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Relacion longitud-peso de 73 especies de peces capturadas en la plataforma continental interna del sudeste de Brasil.

Length-weight relationship of 73 fish species caught in the southeastern inner continental shelf region of Brazil

INTRODUCTION

Fish population biomass estimates, or of an individual fish of the ichthyofauna, depends on the measurement of individual weight of these organisms. However, in most cases, weighing each organism individually under field conditions is a very difficult task and not always possible (Kimmerer et al, 2005).

The length-weight relationship (LWR) estimates are used to calculate the weight of the individual from length frequency data, allowing spatial and temporal comparisons among populations and species (Salles & Feitosa, 2000; Vianna et al., 2004). Therefore, the LWR may be considered an essential tool in the studies of fish stock assessment and management of fisheries resources (Haimovici & Velasco, 2000a; Ilkyaz et al., 2008; Rodriguez-Romero et al., 2009; Rojas-Herrera, 2009).

On the other hand, the historical review carried out by Froese (2006) shows that the intra-specific variance of LWR may be quite large and that users should follow some recommendations when using this relationship. Among the problems that may contribute to increase the variability of LWR, one can mention: the narrow range of body lengths in the sample, the use of non-random samples and of one specific size gear to select specimens and the LWR calculation with no regard of differences between the sexes. Despite these recommendations, the application of LWR for individuals of the same size class for the same species still persists (Muto et al., 2000). According to Kimmerer et al. (2005), it is highly recommended to use the LWR relationship with data collected in the same area and close to time of the study to minimize bias in the weight estimate.

LWR data are available in the literature for the majority of fish species from Europe and North America. Although publications regarding the LWR for marine tropical species and, in particular, in the Brazilian coast have increased (Araujo et al., 1998; Bernardes & Rossi-Wongtschowski, 2000; Haimovici & Velasco, 2000a, 2000b; Muto et al., 2000; Sales & Feitosa, 2000; Frota et al., 2004; Santos et al., 2004; Vianna et al., 2004; Giarrizo et al., 2006), these works are restricted to specific and isolated regions with no comparison among the data.

The Baixada Santista region, located in the central area of Sao Paulo state, southeastern Brazil, is characterized by intense industrial and port activity and human occupation, and is considered one of the most impacted areas of Brazil (Lamparelli et al., 2001). This coastal region features a diversity of ecosystems such as the estuary, the Santos Bay, and three main channels, namely Santos, Bertioga and Sao Vicente, connecting the estuary with the bay (Fig.1). Two variables are mainly responsible for the changes in the ichthyofauna of the region: the shrimp fishing with artisanal fishing trawlers (Paiva Filho & Schmiegelow, 1986; Avila da Silva et al., 2005), with by-catch composed mainly of young sciaenids; and the temporal variability of the occurrence of water mass in the inner continental shelf (Rossi-Wongtschowski & Paes, 1993; Castro & Miranda, 1998).

This work aims at describing the LWR of 73 fish species collected in three different coastal ecosystems of southern Brazil, that is, one bay, one channel and the inner continental shelf. Moreover, for the specimens observed in two or three ecosystems, a comparison of the LWR parameter estimates will be carried out following some of the recommendations proposed by Froese (2006).

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The specimens were sampled monthly in six oceanographic stations of the Santos Bay (23[degrees]59'S; 46[degrees]21'W) between November 2004 and December 2005. Samplings were carried out in Bertioga Channel (23[degrees]51'S; 46[degrees]09'W) between September and December 2005 in two oceanographic stations. The inner shelf off shore Santos (24[degrees]24'S; 46[degrees]16'W) was sampled in two campaigns: August 2005 and February 2006, in sixteen oceanographic stations (Fig. 1). A trawl-net as described by Rossi-Wongtschowski & Paes (1993) was used.

Although samplings in the bay as well as in the channel were carried out only with one fishing gear, the size classes were found to be representative according to the frequency of distribution of the length classes. Larvae or juveniles were not considered in the analysis as to minimize errors in the estimate. No subsamples were carried out and all specimens were examined.

Each specimen of the ichthyofauna was identified, measured (total length-TL in cm) and weighed (total weight-TW in g). The specimens TL and TW pairs that had at least 14 individuals were plotted to identify and exclude possible outliers. The LWR was calculated using power regression W = a[L.sup.b] (Haimovici & Velasco, 2000a, 2000b), where a is the intercept and b the slope, W the weight and L the length. The degree of association between W and L was measured through the coefficient of determination ([R.sup.2]). A Student's t-test ([H.sub.0]: b = 3) with [+ or -] 95% ([alpha] = 0.05) confidence level was carried out in order to verify if b values estimates are significantly different from the isometric value (b = 3) (Zar, 1998). The estimated values of the same species from different ecosystems were tested in order to check if there were significant differences among them.

RESULTS

The number of individuals captured according to species varied from 14 to 20,123. The LWR of 73 species belonging to 32 families, totaling 47,373 individuals, were estimated (Table 1). The families, the species and their descriptors, the sampling locations, the sample sizes (n), the length and weight variations, length median (Md), the a and b parameters of LWR, the lower and upper confidence limit (LCL-UCL) of the intercepts and slopes, and the coefficient of determination ([R.sup.2]) are also shown in the Table 1.

Out of a total of 73 species that were analyzed, eight species, namely Chilomycterus spinosus, Nebris microps, Ogcocephalus vespertilio, Rypticus randalli, Sphoeroides greeleyi, Sphyraena guachancho, Stellifer sp. and Trinectes paulistanus have no data published so far.

The median lengths values of the species that have occurred in more than one environment were bigger in the inner continental shelf and smaller in Bertioga Channel or in Santos Bay. On the other hand, specimens were found to be smaller in the channel when the median length values of the species were compared with those captured in the bay.

All LWR were highly significant with the coefficient of determination ([R.sup.2]) varying from 0.747 to 0.999 (P < 0.01). The b values estimates varied from 2.151 for Chilomycterus spinosus to 3.882 for Anchoviella lepidentostole, both captured in the inner continental shelf, but most of the b values estimated ranged from 2.6 and 3.5. The LWR b coefficient distribution exhibited symmetry (0.418) and kurtosis (0.781) (Fig. 2).

Regarding the types of growth (positive/negative allometry or isometry), it was observed that the members of the same family presented similar patterns. For instance, Carangidae exhibited a higher number of species with negative-allometric growth (b < 3), while Achiridae, Ariidae, Haemulidae, Paralichthyidae, Sciaenidae and Serranidae were characterized with more species with positive-allometric growth (b > 3). Two species of Pristigasteridae, although captured in different environments with different abundance values, exhibited an isometric growth (b = 3), that is, the individuals keep the same body form and proportional growth in all size classes.

The estimated b values were found to be significantly different from b = 3 in 16 out of 30 species observed in the continental shelf. For two species that were exclusively observed in Bertioga channel, b was found to be significantly different in one of the species. In addition, b was found to be significantly different from b = 3 in eight out of 12 species exclusively observed in Santos Bay. The LWR b values estimates for Lagocephalus laevigatus, Micropogonias furnieri and Pellona harroweri were not significantly different from 3. Nevertheless, the b values for three different coastal systems were found to be significantly different for Trichiurus lepturus. On the other hand, intra-specific variations for the majority of 23 species (with significant differences in b values), were observed for the specimens of both areas. These variations could be responses to natural phenomena such as food availability and abiotic variables that may lead to different growth rates in time and in different regions.

No significant differences in b values were observed for 35% of the species: Genidens barbus, Notarius luniscutis, Bairdiella ronchus and Chaetodipterus faber from Bertioga Channnel and Santos Bay, Diapterus rhombeus, Isopisthus parvipinnis and Chilomycterus spinosus from the bay and inner continental shelf, and for Harengula clupeola, Prionotus punctatus, Pomadasys corvinaeformis and Etropus crossotus from Bertioga Channel and the continental shelf.

Out of the total number of species with a representative number of males and females (21), significantly differences in the b values discriminated by sex were observed for five species (Table 2). Among five species, four belonged to the Sciaenidae family (Micropogonias furnieri, Stellifer brasiliensis, Stellifer stellifer and Stellifer sp.) and Stephanolepis hispidus. For these species the LWR estimates were obtained for each sex.

DISCUSSION

General data of LWR of 73 actinopterygian species were estimated for a tropical region of southwestern Atlantic according to recommendations of Froese (2006). From these 73 species, information about the LWR parameters for 23 species is not available in the FishBase data base (Froese & Pauly, 2004).

Smaller median lengths values of the species occurred in Bertioga Channel or in Santos Bay in comparison to the occurrences in the inner shelf. This result may be related to the fact that many fish species use the estuarine regions as a spawning and growth areas, remaining in these regions in the early stage of their life cycle (Fuiman & Werner, 2002).

Those extreme b values estimated for Chilomycterus spinosus (2.151) and for Anchoviella lepidentostole (3.882) account for the species body form, that is, species with height bigger or equal for a given length and species with low height relative to length. In this study no species presented long caudal fins that could interfere in the b values, as shown by Ilkyaz et al. (2008).

Carangidae exhibited a higher number of species with negative-allometric growth (b < 3), while Achiridae, Ariidae, Haemulidae, Paralichthyidae, Sciaenidae and Serranidae were characterized with more species with positive-allometric growth (b > 3). Two species of Pristigasteridae, although captured in different environments with different abundance values, exhibited an isometric growth (b = 3), that is, the individuals keep the same body form and proportional growth in all size classes. Similar growth patterns for Carangidae and Ariidae species were obtained by Giarrizzo et al. (2006) in the northeastern Brazilian estuary.

