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Registration of spring wheat germplasm ND 652 resistant to common root rot, leaf, and stem rusts.

ND 652 (Reg. no. GP-783, PI 639177) is a hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) developed at North Dakota State University (NDSU), Fargo, ND, USA. ND 652 was released in January 2005 by the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station (NDAES) for its high level of resistance to common root rot (CRR) {caused mainly by Cochliobolus sativus (Ito et Kurib) Dreshs. ex Dastur [anamorph: Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc.) Shoem., syn: Helminthosporium sativum P.K. & B]} and its adaptation to the northern spring wheat region of the United States. ND 652 is also resistant to the prevalent pathotypes of stem rust (caused by Puccinia graminis Pers:Pers. f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn) in the region and to leaf rust (caused by Puccinia triticina Eriks.).

ND 652 was derived from the cross of 'Stoa' (PI 520297)/ 'Amidon' (PI 527682) made at NDSU by Dr. R.C. Frohberg in 1981. Stoa and Amidon are hard red spring wheat (HRSW) cultivars developed by NDSU and released by NDAES in 1984 and 1988, respectively. The [F.sub.1] seeds from the original cross were grown in the greenhouse in the winter of 1982 and the [F.sup.2] population was grown in the field at Prosper, ND, in the summer of 1982. Two hundred spikes were selected from the [F.sup.2] population and advanced as [F.sup.3] derived head-row families at the NDSU Agronomy Seed Farm at Casselton, ND, in the summer of 1983. Ten spikes were harvested from each of selected [F.sup.3] head-rows, threshed in bulk and sown as [F.sup.4] headrow plots at Prosper, ND, in the summer of 1984. Subsequently, ten selected spikes from each of the [F.sup.4] head-row plots were harvested, threshed individually, and grown as [F.sup.4:5] families in 1.2-m head-row plots at Prosper, ND, in the summer of 1985. ND 652 was produced from a bulk of one of the selected [F.sup.4:5] head-row plots. Selection in the early segregating populations ([F.sup.2] to [F.sup.4]) was based on high levels of resistance to leaf rust, stem rust, and good agronomic merits including plant vigor, height, and earliness. ND 652 was entered into yield trials as an [F.sup.4:6] breeding line at Casselton and Prosper, ND, in 1986 and, subsequently, was tested in advanced ([F.sup.4:7]) and elite ([F.sup.4:8]) yield trials at four locations in North Dakota in 1987 and 1988. ND 652 was then tested for agronomic and quality traits in 14 location-years in 1988 and 1989 in the North Dakota State Trials and in 31 location-years in the Hard Red Spring Wheat Uniform Regional Nursery (HRSWURN) conducted in the states of North Dakota, Minnesota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Montana, Wyoming, Washington, and Manitoba, Canada (Bush and Mitchell, 1988; Bush and Linkert, 1989). ND 652 was initially tested in the CRR trials conducted at Fargo, ND, from 1988 to 1990 (Stack, 1994). ND 652 was one of the few HRSW genotypes that showed high levels of resistance to CRR. Hence, it was included as an improved resistant HRSW check in the CRR trials conducted at Fargo, ND (1993, 1994, and 1997); Carrington and Minot, ND (1996 and 1997); and Williston, ND (1996 and 1997; 2002 and 2003). In total, ND 652 was tested for its reaction to CRR in 14 location-years in ND.

Under moderate CRR incidence, the common root rot index (CRRI) as defined by Stack (1994) of ND 652 was 20.1% over 8 location-years, significantly (P < 0.05) lower than the CRRI of 'Grandin' (PI 531005) (34%) and 'Len' (CItr 17790) (31.4%). Similarly, under high CRR incidence over 6 location--years, the CRRI recorded for ND 652 was 29.4% compared to 45.7 and 57.9% for Grandin and Len, respectively. In 2002, a dry season in the western part of North Dakota, CRR incidence recorded at Williston, ND, was as high as 96% on susceptible genotypes. Under these circumstances, the CRRI of ND 652 (31%) was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than the CRRI recorded for Grandin (47%) and Len (61%). ND 652 was evaluated at the USDA-ARS, Cereal Crop Research Unit at Fargo, ND, in 2002 and 2003 for resistance to stem and leaf rusts. ND 652 was found to be highly resistant to the prevalent stem rust pathotypes: Pgt-QCCJ, -QTHJ, -QFCQ, -RTQQ, -TPMK, -RHTS, and -HPHJ. ND 652 was also shown to be very resistant to the MCDL, THBJ, TCCK, and TBBG races of leaf rust at the seedling stages and to the most prevalent races in the field at adult plant stage (Bush and Linkert, 1989).

