of both intrinsic and extrinsic orientation of the students with their social intelligence. The difference in results may be due to the different level of current participants. Saroglou (2002) concluded that quest orientation would be come into view as a foundation of worldwide love and sympathy that had required mutually by researchers concerned with psychology of beliefs as well as religious scholars. Moreover, new studies utilizing the Five Factor Model of Taylor et al. (2004) point out that responsiveness and carefulness had constantly association to a range of dealings of religious orientation. Some researchers were motivated to make a relationship between personality traits and anxiety to magnitude of religious and spiritual safety (Laborda et al., 2014).
It is concluded that the prevalence of social information processing, and social skills are comparatively higher among the university students in the sample. The presence of social awareness is however comparatively lower among the students. It can be inferred that the students' abilities to predict other people's behavior and awareness how their actions will make others feel are deteriorated. They have less potential to understand feelings and wishes of others and their expressions of body language. It is also concluded that majority students often feel uncertain among the people who are stranger for them. On the other side large numbers of the students are well to enter in new situations and meeting people for the first time and they do not have hard time to get along with other people.
It is also concluded that the presence of extrinsic personal religious orientation is comparatively higher among the students in the sample. The prevalence of intrinsic religious orientation is also significantly higher among the students. The presence of extrinsic social religious orientation is however comparatively lower among the sample. It demonstrates that the university students give importance to use their value able time in private thoughts and prayers because they often have strong sense of God's presence. A large number of the students have view point that although many other things are more important in their lives but religion is most important for them and they pray mostly to gain relief and protection. Religion offers them comfort in trouble and sorrow and they think prayer is for peace and happiness. For this purpose they go to their worshiped places.
The study concludes that students' skill of social information process has significant and direct correlation with intrinsic religious orientation. It also has positive and significant relationship with extrinsic personal religious orientation of the students. Relationship of social information process is positive with their extrinsic social religious orientation. The social skills of the students are significantly direct correlated with their intrinsic and extrinsic religious orientations. The students' skill of social awareness has significant and indirect relationship with extrinsic personal religious orientation. Social intelligence of the university students is significantly direct correlated with their intrinsic and extrinsic personal religious orientations. It is also concluded that the university students' social intelligence is not significantly correlated with their extrinsic social religious orientation.
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|Author:||Buzdar, Muhammad Ayub; Waqas, Muhammad; Mohsin, Muhammad Naeem; Nadeem, Muhammad|
|Publication:||Journal of Educational Research|
|Date:||Jun 30, 2016|
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