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Registration of seven rust resistant sunflower germplasms.

Seven sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasms, PH1 through PH7, have been developed. PHI (Reg. no. GP-282, PI 574631), PH2 (Reg. no. GP-283, Pl 574632), PH3 (Reg. no. GP-284, PI 574633), PII4 (Reg. no. GP-285, PI 574634), PH5 (Reg. no. GP-286, PI 574635), PH6 (Reg. no. GP-287, PI 574636), and PH7 (Reg. no. GP-288, PI 574637) carry resistance to the prevailing North American (NA) rust races 1 through 4 (caused by Puccinia helianthi Schw.), and were cooperatively developed and released by the USDA-ARS and the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station, Fargo, ND in 1993. The germplasms were derived from hybridization and backcrossing of the susceptible inbred line HA 89 (PI 599773) with resistant plants selected from seven wild Helianthus accessions. Five of the accessions were IL annuus L., one accession was H. petiolaris subsp, petiolaris Nutt., and one accession was H. argophyllus Raf. Resistant progeny of each hybrid were backcrossed twice to HA 89. These populations provide sources of genetic resistance to the prevailing NA sunflower rust races for use in sunflower breeding and genetic programs.

PH1 had a pedigree of HA 89//P1 413(J23/HA 89*2, B[C.sub.2][F.sub.4]. Plant Introduction 413023 originated from Colorado with 35 % of the plants resistant to race 1 through 4 of rust. HA 89 was released by the USDA and the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station in 1971. Resistant plants of the wild IL annuus population were crossed with HA 89 as the male parent. The [F.sub.1] progeny were evaluated in the greenhouse and plants with resistance to all four NA races of rust were backcrossed with HA 89 as the male parent. The resistant B[C.sub.1][F.sub.1] plants were again backcrossed to HA 89. A single plant was selected as the donor parent for each generation to be crossed with HA 89 to produce [F.sub.1], B[C.sub.1][F.sub.1], and B[C.sub.2][F.sub.1] generations. One resistant B[C.sub.2][F.sub.1] plant was selected and self-pollinated. A minimum of 15 resistant B[C.sub.2][F.sub.2] plants were self-pollinated to produce the B[C.sub.2][F.sub.3] generation. More than 30 random B[C.sub.2][F.sub.3] plants were self-pollinated to produce BC2F4 seed, which is expected to have dominant rust resistance genes at an approximate frequency of 75%.

PH2 through PH7 were developed using the same breeding scheme as PH1, except for the use of different wild species for each germplasm. For PH2, the source was PI 413037, a wild H. annuus population from Nebraska with 42% of the plants resistant to the four rust races. PH3 was derived from PI 413038, a wild H. annuus population from South Dakota with 20% of the plants resistant to the four rust races. PH4 came from PI 413048, a wild H. annuus population from California with 450 of the plants resistant to the four rust races. PH5 was created from Pl 413118, a wild H. annuus population from California with 33% of the plants resistant to the four rust races. PH6 was produced from P1413171, a H. argophyllus population from Texas with 40% of the plants resistant to the four rust races. PH7 originated from PI 413175, a H. petiolaris subsp, petiolaris population from Nebraska with 40% of the plants resistant to the four rust races.

Each germplasm carries a dominant gene for resistance to the four NA rust races. The genes for resistance to rust in PH1, PH5, PH6, and PH7 differ from each other for the respective rust races (Quresh and Jan, 1993; Quresh et al., 1993). These germplasm populations have 87.5% cultivated H. annuus and 12.5% wild Helianthus nuclear genes in HA 89 (H. annuus) cytoplasm. Most plants are single-headed and self-compatible, have an approximate plant height of 127 cm, flower 70 d after planting, and have a head diameter of 14 cm. Seeds are either black or black with white stripes with a respective 1000-seed weight of 43, 43, 69, 33, 31, 29, and 35 g for PH1 through PH7. Germplasms PH1 through PH6 are susceptible to sunflower downy mildew (DM) [caused by Plasmopara halstedii (Fad.) Bed. & de Toni in Sacc.] race virulence phenotypes 300 (race 2), 700 (race 3), 730 (race 4), 770 (race 5), and 330 (race 7). However, B[C.sub.2][F.sub.2] plants of PH7 segregated three resistant to one susceptible for these DM races.

Limited quantities of seed of each germplasm are available from the Seedstocks Project, Dep. of Plant Sciences, Loftsgard Hall, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105. We ask that appropriate recognition be made if these germplasms contribute to the development of a new breeding hybrid, line, germplasm, or cultivar. U.S. Plant Variety Protection will not be requested for PH1 through PH7.

References

Quresh, Z., and C.C. Jan. 1993. Allelic relationships among genes for resistance to sunflower rust. Crop Sci. 33:235-238.

Qaresh, Z., C.C. Jan, and T.J. Gulya. 1993. Resistance to sunflower rust and its inheritance in wild sunflower species. Plant Breed. 110:297-306.

C.C. JAN, * Z. QURESH, AND T.J. GULYA

Jan, C.C., and T.J. Galya, USDA-ARS, Northern Crop Science Laboratory, Box 5677, State University Station, Fargo, ND 58105; Z. Quresh, PODB Agricultural Research Institute, Tarnab, Peshawar, Pakistan. Registration by CSSA. Accepted 29 Feb. 2004. * Corresponding author (janc@fargo.ars.usda.gov).
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Title Annotation:Registrations Of Germplasms
Author:Jan, C.C.; Quresh, Z.; Gulya, T.J.
Publication:Crop Science
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Sep 1, 2004
Words:911
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