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Registration of five leaf spot-resistant peanut germplasm lines. (Registrations Of Germplasm).

GP-NC WS 11, GP-NC WS 12, GP-NC WS 13, GP-NC WS 14, and GP-NC WS 15 (Reg. no. GP-109-GP-113, PI 619175-PI 619179) peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) germplasm lines were released by the North Carolina Agricultural Research Service in May 1997. The five lines were derived from three-way crosses between large-seeded virginia-type peanut cultivars, Cercospora arachidicola Hori-resistant A. hypogaea lines (Foster et al., 1981; Sowell et al., 1976), and C. arachidicola-resistant interspecific hybrid derivatives from A. hypogaea and A. cardenasii Krapov. and W.C. Gregory progeny (Stalker and Beute, 1993) as follows: GP-NC WS 11 = `NC 6'//NC Ac 3033/GP-NC WS 1, GP-NC WS 12 = NC 6//NC Ac 3033/GP-NC WS 1, GP-NC WS 13 = `NC 5'//PI 270806/ GP-NC WS 4, GP-NC WS 14 = NC 6//PI 270806/GP-NC WS 4, and GP-NC WS 15 = NC 6//PI 270806/GP-NC WS 4. Crosses between the C. arachidicola-resistant A. hypogaea and interspecific hybrid lines were produced in 1980, and single-plant selections were made in the [F.sub.2] generation for high levels of early leaf spot (caused by Cercospora arachidicola Hori) resistance during 1982. These plant selections were crossed as male parents to cultivars NC 6 and NC 5 during the winter of 1982-1983. Progenies were then evaluated for leaf spot resistance in the field from 1985 to 1989. Seventy-six single plant selections ([F.sub.7:8]) were made during 1989 on the basis of early leaf spot resistance and pod size.

The 76 single plant selections were evaluated (i) in detached leaf tests in the greenhouse for C. arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Deighton [syn. Phaeolsariopsis personata (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Arx] resistances following the methodology of Foster et al. (Foster et al., 1980); (ii) in fields with natural inoculum levels of C. arachidicola from 1991 to 1996, when numbers of lesions, defoliation percentage, and subjective ratings were recorded; (iii) in disease-progression tests (Sowell et al., 1976) under field conditions for C. arachidicola and C. personatum from 1991 to 1993; and (iv) in fungicide-sprayed and nonsprayed tests in which yield and quality data were obtained in addition to defoliation ratings. Detached leaf tests indicated that most interspecific hybrid lines had higher levels of resistance for C. arachidicola than for C. personatum. Several interspecific hybrid lines had delayed C. arachidicola lesion formation, few lesions, and some lines did not have sporulating lesions. For C. personatum, however, lesions generally were produced earlier, were large, and most lesions sporulated. In field tests, leaf spot was predominantly due to C. arachidicola, and five selections had significantly (P [less than or equal to] 0.05) fewer lesions than resistant A. hypogaea checks (Foster et al., 1981; Sowell et al., 1976). Seven interspecific hybrids had significantly (P [less than or equal to] 0.05) higher levels of resistance to C. arachidicola based on a subjective rating scale. Disease progression evaluations indicated that high levels of resistance were expressed in interspecific hybrid lines for both C. arachidicola and C. personatum under field conditions. Further, leaf spot diseases progressed slowly throughout the growing season as compared with susceptible genotypes. Leaf spot resistant selections had a high percentage of fancy size pods, but significantly (P [less than or equal to] 0.05) lower yields than NC 6. Meat percentage [(seed weight / pod + seed weight) x 100] was low (56-61%), indicating that many seeds were immature. The five most promising lines were released as GP-NC WS 11 to GP-NC WS 15. They are currently in the 15th generation after crossing.

GP-NC WS 11 has a semi-erect to upright growth habit. Flowers are not produced on the main stem, and vegetative to reproductive nodes on lateral branches are in an alternating pattern. Botanically, the line belongs to the A. hypogaea subspecies hypogaea var. hypogaea. Plants are of medium size and do not completely fill the 91-cm row by the end of the growing season. The main stem is about 27 cm high. Plants are late maturing with about 150 d needed from planting to maturity. A large percentage of the pods are in the fancy size market grade, and average 36.3 mm in length and 16.3 mm in width. Pods have two seeds, a deep constriction, and a pronounced beak. Testa are tan and smooth, and seeds average 86.6 g [100.sup.-1] seed. Seed size is significantly (P [less than or equal to] 0.05) greater than previously released C. arachidicola-resistant interspecific hybrid lines (Stalker and Beute, 1993). Yield averaged 2645 kg [ha.sup.-1] compared with 3531 kg [ha.sup.-1] for `NC 7'. GP-NC WS 11 has significantly (P [less than or equal to] 0.05) higher levels of resistance to C. arachidicola than previously released interspecific hybrid derivatives (Stalker and Beute, 1993) and A. hypogaea leaf spot resistant lines (Foster et al., 1981; Sowell et al., 1976).

GP-NC WS 12 has a semi-erect growth habit. Flowers are not produced on the main stem and vegetative to reproductive nodes on lateral branches are in an alternating pattern. Botanically, the line belongs to the A. hypogaea subspecies hypogaea var. hypogaea. Plants are of medium to small size and do not completely fill the 91-cm row by the end of the growing season. The main stem is about 24 cm in length and is not apparent at the time of harvest. Plants are late maturing, with about 150 d from planting to maturity. More than 80% of the pods are graded to the fancy size, and average 36.1 mm in length and 15.0 mm in width. Pods have two seeds, a moderate constriction, and an inconspicuous beak. The testa is tan and smooth. Yield averages 2688 kg [ha.sup.-1] as compared with 3531 kg [ha.sup.-1] for NC 7 and seeds average 83.0 g [100.sup.-1]. The line has significantly (P [less than or equal to] 0.05) higher levels of resistance to C. arachidicola than resistant A. hypogaea lines or previously released interspecific hybrid derivatives (Stalker and Beute, 1993). It also has moderate levels of resistance to C. personatum.