The observed intra-specific variations found in b values justify the use of LWR obtained in the same area and close to the time of sampling (Kimmerer et al., 2005). Differences in b values for some species when compared to other studies from other locations (Haimovici & Velasco, 2000b; Muto et al., 2000; Gomes & Araujo, 2004; Giarrizzo et al., 2006) can be explained by several factors, such as variations in the parameters of hydrographic properties (e.g.,

temperature, salinity), food availability, number of specimens and variation in the length of the individuals collected from the sampled populations, or to procedural and statistical reasons (Pauly, 1984; Weatherley & Gill, 1987; Kimmerer et al., 2005), or any other variable that can affect the body weight and indicates a difference in growth or condition.

The hydrographic pattern of the southeastern continental shelf region of Brazil comprises three water masses: the Tropical Water (TW) (T > 24, S), the Coastal Water (CW) and South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) (T < 18, S > 36.4) (Castro & Miranda, 1998). The SACW is the water mass responsible for carrying nutrients to the pelagic system mainly in summer (Gaeta & Brandini, 2006). Therefore, the penetration intensity of the SACW and the deep thermal front location may be responsible for the occurrence of higher b values in this period. As the b exponent corresponds to the allometric condition factor, the bigger the value the better the conditions of the individuals. Moreover, these values are also influenced by the degree of repletion of the digestive tracts of the specimens.

The intercept estimates may also be affected by individual features or processes such as reproduction, sex, size, and even the sample size (Haimovici & Velasco, 2000b; Frota et al., 2004; Vianna et al., 2004).

This study reinforces data presented by Froese (2006), in that variations among sex, size classes, seasons and sites should be considered in the studies where weight data are needed to provide fish biomass estimates.

DOI: 103856/vol42-issue1-fulltext-10

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We would like to thank all students and trainees of the Laboratorio de Ecologia da Reproducao e do Recrutamento de Organismos Marinhos (IOUSP) and the crew of the vessels B/Pq Albacora, B/Pq Veliger II and N/Oc. Prof. W. Besnard for their contribution to this work; to Prof. Dra. A.M.S.P. Vanin, general coordinator of the ECO SAN project; to Dr. S. Bromberg for his help during the sampling periods; to Dr. M.L. Yoneama for comments; to FAPESP for supporting the ECOSAN project "A influencia do complexo estuarino da baixada santista sobre o ecossistema de plataforma continental adjacente" (Proc. No. 2003/09932-1).

REFERENCES

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Received: 3 October 2012; Accepted: 13 December 2013

June F. Dias (1), Wellington S. Fernandez (1) & Thassya C.S. Schmidt (1)

(1) Departamento de Oceanografia Biologica, Instituto Oceanografico da Universidade de Sao Paulo Praca do Oceanografico, 191, Sao Paulo, SP, 05508-120, Brazil

Corresponding author: Wellington S. Fernandez (fernandez@usp.br)

Table 1. Sample characteristics (local, number, minimum,
maximum and median length, minimum and maximum weight)
and estimated parameters of the length-weight relationship
(a, b, lower confidence limit, upper confidence limit and
coefficient of determination) for 73 fish species caught
in the tropical southeastern inner continental shelf and
estuarine region of Brazil. Bold numbers indicate
significant differences from b = 3. LCL: lower confidence
limit, UCL: upper confidence limit, B: Bay, C: Channel,
S: Shelf.

Family             Species             Local     n     Length (cm)

                                                       Min.    Max.

Engraulidae        Anchoviella           B      17      5.2    16.3
                     lepidentostole      C      20      7.0    18.0
                     (Fowler, 1941)      S      65      6.1    12.9
Pristigasteridae   Pellona               B     4938     2.4    14.2
                     harroweri           C      26      5.4    13.4
                     (Fowler, 1919)      S      547     3.4    15.2
Carangidae         Chloroscombrus        B      318     4.0    10.5
                     chrysurus           C      99      4.9    10.0
                     (Linnaeus,          S      384     4.1    20.6
                     1766)
Sciaenidae         Menticirrhus          B      56      6.3    41.0
                     americanus          C      22      7.0    19.3
                     (Linnaeus,          S      231     5.6    29.2
                     1758)
                   Micropogonias         B      264     4.0    47.8
                     furnieri            C      75      7.0    24.3
                     (Desmarest,         S      14     18.9    52.3
                     1823)
Trichiuridae       Trichiurus            B      702     7.6    92.9
                     lepturus            C      116    11.6    57.7
                     Linnaeus, 1758      S      130    16.8    91.0
Tetraodontidae     Lagocephalus          B      70      3.4    11.5
                     laevigatus          C      27      3.8    11.2
                     (Linnaeus,          S      21      3.9    16.8
                     1766)
Ariidae            Cathorops spixii      B     2851     4.1    27.5
                     (Agassiz,           C      238     8.0    24.0
                     1829)
                   Genidens barbus       B      55      5.5    25.5
                     (Lacepede,          C      27     11.3    28.9
                     1803)
                   Aspistor              B      85      6.0    33.5
                     luniscutis          C      63     10.9    37.0
                     (Valenciennes,
                     1840)
Sciaenidae         Bairdiella            B      38      6.1    26.1
                     ronchus             C      29     13.8    21.6
                     (Cuvier, 1830)
                   Stellifer             B     20123    3.3    22.0
                     rastrifer
                     (Jordan, 1889)
                   Stellifer             B      649     4.2    20.1
                     stellifer           C      38      7.7    14.3
                     (Bloch, 1790)
Ephippidae         Chaetodipterus        B      27      5.2    23.3
                     faber               C      28      7.7    49.0
                     (Broussonet,
                     1782)
Achiridae          Achirus lineatus      B      187     4.0    13.9
                     (Linnaeus,          C      82      6.8    13.5
                     1758)
Batrachoididae     Porichthys            B      17      3.2    23.7
                     porosissimus        S      59      6.1    33.2
                     (Valenciennes,
                     1837)
Carangidae         Selene                B      106     3.1    23.5
                     setapinnis          S      46      3.6    26.3
                     (Mitchill,
                     1815)
Gerreidae          Diapterus             B      14     10.0    19.8
                     rhombeus            S      17     11.5    20.7
                     (Valenciennes,
                     1830)
Sciaenidae         Cynoscion             B      71      6.6    33.1
                     virescens           S      17      7.0    43.5
                     (Cuvier, 1830)
                   Isopisthus            B     2201     2.0    18.5
                     parvipinnis         S      355     4.0    16.0
                     (Cuvier, 1830)
                   Larimus               B      116     4.7    25.5
                     breviceps           S      161     4.9    21.5
                     Cuvier, 1830
                   Macrodon              B     1078     2.2    35.5
                     ancylodon           S      152     5.0    31.1
                     (Bloch &
                     Schneider,
                     1801)
                   Paralonchurus         B     1607     4.4    23.1
                     brasiliensis        S      189     5.0    22.7
                     (Steindachner,
                     1875)
                   Stellifer             B     1625     3.6    22.2
                     brasiliensis        S      91      5.0    15.3
                     (Schultz,
                     1945)
Stromateidae       Peprilus paru         B      47      2.9    12.5
                     Linnaeus, 1758      S      34      3.4    16.0
Diodontidae        Chilomycterus         B      14      5.6    16.2
                     spinosus            S      104     3.5    22.1
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Clupeidae          Harengula             C      21      5.6    18.7
                     clupeola            S      26      9.1    18.6
                     (Cuvier, 1829)
Triglidae          Prionotus             C      18      4.3    14.1
                     punctatus           S      470     4.5    38.0
                     (Bloch, 1793)
Haemulidae         Pomadasys             C      32      9.0    15.9
                     corvinaeformis      S      125     7.7    21.4
                     (Steindachner,
                     1868)
Paralichthyidae    Etropus               C      33      7.0    12.1
                     crossotus           S      42     10.4    16.4
                     Jordan &
                     Gilbert, 1882
Engraulidae        Anchoa fllifera       B      93      7.2    10.5
                     (Lowler, 1915)
Ariidae            Bagre bagre           B      61      6.5    24.6
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Centropomidae      Centropomus           B      26     24.3    54.0
                     parallelus
                     Poey, 1860
Serranidae         Rypticus              B      17     10.3    20.4
                     randalli
                     Courtenay,
                     1967
Carangidae         Selene vomer          B      28      2.7    15.2
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Haemulidae         Conodon nobilis       B      53      7.0    18.2
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Sciaenidae         Cynoscion             B      33      3.9    16.4
                     jamaicensis
                     (Vaillant &
                     Bocourt, 1883)
                   Nebris microps        B      455     3.5    29.9
                     Cuvier, 1830
                   Stellifer sp.         B      227     4.0    13.7
Achiridae          Trinectes             B      120     5.8    20.5
                     paulistanus
                     (Miranda
                     Ribeiro, 1915)
Cynoglossidae      Symphurus             B      59      6.1    17.8
                     tessellatus
                     (Quoy &
                     Gaimard, 1824)
Tetraodontidae     Sphoeroides           B      44      4.3    26.0
                     testudineus
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Paralichthyidae    Citharichthys         C      29      7.3    15.7
                     spilopterus
                     Gunther, 1862
Tetraodontidae     Sphoeroides           C      14      5.8    11.4
                     greeleyi
                     Gilbert, 1900
Rajidae            Atlantoraja           S      30     12.2    59.1
                     cyclophora
                     (Regan, 1903)
                   Psammobatis           S      14      8.7    27.6
                     extenta
                     (Garman, 1913)
Pristigasteridae   Chirocentrodon        S      161     6.0    11.3
                     bleekerianus
                     (Poey, 1867)
Synodontidae       Saurida               S      66      4.8    14.0
                     brasiliensis
                     Norman, 1935
                   Synodus foetens       S      65      8.5    53.8
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1766)
Merlucciidae       Merluccius            S      52      8.2    34.0
                     hubbsi Marini,
                     1933
Phycidae           Urophycis             S      16      8.5    39.5
                     brasiliensis
                     (Kaup, 1858)
Ogcocephalidae     Ogcocephalus          S      17      5.4    14.2
                     vespertilio
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Fistularidae       Fistulariapetimba     S      24     29.5    97.0
                     Lacepede, 1803
Dactylopteridae    Dactylopterus         S     1156     6.3    31.0
                     volitans
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Triglidae          Prionotus             S      60      4.0    21.2
                     nudigula
                     Ginsburg, 1950
Serranidae         Diplectrum            S      38      8.2    24.0
                     radiale (Quoy &
                     Gaimard, 1824)
                   Serranus auriga       S      41      5.9    16.3
                     Cuvier, 1829
Carangidae         Trachurus lathami     S      199     4.6    15.8
                     Nichols, 1920
Gerreidae          Eucinostomus          S      47     12.5    21.2
                     argenteus Baird
                     & Girard, 1855
Haemulidae         Orthopristis          S      86     13.6    13.8
                     ruber (Cuvier,
                     1830)
Sparidae           Pagruspagrus          S      199     4.0    21.8
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Sciaenidae         Ctenosciaena          S      696     5.1    18.0
                     gracilicirrhus
                     (Metzelaar,
                     1919)
                   Umbrina canosai       S      14     11.5    15.6
                     Berg, 1895
                   Umbrina coroides      S      14     19.1    26.9
                     Cuvier, 1830
Mullidae           Mullus argentinae     S      25      6.2    22.5
                     Hubbs & Marini,
                     1933
                   Upeneus parvus        S      312     5.4    23.2
                     Poey, 1852
Percophidae        Bembrops              S      29     00 00   18.2
                     heterurus
                     (Miranda-
                     Ribeiro, 1903)
Sphyraenidae       Sphyraena             S      15      9.8    22.8
                     guachancho
                    Cuvier, 1829
Paralichthyidae    Citharichthys         S      34      7.4    17.7
                     macrops Dresel,
                     1885
                   Etropus               S      128     5.8    12.6
                     longimanus
                     Norman, 1933
                   Paralichthys          S      30     00 00   34.5
                     isosceles
                     Jordan, 1891
                   Syaciumpapillosum     S      206     7.0    24.6
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
                   Xystreurys rasile     S      19      8.0    26.5
                     Jordan, 1891
Monacanthidae      Stephanolepis         S      549     4.0    22.6
                     hispidus
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1766)