ND 652 is an awned, medium-maturing, and semidwarf HRSW. ND 652 has a lax spike type with plant height similar to Grandin (78 cm), 4 cm shorter than Stoa and Amidon, and 3 cm taller than Len based on data from 14 location-years of North Dakota State Trials. In the same trials, the number of days from planting to heading of ND 652 (59 d) was 1 and 3 d later than Stoa and Grandin, respectively. ND 652 has a strong straw strength; therefore, it is resistant to lodging. Grain yield of ND 652 in the North Dakota State Trials (2264 kg [ha.sup.-1]) was similar to grain yield of Grandin (2278 kg [ha.sup.-1]) and Len (2184 kg [ha.sup.-1]) but slightly lower than Amidon (2380 kg [ha.sup.-1]) and Stoa (2358 kg [ha.sup.-1]). In the HRSWURN trials, grain yield of ND 652 was 2331 kg [ha.sup.-1] compared to 2426 and 1875 kg [ha.sup.-1] for Stoa and 'Chris' (CItr 13751), respectively. Mean grain weight per volume and protein of ND 652 over 14 location--years of North Dakota State Trials were 760 kg [m.sup.-3] and 175 g [kg.sup.-1], respectively. Grain weight per volume of Amidon and Stoa was 757 kg [m.sup.-3] and 754 kg [m.sup.-3], respectively, and grain protein content of Amidon and Stoa were 171 g [kg.sup.-1] and 168 g kg 1, respectively, in the same trials. In the HRSWYRN trials, the grain weight per volume of ND 652 was 762 kg [m.sup.-3] compared to 722 and 737 kg [m.sup.-3] for Stoa and Chris, respectively.

Based on 14 location-years of North Dakota State Trials; the flour yield of ND 652 was 676 g [kg.sup.-1], less than the 683, 682, and 685 g [kg.sup.-1] scored for Grandin, Stoa, and Amidon, respectively. Water absorption was 69.2%, more than Amidon (68%), comparable to Stoa (68.7%), but less than Grandin (70.8%). Mixogram mix time (after 3 h fermentation) was 3.05 rain, similar to Stoa (3.05 min) and Grandin (3.12 min), but greater than Amidon (2.20 min). The mixing tolerance score (21.1 min) was higher than Amidon (16.1 min), but lower than Stoa (26.1 min) and Grandin (27.7 min). Loaf volume was 1028 [cm.sup.3], comparable to Grandin (1001 [cm.sup.3]), but greater than Amidon (976 [cm.sup.3]) and Stoa (981 [cm.sup.3]).

ND 652 is of interest to many breeders in the USA and worldwide where CRR disease is a problem of wheat. It is the first HRSW experimental line that combines high levels of resistance to CRR, leaf and stem rusts with good bread-making attributes and high yield and agronomic performance.

Upon request to the corresponding author, 5 g seed of ND 652 can be obtained for research purposes and for use in transferring CRR resistance to cultivars. Appropriate recognition of the source should be noted if ND 652 contributes to research on CRR, the development of new genetic stocks, molecular tools, germplasm, or cultivars.

References

Bush, R.H., and G. Linkert. 1989. Wheat varieties grown in cooperative plot and nursery experiments in the spring wheat region in 1989. USDA-ARS, St. Paul, MN.

Bush, R.H., and M. Mitchell. 1988. Wheat varieties grown in cooperative plot and nursery experiments in the spring wheat region in 1988. USDA-ARS, St. Paul, MN.

Stack, R.W. 1994. Susceptibility of hard red spring wheat to common root rot. Crop Sci. 34:276-278.

M. MERGOUM, * R.C. FROHBERG, R.W. STACK, N. RIVELAND, T. OLSON, AND J.D. MILLER

M. Mergoum, R.C. Frohberg (retired), and T. Olson, Dep. of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State Univ., Fargo, ND 58105; R.W. Stack, Dep. of Plant Pathology, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND; N. Riveland, North Dakota State Univ., Williston Research and Extension Center, Williston, ND; J.D. Miller (retired), USDA-ARS Northern Crop Science Laboratory, Fargo, ND. Registration by CSSA. Accepted 30 April 2005. * Corresponding author (mohamed.mergoum@ ndsu.nodak.edu).

doi: 10.2135/cropsci2005.0190
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Title Annotation:North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station
Author:Mergoum, M.; Frohberg, R.C.; Stack, R.W.; Riveland, N.; Olson, T.; Miller, J.D.
Publication:Crop Science
Geographic Code:1U4ND
Date:Nov 1, 2005
Words:1467
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