GP-NC WS 13 is semi-erect and has a bunch-type growth habit. Flowers are not produced on the main stem and vegetative to reproductive nodes on lateral branches are sequential. Botanically, the line is intermediate between subspecies hypogaea and subspecies fastigiata. Plants are of medium to large size and completely fill the 91-cm row by the end of the growing season. The main stem is about 28 cm in length and is not apparent at the time of harvest. Plants are late maturing, with about 150 d needed from planting to maturity. Pods average 35.1 mm in length, 15.1 mm in width, and have two seeds, a deep constriction, and a pronounced beak. Pod yield averages 2675 kg [ha.sup.-1] as compared with 3531 kg [ha.sup.-1] for NC 7. Testa are tan and may split at or before maturity. The line has high levels of C. arachidicola resistance with few sporulating lesions. The line has moderate to high levels of resistance to C. personatum, which is not significantly (P [less than or equal to] 0.05) different from the C. personatum-resistant cultivar Southern Runner.

GP-NC WS 14 has a semi-erect habit and is classified as a bunch type. Flowers are not produced on the main stem, and vegetative to reproductive nodes on lateral branches are in an alternating pattern. Botanically, this germplasm line belongs to the A. hypogaea subspecies hypogaea var. hypogaea. Plants are medium to large size. The main stem is about 30 cm high and is not apparent at the time of harvest. The line is late maturing, with 152 or more d from planting to harvest. Pods average 37.8 mm in length and 15.5 mm in width, with two seeds, a deep constriction, and a pronounced beak. The testa is tan and smooth, and commonly splits by the time of maturity. Seeds average 72.3 g [100.sup.-1] seed. Pod yield averages 3013 kg [ha.sup.-1] compared with 3531 kg [ha.sup.-1] for NC 7. Lesions were not produced on leaves in a detached leaf test for C. arachidicola and significantly (P [less than or equal to] 0.05) fewer lesions were produced on leaves in the field as compared with resistant A. hypogaea checks. Based on subjective ratings for C. arachidicola resistance, GP-NC WS 14 is significantly more resistant than A. hypogaea lines (Foster et al., 1981; Sowell et al., 1976) and previously released interspecific hybrid derivatives (Stalker and Beute, 1993). The line also expresses moderate levels of resistance to C. personatum.

GP-NC WS 15 has a semi-erect growth habit and is classified as a bunch type peanut. Flowers are not produced on the main stem, and vegetative to reproductive nodes on lateral branches are in an alternating pattern. Botanically, the line belongs to the A. hypogaea subspecies hypogaea var. hypogaea. Plants are of medium to large size, but do not completely fill the 91-cm row by the end of the growing season. The main stem is about 37 cm high and is not apparent at the time of harvest. Plants are late maturing, with about 150 d needed for maturity. Pods average 39.2 mm in length and 16.9 mm in width, with two seeds, a deep constriction, and a pronounced beak. Yields average 2700 kg [ha.sup.-1] as compared with 3531 kg [ha.sup.-1] for NC 7. More than 80% of the pods have a fancy size and seeds average 71 g [100.sup.-1] seed. Testa are tan and smooth. The line has very high levels of resistance to C. arachidicola in the field, expressed as small lesions. Based on subjective ratings and numbers of lesions, the line is significantly (P [less than or equal to] 0.05) more resistant than A. hypogaea lines (Foster et al., 1981; Sowell et al., 1976) and previously released interspecific hybrids (Stalker and Beute, 1993). Fifty seeds of GP-NC WS 11, GP-NC WS 12, GP-NC WS 13, GP-NC WS 14, and GP-NC WS 15 will be distributed upon written request to the corresponding author.

References

Foster, D.J., M.K. Beute, and J.C. Wynne. 1980. Spore production and latent period as mechanisms of resistance to Cercospora arachidicola in four peanut genotypes. Peanut Sci. 7:88-90.

Foster, D.J., H.T. Stalker, J.C. Wynne, and M.K. Beute. 1981. Resistance of Arachis hypogaea L. and wild relatives to Cercospora arachidicola Hori. Oleagineux 36:139-143.

Sowell, G., D.H. Smith, and R.O. Hammons. 1976. Resistance of peanut plant introductions to Cercospora arachidicola. Plant Dis. Reptr. 60:494-498.

Stalker, H.T., and M.K. Beute. 1993. Registration of four interspecific peanut germplasm lines resistant to Cercospora arachidicola. Crop Sci. 33:1117.

H.T. STALKER, * M.K. BEUTE, B.B. SHEW, AND T.G. ISLEIB

H.T. Stalker and T.G. Isleib, Dep. of Crop Science, M.K. Beute and B.B. Shew, Dep. of Plant Pathology, North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC 27695-7629. Registration by CSSA. Accepted 31 July 2001. * Corresponding author (hts@unity.ncsu.edu).
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Author:Stalker, H.T.; Beute, M.K.; Shew, B.B.; Isleib, T.G.
Publication:Crop Science
Date:Jan 1, 2002
Words:1855
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