Family             Species             Local   Length   Weight
                                                (cm)    (g)

                                               Median   Min.

Engraulidae        Anchoviella           B      7.7      0.80
                     lepidentostole      C      13.7     2.20
                     (Fowler, 1941)      S      9.2      1.58
Pristigasteridae   Pellona               B      5.0      0.07
                     harroweri           C      7.8      1.67
                     (Fowler, 1919)      S      6.3      0.38
Carangidae         Chloroscombrus        B      6.1      0.77
                     chrysurus           C      6.4      1.31
                     (Linnaeus,          S      12.7     0.88
                     1766)
Sciaenidae         Menticirrhus          B      12.4     2.39
                     americanus          C      10.5     2.38
                     (Linnaeus,          S      18.5     1.54
                     1758)
                   Micropogonias         B      19.0     0.53
                     furnieri            C      12.7     3.27
                     (Desmarest,         S      23.2    68.66
                     1823)
Trichiuridae       Trichiurus            B      26.5     0.07
                     lepturus            C      21.5     1.32
                     Linnaeus, 1758      S      30.4     1.32
Tetraodontidae     Lagocephalus          B      5.3      1.08
                     laevigatus          C      5.6      1.48
                     (Linnaeus,          S      7.2      1.43
                     1766)
Ariidae            Cathorops spixii      B      14.8     0.59
                     (Agassiz,           C      11.3     4.34
                     1829)
                   Genidens barbus       B      7.5      1.24
                     (Lacepede,          C      13.9    10.31
                     1803)
                   Aspistor              B      11.4     1.53
                     luniscutis          C      18.8    10.55
                     (Valenciennes,
                     1840)
Sciaenidae         Bairdiella            B      15.3     2.71
                     ronchus             C      17.4    26.21
                     (Cuvier, 1830)
                   Stellifer             B      8.3      0.18
                     rastrifer
                     (Jordan, 1889)
                   Stellifer             B      8.4      0.81
                     stellifer           C      10.2     4.77
                     (Bloch, 1790)
Ephippidae         Chaetodipterus        B      14.7     5.31
                     faber               C      11.6    15.16
                     (Broussonet,
                     1782)
Achiridae          Achirus lineatus      B      10.9     1.78
                     (Linnaeus,          C      9.6      2.21
                     1758)
Batrachoididae     Porichthys            B      6.4      0.25
                     porosissimus        S      16.3     1.19
                     (Valenciennes,
                     1837)
Carangidae         Selene                B      5.7      0.41
                     setapinnis          S      17.4     0.65
                     (Mitchill,
                     1815)
Gerreidae          Diapterus             B      14.2    12.01
                     rhombeus            S      17.1    19.29
                     (Valenciennes,
                     1830)
Sciaenidae         Cynoscion             B      20.6     1.87
                     virescens           S      18.8     3.02
                     (Cuvier, 1830)
                   Isopisthus            B      7.0      0.04
                     parvipinnis         S      7.5      0.57
                     (Cuvier, 1830)
                   Larimus               B      11.2     0.85
                     breviceps           S      9.9      0.99
                     Cuvier, 1830
                   Macrodon              B      8.5      0.08
                     ancylodon           S      8.6      1.09
                     (Bloch &
                     Schneider,
                     1801)
                   Paralonchurus         B      11.6     0.43
                     brasiliensis        S      17.6     0.74
                     (Steindachner,
                     1875)
                   Stellifer             B      9.9      0.43
                     brasiliensis        S      11.2     1.08
                     (Schultz,
                     1945)
Stromateidae       Peprilus paru         B      5.5      0.58
                     Linnaeus, 1758      S      4.9      0.93
Diodontidae        Chilomycterus         B      8.0     21.69
                     spinosus            S      11.3     0.92
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Clupeidae          Harengula             C      10.6     1.47
                     clupeola            S      14.2     8.35
                     (Cuvier, 1829)
Triglidae          Prionotus             C      7.5      0.98
                     punctatus           S      17.0     1.07
                     (Bloch, 1793)
Haemulidae         Pomadasys             C      12.3    10.32
                     corvinaeformis      S      12.5     6.26
                     (Steindachner,
                     1868)
Paralichthyidae    Etropus               C      9.6      2.23
                     crossotus           S      12.7    10.64
                     Jordan &
                     Gilbert, 1882
Engraulidae        Anchoa fllifera       B      9.5      1.93
                     (Lowler, 1915)
Ariidae            Bagre bagre           B      14.7     1.65
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Centropomidae      Centropomus           B      29.3    121.98
                     parallelus
                     Poey, 1860
Serranidae         Rypticus              B      12.7    15.83
                     randalli
                     Courtenay,
                     1967
Carangidae         Selene vomer          B      4.8      0.27
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Haemulidae         Conodon nobilis       B      13.7     4.13
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Sciaenidae         Cynoscion             B      7.4      0.53
                     jamaicensis
                     (Vaillant &
                     Bocourt, 1883)
                   Nebris microps        B      10.5     0.46
                     Cuvier, 1830
                   Stellifer sp.         B      7.5      0.53
Achiridae          Trinectes             B      11.4     3.95
                     paulistanus
                     (Miranda
                     Ribeiro, 1915)
Cynoglossidae      Symphurus             B      11.7     2.15
                     tessellatus
                     (Quoy &
                     Gaimard, 1824)
Tetraodontidae     Sphoeroides           B      17.4     1.51
                     testudineus
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Paralichthyidae    Citharichthys         C      9.8      2.65
                     spilopterus
                     Gunther, 1862
Tetraodontidae     Sphoeroides           C      8.4      4.68
                     greeleyi
                     Gilbert, 1900
Rajidae            Atlantoraja           S      30.9     8.35
                     cyclophora
                     (Regan, 1903)
                   Psammobatis           S      24.5     3.65
                     extenta
                     (Garman, 1913)
Pristigasteridae   Chirocentrodon        S      9.3      0.83
                     bleekerianus
                     (Poey, 1867)
Synodontidae       Saurida               S      8.9      0.57
                     brasiliensis
                     Norman, 1935
                   Synodus foetens       S      32.0     3.10
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1766)
Merlucciidae       Merluccius            S      12.2     2.87
                     hubbsi Marini,
                     1933
Phycidae           Urophycis             S      27.6     2.57
                     brasiliensis
                     (Kaup, 1858)
Ogcocephalidae     Ogcocephalus          S      6.6      2.45
                     vespertilio
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Fistularidae       Fistulariapetimba     S      35.9     7.50
                     Lacepede, 1803
Dactylopteridae    Dactylopterus         S      13.0     2.71
                     volitans
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Triglidae          Prionotus             S      6.0      0.92
                     nudigula
                     Ginsburg, 1950
Serranidae         Diplectrum            S      17.9     6.03
                     radiale (Quoy &
                     Gaimard, 1824)
                   Serranus auriga       S      12.9     3.59
                     Cuvier, 1829
Carangidae         Trachurus lathami     S      10.8     0.78
                     Nichols, 1920
Gerreidae          Eucinostomus          S      17.5    23.72
                     argenteus Baird
                     & Girard, 1855
Haemulidae         Orthopristis          S      21.7    38.49
                     ruber (Cuvier,
                     1830)
Sparidae           Pagruspagrus          S      9.8      0.75
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Sciaenidae         Ctenosciaena          S      13.3     1.46
                     gracilicirrhus
                     (Metzelaar,
                     1919)
                   Umbrina canosai       S      13.5    19.35
                     Berg, 1895
                   Umbrina coroides      S      23.6    86.11
                     Cuvier, 1830
Mullidae           Mullus argentinae     S      14.0     3.22
                     Hubbs & Marini,
                     1933
                   Upeneus parvus        S      8.5      1.87
                     Poey, 1852
Percophidae        Bembrops              S      12.6     3.51
                     heterurus
                     (Miranda-
                     Ribeiro, 1903)
Sphyraenidae       Sphyraena             S      16.3     4.99
                     guachancho
                    Cuvier, 1829
Paralichthyidae    Citharichthys         S      12.4     3.94
                     macrops Dresel,
                     1885
                   Etropus               S      9.5      1.48
                     longimanus
                     Norman, 1933
                   Paralichthys          S      22.6     3.67
                     isosceles
                     Jordan, 1891
                   Syaciumpapillosum     S      17.5     2.30
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
                   Xystreurys rasile     S      14.2     3.52
                     Jordan, 1891
Monacanthidae      Stephanolepis         S      11.7     1.66
                     hispidus
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1766)

Family             Species            Local    Weight
                                                 (g)

                                                Max.        a

Engraulidae        Anchoviella           B      30.30    0.00812
                     lepidentostole      C      48.54    0.00241
                     (Fowler, 1941)      S      17.71    0.00089
Pristigasteridae   Pellona               B      29.45    0.00732
                     harroweri           C      22.47    0.00994
                     (Fowler, 1919)      S      29.01    0.00846
Carangidae         Chloroscombrus        B      9.60     0.01829
                     chrysurus           C      10.67    0.01103
                     (Linnaeus,          S      62.60    0.01815
                     1766)
Sciaenidae         Menticirrhus          B     850.10    0.00528
                     americanus          C      75.10    0.00452
                     (Linnaeus,          S     289.99    0.00366
                     1758)
                   Micropogonias         B     1174.20   0.00845
                     furnieri            C     138.76    0.00688
                     (Desmarest,         S     1725.90   0.00755
                     1823)
Trichiuridae       Trichiurus            B     531.10    0.00016
                     lepturus            C     127.14    0.00003
                     Linnaeus, 1758      S     401.75    0.00043
Tetraodontidae     Lagocephalus          B      25.38    0.03052
                     laevigatus          C      22.86    0.02528
                     (Linnaeus,          S      72.91    0.0212
                     1766)
Ariidae            Cathorops spixii      B     206.61    0.01701
                     (Agassiz,           C     139.15    0.00663
                     1829)
                   Genidens barbus       B     152.86    0.00774
                     (Lacepede,          C     214.30    0.00502
                     1803)
                   Aspistor              B     424.04    0.00280
                     luniscutis          C     646.70    0.00102
                     (Valenciennes,
                     1840)
Sciaenidae         Bairdiella            B     203.37    0.00693
                     ronchus             C     135.48    0.00616
                     (Cuvier, 1830)
                   Stellifer             B     160.63    0.00571
                     rastrifer
                     (Jordan, 1889)
                   Stellifer             B     100.70    0.0058
                     stellifer           C      35.33    0.00365
                     (Bloch, 1790)
Ephippidae         Chaetodipterus        B     461.80    0.0753
                     faber               C     3041.90   0.07368
                     (Broussonet,
                     1782)
Achiridae          Achirus lineatus      B      59.82    0.02249
                     (Linnaeus,          C      51.36    0.00323
                     1758)
Batrachoididae     Porichthys            B     169.88    0.00411
                     porosissimus        S     388.24    0.00556
                     (Valenciennes,
                     1837)
Carangidae         Selene                B     156.75    0.0134
                     setapinnis          S     234.20    0.00267
                     (Mitchill,
                     1815)
Gerreidae          Diapterus             B      91.86    0.06242
                     rhombeus            S     155.92    0.00849
                     (Valenciennes,
                     1830)
Sciaenidae         Cynoscion             B     295.20    0.00133
                     virescens           S     505.80    0.02172
                     (Cuvier, 1830)
                   Isopisthus            B      60.15    0.00987
                     parvipinnis         S      40.04    0.00858
                     (Cuvier, 1830)
                   Larimus               B     237.98    0.00742
                     breviceps           S     146.02    0.00563
                     Cuvier, 1830
                   Macrodon              B     393.28    0.0036
                     ancylodon           S     269.73    0.01316
                     (Bloch &
                     Schneider,
                     1801)
                   Paralonchurus         B     135.41    0.00191
                     brasiliensis        S     114.52    0.00483
                     (Steindachner,
                     1875)
                   Stellifer             B     159.98    0.00393
                     brasiliensis        S      49.09    0.00751
                     (Schultz,
                     1945)
Stromateidae       Peprilus paru         B      33.68    0.04876
                     Linnaeus, 1758      S      70.08    0.03261
Diodontidae        Chilomycterus         B     230.26    0.23161
                     spinosus            S     363.00    0.50378
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Clupeidae          Harengula             C      67.12    0.00977
                     clupeola            S      60.67    0.0143
                     (Cuvier, 1829)
Triglidae          Prionotus             C      33.22    0.01287
                     punctatus           S     639.90    0.0096
                     (Bloch, 1793)
Haemulidae         Pomadasys             C      53.87    0.00951
                     corvinaeformis      S     153.10    0.01006
                     (Steindachner,
                     1868)
Paralichthyidae    Etropus               C      20.05    0.00308
                     crossotus           S      48.43    0.00601
                     Jordan &
                     Gilbert, 1882
Engraulidae        Anchoa fllifera       B      10.10    0.00514
                     (Lowler, 1915)
Ariidae            Bagre bagre           B     101.31    0.00399
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Centropomidae      Centropomus           B     1459.20   0.00704
                     parallelus
                     Poey, 1860
Serranidae         Rypticus              B     143.89    0.00486
                     randalli
                     Courtenay,
                     1967
Carangidae         Selene vomer          B      44.41    0.02009
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Haemulidae         Conodon nobilis       B     106.53    0.00687
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Sciaenidae         Cynoscion             B      25.33    0.05212
                     jamaicensis
                     (Vaillant &
                     Bocourt, 1883)
                   Nebris microps        B     274.68    0.00584
                     Cuvier, 1830
                   Stellifer sp.         B      30.95    0.00466
Achiridae          Trinectes             B     177.96    0.01485
                     paulistanus
                     (Miranda
                     Ribeiro, 1915)
Cynoglossidae      Symphurus             B      41.82    0.00558
                     tessellatus
                     (Quoy &
                     Gaimard, 1824)
Tetraodontidae     Sphoeroides           B     383.93    0.01553
                     testudineus
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Paralichthyidae    Citharichthys         C      38.65    0.0038
                     spilopterus
                     Gunther, 1862
Tetraodontidae     Sphoeroides           C      33.85    0.01991
                     greeleyi
                     Gilbert, 1900
Rajidae            Atlantoraja           S     1150.00   0.06175
                     cyclophora
                     (Regan, 1903)
                   Psammobatis           S     116.08    0.00622
                     extenta
                     (Garman, 1913)
Pristigasteridae   Chirocentrodon        S      8.20     0.00635
                     bleekerianus
                     (Poey, 1867)
Synodontidae       Saurida               S      18.31    0.00264
                     brasiliensis
                     Norman, 1935
                   Synodus foetens       S     707.10    0.02431
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1766)
Merlucciidae       Merluccius            S     377.21    0.00142
                     hubbsi Marini,
                     1933
Phycidae           Urophycis             S     618.90    0.00092
                     brasiliensis
                     (Kaup, 1858)
Ogcocephalidae     Ogcocephalus          S      48.59    0.02076
                     vespertilio
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Fistularidae       Fistulariapetimba     S     466.01    0.00007
                     Lacepede, 1803
Dactylopteridae    Dactylopterus         S     316.27    0.00725
                     volitans
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Triglidae          Prionotus             S      89.72    0.02606
                     nudigula
                     Ginsburg, 1950
Serranidae         Diplectrum            S     186.53    0.01928
                     radiale (Quoy &
                     Gaimard, 1824)
                   Serranus auriga       S      77.92    0.00972
                     Cuvier, 1829
Carangidae         Trachurus lathami     S      35.18    0.00473
                     Nichols, 1920
Gerreidae          Eucinostomus          S     119.66    0.01637
                     argenteus Baird
                     & Girard, 1855
Haemulidae         Orthopristis          S     347.67    0.04376
                     ruber (Cuvier,
                     1830)
Sparidae           Pagruspagrus          S     153.11    0.02187
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Sciaenidae         Ctenosciaena          S      91.01    0.00674
                     gracilicirrhus
                     (Metzelaar,
                     1919)
                   Umbrina canosai       S      48.98    0.02423
                     Berg, 1895
                   Umbrina coroides      S     252.90    0.01200
                     Cuvier, 1830
Mullidae           Mullus argentinae     S     170.63    0.0052
                     Hubbs & Marini,
                     1933
                   Upeneus parvus        S     186.58    0.00282
                     Poey, 1852
Percophidae        Bembrops              S      36.18    0.00311
                     heterurus
                     (Miranda-
                     Ribeiro, 1903)
Sphyraenidae       Sphyraena             S      86.03    0.00500
                     guachancho
                    Cuvier, 1829
Paralichthyidae    Citharichthys         S      64.15    0.00624
                     macrops Dresel,
                     1885
                   Etropus               S      15.24    0.01288
                     longimanus
                     Norman, 1933
                   Paralichthys          S     456.14    0.00075
                     isosceles
                     Jordan, 1891
                   Syaciumpapillosum     S     152.53    0.00885
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
                   Xystreurys rasile     S     169.77    0.00175
                     Jordan, 1891
Monacanthidae      Stephanolepis         S     219.79    0.01647
                     hispidus
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1766)

Family             Species             Local      Parameters
                                                    of the
                                                 relationship

                                                   LCL-UCL

Engraulidae        Anchoviella           B     0.00555-0.01068
                     lepidentostole      C     0.00067-0.00415
                     (Fowler, 1941)      S     0.00019-0.00158
Pristigasteridae   Pellona               B     0.00706-0.00757
                     harroweri           C     0.00629-0.01358
                     (Fowler, 1919)      S     0.00776-0.00915
Carangidae         Chloroscombrus        B     0.01573-0.02085
                     chrysurus           C     0.00870-0.01336
                     (Linnaeus,          S     0.01469-0.02160
                     1766)
Sciaenidae         Menticirrhus          B     0.00457-0.00599
                     americanus          C     0.00197-0.00707
                     (Linnaeus,          S     0.00285-0.00447
                     1758)
                   Micropogonias         B     0.00742-0.00949
                     furnieri            C     0.00519-0.00857
                     (Desmarest,         S     0.00645-0.00866
                     1823)
Trichiuridae       Trichiurus            B     0.00013-0.00019
                     lepturus            C     0.00001-0.00005
                     Linnaeus, 1758      S     0.00008-0.00077
Tetraodontidae     Lagocephalus          B     0.01948-0.04156
                     laevigatus          C     0.01956-0.03101
                     (Linnaeus,          S     0.01224-0.03016
                     1766)
Ariidae            Cathorops spixii      B      0.01482-0.0192
                     (Agassiz,           C     0.00518-0.00808
                     1829)
                   Genidens barbus       B     0.00365-0.01183
                     (Lacepede,          C     0.00249-0.00754
                     1803)
                   Aspistor              B     0.00161-0.00398
                     luniscutis          C     0.00021-0.00182
                     (Valenciennes,
                     1840)
Sciaenidae         Bairdiella            B     0.00411-0.00975
                     ronchus             C     0.00152-0.01079
                     (Cuvier, 1830)
                   Stellifer             B     0.00563-0.00579
                     rastrifer
                     (Jordan, 1889)
                   Stellifer             B     0.00543-0.00618
                     stellifer           C     0.00241-0.00489
                     (Bloch, 1790)
Ephippidae         Chaetodipterus        B     0.02100-0.12959
                     faber               C     0.04318-0.10417
                     (Broussonet,
                     1782)
Achiridae          Achirus lineatus      B     0.01286-0.03211
                     (Linnaeus,          C     0.00013-0.00633
                     1758)
Batrachoididae     Porichthys            B     -0.01079-0.01901
                     porosissimus        S      0.0035-0.00762
                     (Valenciennes,
                     1837)
Carangidae         Selene                B     0.01109-0.01571
                     setapinnis          S     0.00061-0.00473
                     (Mitchill,
                     1815)
Gerreidae          Diapterus             B     -0.0197-0.14455
                     rhombeus            S     0.00034-0.01664
                     (Valenciennes,
                     1830)
Sciaenidae         Cynoscion             B     0.00073-0.00192
                     virescens           S     -0.01124-0.05467
                     (Cuvier, 1830)
                   Isopisthus            B      0.0093-0.01045
                     parvipinnis         S     0.00757-0.00959
                     (Cuvier, 1830)
                   Larimus               B     0.00600-0.00884
                     breviceps           S     0.00503-0.00624
                     Cuvier, 1830
                   Macrodon              B     0.00332-0.00387
                     ancylodon           S      0.01143-0.0149
                     (Bloch &
                     Schneider,
                     1801)
                   Paralonchurus         B     0.00177-0.00205
                     brasiliensis        S     0.00301-0.00664
                     (Steindachner,
                     1875)
                   Stellifer             B     0.00371-0.00414
                     brasiliensis        S     0.00469-0.01032
                     (Schultz,
                     1945)
Stromateidae       Peprilus paru         B     0.03452-0.06301
                     Linnaeus, 1758      S      0.02771-0.0375
Diodontidae        Chilomycterus         B     0.13855-0.32466
                     spinosus            S     0.22078-0.78677
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Clupeidae          Harengula             C      0.00225-0.0173
                     clupeola            S     -0.00093-0.02953
                     (Cuvier, 1829)
Triglidae          Prionotus             C      0.0066-0.01914
                     punctatus           S     0.00852-0.01067
                     (Bloch, 1793)
Haemulidae         Pomadasys             C     0.00345-0.01557
                     corvinaeformis      S     0.00831-0.01181
                     (Steindachner,
                     1868)
Paralichthyidae    Etropus               C     0.00061-0.00554
                     crossotus           S     -0.00014-0.01217
                     Jordan &
                     Gilbert, 1882
Engraulidae        Anchoa fllifera       B     0.00045-0.00983
                     (Lowler, 1915)
Ariidae            Bagre bagre           B     0.00284-0.00514
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Centropomidae      Centropomus           B     0.00325-0.01084
                     parallelus
                     Poey, 1860
Serranidae         Rypticus              B     0.00174-0.00798
                     randalli
                     Courtenay,
                     1967
Carangidae         Selene vomer          B     0.01745-0.02274
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Haemulidae         Conodon nobilis       B     0.00423-0.00950
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Sciaenidae         Cynoscion             B     0.01315-0.09109
                     jamaicensis
                     (Vaillant &
                     Bocourt, 1883)
                   Nebris microps        B     0.00493-0.00675
                     Cuvier, 1830
                   Stellifer sp.         B     0.00393-0.00538
Achiridae          Trinectes             B     0.01031-0.01938
                     paulistanus
                     (Miranda
                     Ribeiro, 1915)
Cynoglossidae      Symphurus             B      0.0017-0.00946
                     tessellatus
                     (Quoy &
                     Gaimard, 1824)
Tetraodontidae     Sphoeroides           B     -0.00032-0.03137
                     testudineus
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Paralichthyidae    Citharichthys         C     0.00159-0.00601
                     spilopterus
                     Gunther, 1862
Tetraodontidae     Sphoeroides           C     -0.00146-0.04127
                     greeleyi
                     Gilbert, 1900
Rajidae            Atlantoraja           S     -0.01381-0.13731
                     cyclophora
                     (Regan, 1903)
                   Psammobatis           S     -0.00695-0.01940
                     extenta
                     (Garman, 1913)
Pristigasteridae   Chirocentrodon        S     0.00332-0.00938
                     bleekerianus
                     (Poey, 1867)
Synodontidae       Saurida               S      0.0016-0.00368
                     brasiliensis
                     Norman, 1935
                   Synodus foetens       S     -0.00242-0.0462
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1766)
Merlucciidae       Merluccius            S      0.00014-0.0027
                     hubbsi Marini,
                     1933
Phycidae           Urophycis             S     -0.00043-0.00227
                     brasiliensis
                     (Kaup, 1858)
Ogcocephalidae     Ogcocephalus          S      0.0023-0.03923
                     vespertilio
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Fistularidae       Fistulariapetimba     S     -0.00021-0.00034
                     Lacepede, 1803
Dactylopteridae    Dactylopterus         S     0.00667-0.00783
                     volitans
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Triglidae          Prionotus             S     0.01957-0.03254
                     nudigula
                     Ginsburg, 1950
Serranidae         Diplectrum            S     0.00205-0.03652
                     radiale (Quoy &
                     Gaimard, 1824)
                   Serranus auriga       S      0.0039-0.01554
                     Cuvier, 1829
Carangidae         Trachurus lathami     S     0.00322-0.00624
                     Nichols, 1920
Gerreidae          Eucinostomus          S     -0.00067-0.03341
                     argenteus Baird
                     & Girard, 1855
Haemulidae         Orthopristis          S     0.02192-0.06559
                     ruber (Cuvier,
                     1830)
Sparidae           Pagruspagrus          S     0.01912-0.02462
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Sciaenidae         Ctenosciaena          S     0.00545-0.00803
                     gracilicirrhus
                     (Metzelaar,
                     1919)
                   Umbrina canosai       S     -0.01367-0.06214
                     Berg, 1895
                   Umbrina coroides      S     -0.00839-0.03239
                     Cuvier, 1830
Mullidae           Mullus argentinae     S     0.00141-0.00899
                     Hubbs & Marini,
                     1933
                   Upeneus parvus        S     0.00241-0.00323
                     Poey, 1852
Percophidae        Bembrops              S     0.00113-0.00509
                     heterurus
                     (Miranda-
                     Ribeiro, 1903)
Sphyraenidae       Sphyraena             S     -0.00043-0.01043
                     guachancho
                    Cuvier, 1829
Paralichthyidae    Citharichthys         S     0.00239-0.01009
                     macrops Dresel,
                     1885
                   Etropus               S     0.00697-0.01879
                     longimanus
                     Norman, 1933
                   Paralichthys          S     -0.00001-0.00151
                     isosceles
                     Jordan, 1891
                   Syaciumpapillosum     S     0.00551-0.01219
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
                   Xystreurys rasile     S     0.00060-0.00289
                     Jordan, 1891
Monacanthidae      Stephanolepis         S     0.01445-0.01849
                     hispidus
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1766)

Family             Species             Local       Parameters of
                                                 the relationship

                                                 b        LCL-UCL

Engraulidae        Anchoviella           B     2.935    2.817-3.052
                     lepidentostole      C     3.416#   3.154-3.678
                     (Fowler, 1941)      S     3.882#   3.552-4.211
Pristigasteridae   Pellona               B     3.105#   3.089-3.120
                     harroweri           C     2.996    2.845-3.146
                     (Fowler, 1919)      S     2.999    2.965-3.033
Carangidae         Chloroscombrus        B     2.694#   2.622-2.765
                     chrysurus           C     2.962    2.855-3.068
                     (Linnaeus,          S     2.710#   2.637-2.783
                     1766)
Sciaenidae         Menticirrhus          B     3.230#   3.192-3.267
                     americanus          C     3.258#   3.059-3.456
                     (Linnaeus,          S     3.348#   3.278-3.418
                     1758)
                   Micropogonias         B     3.063#   3.027-3.098
                     furnieri            C     3.109#   3.025-3.191
                     (Desmarest,         S     3.118#   3.080-3.156
                     1823)
Trichiuridae       Trichiurus            B     3.287#   3.244-3.329
                     lepturus            C     3.356#   3.584-3.883
                     Linnaeus, 1758      S     3.048    2.862-3.233
Tetraodontidae     Lagocephalus          B     2.763#   2.602-2.924
                     laevigatus          C     2.818#   2.715-2.921
                     (Linnaeus,          S     2.881    2.724-3.037
                     1766)
Ariidae            Cathorops spixii      B     2.800#   2.755-2.845
                     (Agassiz,           C     3.147#   3.071-3.221
                     1829)
                   Genidens barbus       B     3.049    2.879-3.217
                     (Lacepede,          C     3.163#   3.007-3.319
                     1803)
                   Aspistor              B     3.384#   3.256-3.511
                     luniscutis          C     3.680#   3.451-3.909
                     (Valenciennes,
                     1840)
Sciaenidae         Bairdiella            B     3.141#   3.011-3.271
                     ronchus             C     3.235    2.978-3.491
                     (Cuvier, 1830)
                   Stellifer             B     3.318#   3.313-3.323
                     rastrifer
                     (Jordan, 1889)
                   Stellifer             B     3.264#   3.238-3.290
                     stellifer           C     3.443#   3.308-3.577
                     (Bloch, 1790)
Ephippidae         Chaetodipterus        B     2.752#   2.509-2.994
                     faber               C     2.731#   2.623-2.838
                     (Broussonet,
                     1782)
Achiridae          Achirus lineatus      B     2.939    2.764-3.113
                     (Linnaeus,          C     3.698#   3.304-4.091
                     1758)
Batrachoididae     Porichthys            B     3.365    2.199-4.529
                     porosissimus        S     3.203#   3.090-3.316
                     (Valenciennes,
                     1837)
Carangidae         Selene                B     2.955    2.897-3.012
                     setapinnis          S     3.465#   3.210-3.720
                     (Mitchill,
                     1815)
Gerreidae          Diapterus             B     2.476#   2.006-2.945
                     rhombeus            S     3.228    2.898-3.558
                     (Valenciennes,
                     1830)
Sciaenidae         Cynoscion             B     3.508#   3.374-3.641
                     virescens           S     2.689    2.271-3.106
                     (Cuvier, 1830)
                   Isopisthus            B     2.973#   2.950-2.995
                     parvipinnis         S     3.020    2.972-3.067
                     (Cuvier, 1830)
                   Larimus               B     3.206#   3.142-3.269
                     breviceps           S     3.318#   3.279-3.357
                     Cuvier, 1830
                   Macrodon              B     3.251#   3.227-3.273
                     ancylodon           S     2.887#   2.846-2.927
                     (Bloch &
                     Schneider,
                     1801)
                   Paralonchurus         B     3.533#   3.507-3.558
                     brasiliensis        S     3.220#   3.092-3.346
                     (Steindachner,
                     1875)
                   Stellifer             B     3.428#   3.407-3.447
                     brasiliensis        S     3.193#   3.046-3.339
                     (Schultz,
                     1945)
Stromateidae       Peprilus paru         B     2.549#   2.423-2.674
                     Linnaeus, 1758      S     2.769#   2.712-2.825
Diodontidae        Chilomycterus         B     2.484#   2.330-2.636
                     spinosus            S     2.151#   1.947-2.354
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Clupeidae          Harengula             C     3.035    2.762-3.307
                     clupeola            S     2.895    2.510-3.280
                     (Cuvier, 1829)
Triglidae          Prionotus             C     2.972    2.779-3.163
                     punctatus           S     3.078#   3.043-3.112
                     (Bloch, 1793)
Haemulidae         Pomadasys             C     3.152    2.905-3.398
                     corvinaeformis      S     3.137#   3.071-3.202
                     (Steindachner,
                     1868)
Paralichthyidae    Etropus               C     3.485#   3.142-3.826
                     crossotus           S     3.198    2.814-3.581
                     Jordan &
                     Gilbert, 1882
Engraulidae        Anchoa fllifera       B     3.133    2.730-3.535
                     (Lowler, 1915)
Ariidae            Bagre bagre           B     3.176#   3.078-3.273
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Centropomidae      Centropomus           B     3.084    2.943-3.224
                     parallelus
                     Poey, 1860
Serranidae         Rypticus              B     3.411#   3.189-3.632
                     randalli
                     Courtenay,
                     1967
Carangidae         Selene vomer          B     2.830#   2.780-2.879
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Haemulidae         Conodon nobilis       B     3.288#   3.150-3.425
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Sciaenidae         Cynoscion             B     2.172#   1.871-2.472
                     jamaicensis
                     (Vaillant &
                     Bocourt, 1883)
                   Nebris microps        B     3.157#   3.108-3.205
                     Cuvier, 1830
                   Stellifer sp.         B     3.370#   3.302-3.436
Achiridae          Trinectes             B     3.136#   3.028-3.242
                     paulistanus
                     (Miranda
                     Ribeiro, 1915)
Cynoglossidae      Symphurus             B     3.084    2.822-3.345
                     tessellatus
                     (Quoy &
                     Gaimard, 1824)
Tetraodontidae     Sphoeroides           B     3.113    2.784-3.440
                     testudineus
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Paralichthyidae    Citharichthys         C     3.333#   3.109-3.556
                     spilopterus
                     Gunther, 1862
Tetraodontidae     Sphoeroides           C     3.048    2.574-3.520
                     greeleyi
                     Gilbert, 1900
Rajidae            Atlantoraja           S     2.408#   2.096-2.719
                     cyclophora
                     (Regan, 1903)
                   Psammobatis           S     2.946    2.294-3.598
                     extenta
                     (Garman, 1913)
Pristigasteridae   Chirocentrodon        S     2.929    2.719-3.138
                     bleekerianus
                     (Poey, 1867)
Synodontidae       Saurida               S     3.343#   3.173-3.512
                     brasiliensis
                     Norman, 1935
                   Synodus foetens       S     2.607#   2.364-2.848
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1766)
Merlucciidae       Merluccius            S     3.503#   3.239-3.766
                     hubbsi Marini,
                     1933
Phycidae           Urophycis             S     3.638#   3.223-4.051
                     brasiliensis
                     (Kaup, 1858)
Ogcocephalidae     Ogcocephalus          S     2.926    2.580-3.271
                     vespertilio
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Fistularidae       Fistulariapetimba     S     3.432    2.516-4.346
                     Lacepede, 1803
Dactylopteridae    Dactylopterus         S     3.121#   3.094-3.147
                     volitans
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Triglidae          Prionotus             S     2.681#   2.594-2.768
                     nudigula
                     Ginsburg, 1950
Serranidae         Diplectrum            S     2.881    2.585-3.176
                     radiale (Quoy &
                     Gaimard, 1824)
                   Serranus auriga       S     3.219    2.995-3.442
                     Cuvier, 1829
Carangidae         Trachurus lathami     S     3.206#   3.076-3.335
                     Nichols, 1920
Gerreidae          Eucinostomus          S     2.917    2.559-3.275
                     argenteus Baird
                     & Girard, 1855
Haemulidae         Orthopristis          S     2.643#   2.488-2.798
                     ruber (Cuvier,
                     1830)
Sparidae           Pagruspagrus          S     2.876#   2.832-2.919
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Sciaenidae         Ctenosciaena          S     3.264#   3.192-3.334
                     gracilicirrhus
                     (Metzelaar,
                     1919)
                   Umbrina canosai       S     2.794    2.200-3.388
                     Berg, 1895
                   Umbrina coroides      S     3.028    2.49-3.558
                     Cuvier, 1830
Mullidae           Mullus argentinae     S     3.340#   3.090-3.590
                     Hubbs & Marini,
                     1933
                   Upeneus parvus        S     3.513#   3.463-3.563
                     Poey, 1852
Percophidae        Bembrops              S     3.237    3.004-3.470
                     heterurus
                     (Miranda-
                     Ribeiro, 1903)
Sphyraenidae       Sphyraena             S     3.129    2.765-3.492
                     guachancho
                    Cuvier, 1829
Paralichthyidae    Citharichthys         S     3.189    2.962-3.415
                     macrops Dresel,
                     1885
                   Etropus               S     2.769#   2.574-2.962
                     longimanus
                     Norman, 1933
                   Paralichthys          S     3.742#   3.448-4.036
                     isosceles
                     Jordan, 1891
                   Syaciumpapillosum     S     3.040    2.915-3.164
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
                   Xystreurys rasile     S     3.510#   3.301-3.718
                     Jordan, 1891
Monacanthidae      Stephanolepis         S     3.026    2.980-3.071
                     hispidus
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1766)

Family             Species             Local    Parameters
                                                  of the
                                               relationship

                                                [R.sup.2]

Engraulidae        Anchoviella           B        0.995
                     lepidentostole      C        0.989
                     (Fowler, 1941)      S        0.873
Pristigasteridae   Pellona               B        0.958
                     harroweri           C        0.990
                     (Fowler, 1919)      S        0.982
Carangidae         Chloroscombrus        B        0.924
                     chrysurus           C        0.954
                     (Linnaeus,          S        0.933
                     1766)
Sciaenidae         Menticirrhus          B        0.999
                     americanus          C        0.989
                     (Linnaeus,          S        0.981
                     1758)
                   Micropogonias         B        0.979
                     furnieri            C        0.992
                     (Desmarest,         S        1.000
                     1823)
Trichiuridae       Trichiurus            B        0.965
                     lepturus            C        0.885
                     Linnaeus, 1758      S        0.973
Tetraodontidae     Lagocephalus          B        0.953
                     laevigatus          C        0.990
                     (Linnaeus,          S        0.991
                     1766)
Ariidae            Cathorops spixii      B        0.957
                     (Agassiz,           C        0.976
                     1829)
                   Genidens barbus       B        0.992
                     (Lacepede,          C        0.994
                     1803)
                   Aspistor              B        0.984
                     luniscutis          C        0.974
                     (Valenciennes,
                     1840)
Sciaenidae         Bairdiella            B        0.992
                     ronchus             C        0.964
                     (Cuvier, 1830)
                   Stellifer             B        0.987
                     rastrifer
                     (Jordan, 1889)
                   Stellifer             B        0.973
                     stellifer           C        0.989
                     (Bloch, 1790)
Ephippidae         Chaetodipterus        B        0.973
                     faber               C        0.997
                     (Broussonet,
                     1782)
Achiridae          Achirus lineatus      B        0.873
                     (Linnaeus,          C        0.833
                     1758)
Batrachoididae     Porichthys            B        0.958
                     porosissimus        S        0.982
                     (Valenciennes,
                     1837)
Carangidae         Selene                B        0.996
                     setapinnis          S        0.953
                     (Mitchill,
                     1815)
Gerreidae          Diapterus             B        0.920
                     rhombeus            S        0.976
                     (Valenciennes,
                     1830)
Sciaenidae         Cynoscion             B        0.988
                     virescens           S        0.960
                     (Cuvier, 1830)
                   Isopisthus            B        0.970
                     parvipinnis         S        0.976
                     (Cuvier, 1830)
                   Larimus               B        0.991
                     breviceps           S        0.991
                     Cuvier, 1830
                   Macrodon              B        0.987
                     ancylodon           S        0.992
                     (Bloch &
                     Schneider,
                     1801)
                   Paralonchurus         B        0.985
                     brasiliensis        S        0.960
                     (Steindachner,
                     1875)
                   Stellifer             B        0.986
                     brasiliensis        S        0.974
                     (Schultz,
                     1945)
Stromateidae       Peprilus paru         B        0.975
                     Linnaeus, 1758      S        0.998
Diodontidae        Chilomycterus         B        0.993
                     spinosus            S        0.874
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Clupeidae          Harengula             C        0.990
                     clupeola            S        0.945
                     (Cuvier, 1829)
Triglidae          Prionotus             C        0.993
                     punctatus           S        0.979
                     (Bloch, 1793)
Haemulidae         Pomadasys             C        0.958
                     corvinaeformis      S        0.975
                     (Steindachner,
                     1868)
Paralichthyidae    Etropus               C        0.943
                     crossotus           S        0.892
                     Jordan &
                     Gilbert, 1882
Engraulidae        Anchoa fllifera       B        0.747
                     (Lowler, 1915)
Ariidae            Bagre bagre           B        0.986
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Centropomidae      Centropomus           B        0.989
                     parallelus
                     Poey, 1860
Serranidae         Rypticus              B        0.989
                     randalli
                     Courtenay,
                     1967
Carangidae         Selene vomer          B        0.999
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Haemulidae         Conodon nobilis       B        0.989
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Sciaenidae         Cynoscion             B        0.860
                     jamaicensis
                     (Vaillant &
                     Bocourt, 1883)
                   Nebris microps        B        0.987
                     Cuvier, 1830
                   Stellifer sp.         B        0.976
Achiridae          Trinectes             B        0.985
                     paulistanus
                     (Miranda
                     Ribeiro, 1915)
Cynoglossidae      Symphurus             B        0.895
                     tessellatus
                     (Quoy &
                     Gaimard, 1824)
Tetraodontidae     Sphoeroides           B        0.957
                     testudineus
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Paralichthyidae    Citharichthys         C        0.974
                     spilopterus
                     Gunther, 1862
Tetraodontidae     Sphoeroides           C        0.944
                     greeleyi
                     Gilbert, 1900
Rajidae            Atlantoraja           S        0.968
                     cyclophora
                     (Regan, 1903)
                   Psammobatis           S        0.958
                     extenta
                     (Garman, 1913)
Pristigasteridae   Chirocentrodon        S        0.852
                     bleekerianus
                     (Poey, 1867)
Synodontidae       Saurida               S        0.920
                     brasiliensis
                     Norman, 1935
                   Synodus foetens       S        0.925
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1766)
Merlucciidae       Merluccius            S        0.962
                     hubbsi Marini,
                     1933
Phycidae           Urophycis             S        0.979
                     brasiliensis
                     (Kaup, 1858)
Ogcocephalidae     Ogcocephalus          S        0.982
                     vespertilio
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Fistularidae       Fistulariapetimba     S        0.905
                     Lacepede, 1803
Dactylopteridae    Dactylopterus         S        0.981
                     volitans
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Triglidae          Prionotus             S        0.993
                     nudigula
                     Ginsburg, 1950
Serranidae         Diplectrum            S        0.971
                     radiale (Quoy &
                     Gaimard, 1824)
                   Serranus auriga       S        0.975
                     Cuvier, 1829
Carangidae         Trachurus lathami     S        0.936
                     Nichols, 1920
Gerreidae          Eucinostomus          S        0.875
                     argenteus Baird
                     & Girard, 1855
Haemulidae         Orthopristis          S        0.944
                     ruber (Cuvier,
                     1830)
Sparidae           Pagruspagrus          S        0.994
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Sciaenidae         Ctenosciaena          S        0.958
                     gracilicirrhus
                     (Metzelaar,
                     1919)
                   Umbrina canosai       S        0.908
                     Berg, 1895
                   Umbrina coroides      S        0.944
                     Cuvier, 1830
Mullidae           Mullus argentinae     S        0.968
                     Hubbs & Marini,
                     1933
                   Upeneus parvus        S        0.988
                     Poey, 1852
Percophidae        Bembrops              S        0.966
                     heterurus
                     (Miranda-
                     Ribeiro, 1903)
Sphyraenidae       Sphyraena             S        0.969
                     guachancho
                    Cuvier, 1829
Paralichthyidae    Citharichthys         S        0.976
                     macrops Dresel,
                     1885
                   Etropus               S        0.897
                     longimanus
                     Norman, 1933
                   Paralichthys          S        0.980
                     isosceles
                     Jordan, 1891
                   Syaciumpapillosum     S        0.954
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
                   Xystreurys rasile     S        0.993
                     Jordan, 1891
Monacanthidae      Stephanolepis         S        0.959
                     hispidus
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1766)

Note: Significant differences from b = 3 are indicated
with #.

Table 2. Estimated parameters of the length-weight
relationship (a, b, lower confidence limit, upper
confidence limit and coefficient of determination)
for 21 fish species, collected in the tropical
southeastern inner continental shelf and estuarine
region of Brazil.

Family             Species            Sex       Parameters
                                                  of the
                                               relationship

                                                    a

Ariidae            Cathorops spixii   Female     0.01443
                     (Agassiz,        Male       0.01701
                     1829)
Pristigasteridae   Pellona            Female     0.01072
                     harroweri        Male       0.01038
                     (Fowler, 1919)
Gerreidae          Diapterus          Female     0.00692
                     rhombeus         Male       0.00720
                     (Valenciennes,
                     1830)
Triglidae          Prionotus          Female     0.00525
                     punctatus        Male       0.00536
                     (Bloch, 1793)
Haemulidae         Orthopristis       Female     0.04516
                     ruber (Cuvier,   Male       0.00590
                     1830)
                   Pomadasys          Female     0.00855
                     corvinaeformis   Male       0.02348
                     (Steindachner,
                     1868)
Sciaenidae         Ctenosciaena       Female     0.00704
                     gracilicirrhus   Male       0.00968
                     (Metzelaar,
                     1919)
                   Menticirrhus       Female     0.00489
                     americanus       Male       0.00352
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
                   Isopisthus         Female     0.00994
                     parvipinnis      Male       0.01579
                     (Cuvier, 1830)
                   Larimus            Female     0.00831
                     breviceps        Male       0.00657
                      Cuvier, 1830
                   Macrodon           Female     0.00901
                     ancylodon        Male       0.00555
                     (Bloch &
                     Schneider,
                     1801)
                   Micropogonias      Female     0.01059
                     furnieri         Male        0.0069
                     (Desmarest,
                     1823)
                   Paralonchurus      Female     0.00389
                     brasiliensis     Male       0.00224
                     (Steindachner,
                     1875)
                   Stellifer          Female     0.00398
                     brasiliensis     Male       0.00661
                     (Schultz,
                     1945)
                   Stellifer          Female     0.00625
                     rastrifer        Male       0.00611
                     (Jordan, 1889)
                   Stellifer          Female     0.00605
                     stellifer        Male       0.00282
                     (Bloch, 1790)
                   Stellifer sp.      Female     0.00556
                                      Male       0.00339
Trichiuridae       Trichiurus         Female     0.00040
                     lepturus         Male       0.00021
                     Linnaeus, 1758
Paralichthyidae    Syacium            Female     0.00654
                     papillosum       Male       0.03614
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Monacanthidae      Stephanolepis      Female     0.05071
                     hispidus         Male       0.00906
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1766)
Tetraodontidae     Sphoeroides        Female     0.01529
                     testudineus      Male       0.01410
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)

Family             Species            Sex        Parameters of
                                               the relationship

                                                    LCL-UCL

Ariidae            Cathorops spixii   Female    0.01268-0.01618
                     (Agassiz,        Male      0.01482-0.01920
                     1829)
Pristigasteridae   Pellona            Female    0.00370-0.01775
                     harroweri        Male      0.00476-0.01601
                     (Fowler, 1919)
Gerreidae          Diapterus          Female    0.00560-0.00823
                     rhombeus         Male      0.00553-0.00887
                     (Valenciennes,
                     1830)
Triglidae          Prionotus          Female    0.00424-0.00625
                     punctatus        Male     -0.000002-0.01072
                     (Bloch, 1793)
Haemulidae         Orthopristis       Female    -0.00458-0.0949
                     ruber (Cuvier,   Male     -0.00300-0.01479
                     1830)
                   Pomadasys          Female    0.00645-0.01066
                     corvinaeformis   Male      0.00199-0.04497
                     (Steindachner,
                     1868)
Sciaenidae         Ctenosciaena       Female    0.00411-0.00998
                     gracilicirrhus   Male      0.00600-0.01337
                     (Metzelaar,
                     1919)
                   Menticirrhus       Female    0.00329-0.00648
                     americanus       Male      0.00134-0.0057
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
                   Isopisthus         Female    0.00832-0.01155
                     parvipinnis      Male      0.00983-0.02174
                     (Cuvier, 1830)
                   Larimus            Female    0.00658-0.01004
                     breviceps        Male      0.00518-0.00796
                      Cuvier, 1830
                   Macrodon           Female    0.00407-0.01395
                     ancylodon        Male      0.00291-0.00818
                     (Bloch &
                     Schneider,
                     1801)
                   Micropogonias      Female    0.00788-0.01329
                     furnieri         Male      0.00537-0.00844
                     (Desmarest,
                     1823)
                   Paralonchurus      Female    0.00304-0.00473
                     brasiliensis     Male      0.00133-0.00315
                     (Steindachner,
                     1875)
                   Stellifer          Female    0.00362-0.00435
                     brasiliensis     Male      0.00527-0.00795
                     (Schultz,
                     1945)
                   Stellifer          Female    0.00596-0.00654
                     rastrifer        Male      0.00589-0.00632
                     (Jordan, 1889)
                   Stellifer          Female    0.00539-0.0067
                     stellifer        Male      0.00204-0.00359
                     (Bloch, 1790)
                   Stellifer sp.      Female    0.00403-0.00709
                                      Male      0.00053-0.00624
Trichiuridae       Trichiurus         Female   -0.00022-0.00102
                     lepturus         Male     -0.00023-0.00065
                     Linnaeus, 1758
Paralichthyidae    Syacium            Female    0.00028-0.01279
                     papillosum       Male      -0.01292-0.0852
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Monacanthidae      Stephanolepis      Female    0.02930-0.07212
                     hispidus         Male      0.00729-0.01083
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1766)
Tetraodontidae     Sphoeroides        Female   -0.01491-0.04549
                     testudineus      Male     -0.00103-0.02923
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)

Family             Species            Sex       Parameters
                                                  of the
                                               relationship

                                                    b

Ariidae            Cathorops spixii   Female      2.868
                     (Agassiz,        Male        2.801
                     1829)
Pristigasteridae   Pellona            Female      2.949
                     harroweri        Male        2.931
                     (Fowler, 1919)
Gerreidae          Diapterus          Female      3.135
                     rhombeus         Male        3.112
                     (Valenciennes,
                     1830)
Triglidae          Prionotus          Female      3.280
                     punctatus        Male        3.275
                     (Bloch, 1793)
Haemulidae         Orthopristis       Female      2.627
                     ruber (Cuvier,   Male        3.300
                     1830)
                   Pomadasys          Female      3.194
                     corvinaeformis   Male        2.810
                     (Steindachner,
                     1868)
Sciaenidae         Ctenosciaena       Female      3.253
                     gracilicirrhus   Male        3.132
                     (Metzelaar,
                     1919)
                   Menticirrhus       Female      3.253
                     americanus       Male        3.368
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
                   Isopisthus         Female      2.984
                     parvipinnis      Male        2.797
                     (Cuvier, 1830)
                   Larimus            Female      3.167
                     breviceps        Male        3.256
                      Cuvier, 1830
                   Macrodon           Female      2.978
                     ancylodon        Male        3.128
                     (Bloch &
                     Schneider,
                     1801)
                   Micropogonias      Female      3.003
                     furnieri         Male        3.141
                     (Desmarest,
                     1823)
                   Paralonchurus      Female      3.287
                     brasiliensis     Male        3.483
                     (Steindachner,
                     1875)
                   Stellifer          Female      3.424
                     brasiliensis     Male        3.234
                     (Schultz,
                     1945)
                   Stellifer          Female      3.283
                     rastrifer        Male        3.295
                     (Jordan, 1889)
                   Stellifer          Female      3.245
                     stellifer        Male        3.594
                     (Bloch, 1790)
                   Stellifer sp.      Female      3.291
                                      Male        3.514
Trichiuridae       Trichiurus         Female      3.059
                     lepturus         Male        3.241
                     Linnaeus, 1758
Paralichthyidae    Syacium            Female      3.148
                     papillosum       Male        2.565
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Monacanthidae      Stephanolepis      Female      2.590
                     hispidus         Male        3.230
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1766)
Tetraodontidae     Sphoeroides        Female      3.119
                     testudineus      Male        3.134
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)

Family             Species            Sex       Parameters
                                                  of the
                                               relationship

                                                 LCL-UCL

Ariidae            Cathorops spixii   Female   2.827-2.908
                     (Agassiz,        Male     2.755-2.845
                     1829)
Pristigasteridae   Pellona            Female   2.687-3.211
                     harroweri        Male     2.715-3.149
                     (Fowler, 1919)
Gerreidae          Diapterus          Female   3.073-3.198
                     rhombeus         Male     3.038-3.186
                     (Valenciennes,
                     1830)
Triglidae          Prionotus          Female   3.220-3.341
                     punctatus        Male     2.943-3.606
                     (Bloch, 1793)
Haemulidae         Orthopristis       Female   2.277-2.976
                     ruber (Cuvier,   Male     2.807-3.793
                     1830)
                   Pomadasys          Female   3.105-3.283
                     corvinaeformis   Male     2.456-3.165
                     (Steindachner,
                     1868)
Sciaenidae         Ctenosciaena       Female   3.099-3.406
                     gracilicirrhus   Male     2.991-3.273
                     (Metzelaar,
                     1919)
                   Menticirrhus       Female   3.157-3.349
                     americanus       Male     3.165-3.571
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
                   Isopisthus         Female   2.922-3.046
                     parvipinnis      Male     2.650-2.942
                     (Cuvier, 1830)
                   Larimus            Female   3.097-3.235
                     breviceps        Male     3.184-3.328
                      Cuvier, 1830
                   Macrodon           Female   2.812-3.142
                     ancylodon        Male     2.986-3.269
                     (Bloch &
                     Schneider,
                     1801)
                   Micropogonias      Female   2.932-3.074
                     furnieri         Male     3.082-3.199
                     (Desmarest,
                     1823)
                   Paralonchurus      Female   3.213-3.361
                     brasiliensis     Male     3.343-3.622
                     (Steindachner,
                     1875)
                   Stellifer          Female   3.391-3.457
                     brasiliensis     Male     3.159-3.310
                     (Schultz,
                     1945)
                   Stellifer          Female   3.266-3.300
                     rastrifer        Male     3.281-3.308
                     (Jordan, 1889)
                   Stellifer          Female   3.204-3.287
                     stellifer        Male     3.478-3.710
                     (Bloch, 1790)
                   Stellifer sp.      Female   3.173-3.408
                                      Male     3.149-3.879
Trichiuridae       Trichiurus         Female   2.710-3.408
                     lepturus         Male     2.767-3.714
                     Linnaeus, 1758
Paralichthyidae    Syacium            Female   2.829-3.468
                     papillosum       Male     2.115-3.015
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Monacanthidae      Stephanolepis      Female   2.423-2.757
                     hispidus         Male     3.161-3.299
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1766)
Tetraodontidae     Sphoeroides        Female   2.484-3.755
                     testudineus      Male     2.786-3.480
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)

i                  Species            Sex       Parameters
                                                  of the
                                               relationship

                                                [R.sup.2]

Ariidae            Cathorops spixii   Female      0.928
                     (Agassiz,        Male        0.936
                     1829)
Pristigasteridae   Pellona            Female      0.869
                     harroweri        Male        0.960
                     (Fowler, 1919)
Gerreidae          Diapterus          Female      0.975
                     rhombeus         Male        0.987
                     (Valenciennes,
                     1830)
Triglidae          Prionotus          Female      0.985
                     punctatus        Male        0.851
                     (Bloch, 1793)
Haemulidae         Orthopristis       Female      0.928
                     ruber (Cuvier,   Male        0.915
                     1830)
                   Pomadasys          Female      0.985
                     corvinaeformis   Male        0.910
                     (Steindachner,
                     1868)
Sciaenidae         Ctenosciaena       Female      0.915
                     gracilicirrhus   Male        0.889
                     (Metzelaar,
                     1919)
                   Menticirrhus       Female      0.970
                     americanus       Male        0.926
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
                   Isopisthus         Female      0.957
                     parvipinnis      Male        0.950
                     (Cuvier, 1830)
                   Larimus            Female      0.988
                     breviceps        Male        0.994
                      Cuvier, 1830
                   Macrodon           Female      0.984
                     ancylodon        Male        0.982
                     (Bloch &
                     Schneider,
                     1801)
                   Micropogonias      Female      0.973
                     furnieri         Male        0.996
                     (Desmarest,
                     1823)
                   Paralonchurus      Female      0.950
                     brasiliensis     Male        0.966
                     (Steindachner,
                     1875)
                   Stellifer          Female      0.984
                     brasiliensis     Male        0.977
                     (Schultz,
                     1945)
                   Stellifer          Female      0.975
                     rastrifer        Male        0.984
                     (Jordan, 1889)
                   Stellifer          Female      0.981
                     stellifer        Male        0.970
                     (Bloch, 1790)
                   Stellifer sp.      Female      0.969
                                      Male        0.957
Trichiuridae       Trichiurus         Female      0.965
                     lepturus         Male        0.947
                     Linnaeus, 1758
Paralichthyidae    Syacium            Female      0.895
                     papillosum       Male        0.935
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
Monacanthidae      Stephanolepis      Female      0.872
                     hispidus         Male        0.976
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1766)
Tetraodontidae     Sphoeroides        Female      0.875
                     testudineus      Male        0.967
                     (Linnaeus,
                     1758)
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Title Annotation:articulo en ingles
Author:Dias, June F.; Fernandez, Wellington S.; Schmidt, Thassya C.S.
Publication:Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research
Date:Mar 1, 2014
Words:9839
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