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Registration of HT621, a high carotenoid content tritordeum germplasm line.

HT621 is a doubled haploid hexaploid tritordeum (x Tritordeum Asch. & Graebn.) (Reg. no. GP-7, PI 636334) developed and released by the Institute for Sustainable Agriculture (CSIC) in Cordoba, Spain (2001) for use in research and crop improvement programs. Tritordeums are the amphiploids derived from crosses between Hordeum chilense Roem. et Schult. (2n = 2x = 14) and Triticum turgidum Desf. (2n = 4x = 28) (Martin and Sanchez-Monge, 1982) or T. aestivum L. (2n = 6x = 42) (Martin and Chapman, 1977). After chromosome doubling of the hybrid using colchicine treatment, hexaploid and octoploid tritordeums are developed from the crosses with durum and bread wheat, respectively. These amphiploids show potential to become a new crop (Martin and Cubero, 1981; Martin et al., 1996). However, the main interest of tritordeum relates to its use as a genetic bridge for wheat breeding (Martin et al., 1999).

HT621 is a tritordeum with high levels of seed carotenoid content derived from the multiple-way cross (HT47/HT31// HT44/HT31). HT22, HT24, HT44, and HT47 are primary hexaploid tritordeums (2n = 6x = 42) while HT18 is an octoploid one (2n = 8x = 56). These primary tritordeums were derived from the following crosses: HT22 = H1/T22, HT24 = H1/T24, HT44 = H16/T81, HT47 = H8/T31, HT18 = H7/T59. HT31 was derived from the cross HT22/HT24//HT18. H1, H16, H8, and H7 are H. chilense accessions; T22 (Cocorit), T24 (Mexicali-Andalucia), T31 (CBDWCIMMYT, 1986-87; Entrie 31) and T81 (CBDWCIMMYT, 1986-87, Entrie 81) are durum wheats. T59 is T. aestivum L. subp. sphaerococcum (Percival) Mackey. For somatic chromosome counting, roottips were treated for 4 h with a 0.05% colchicine-aqueous solution, fixed in 3:1 ethanol/acetic acid, and stained by the conventional Feulgen technique.

Tritordeum is a new species; therefore fertility, earliness, and disease resistance were the selection criteria in early generations. Carotenoid content was not a selection criterion in early generations. A pedigree method of breeding was followed. In Fs, we selected the line HTC486 due to its agronomic performance including height, flowering time, yield and disease resistance against stripe rust [caused by Puccinia striiformis West. (syn. P. glumarum Eriks & Henn.)], leaf rust [caused by P. triticina Eriks (syn. P. recondita Rob. ex Desm. f. sp. tritici)], stem rust (caused by P. graminis Pers.:Pers. f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn.), powdery mildew [caused by Blumeria graminis (DC) E.O. Speer f. sp. tritici Era. Marchal (syn. Erysiphe graminis DC f. sp. tritici Marchal)], and leaf blotch {caused by Mycosphaerella grammicola (Fuckel) J. Schrot In Cohn [anamorph: Septoria tritici Rob. in Desm.)] and Septoria nodorum (Berk.) Berk. [teleomorph: Leptosphaeria nodorum Muller]}. HTC486 was characterized for different quality parameters and it showed a high seed carotenoid content. We produced double-haploid lines from HTC486 using the maize (Zea mays L.) method according to Ballesteros et al. (2003). The double-haploid lines were multiplied and evaluated for carotenoid content by absorbance reading at 440 nm following the method proposed by Williams et al. (1988). HT621 was selected and assayed in field trials for 2 yr. Chromosome stability was checked as described above. HT621 is characterized by a 7% of aneuploidy (5% with 41 chromosomes and 2% with 43).

In general, HT621 looks like hexaploid wheat although it is not free threshing because it has a brittle rachis and hard glumes. HT621 had an average plant height of 112 cm, 20 cm taller than durum wheat 'Simeto' and 22 cm taller than bread wheat 'Cartaya'. The harvest index was 0.30, 0.38, and 0.36 for HT621, Cartaya, and Simeto, respectively. Cartaya and Simeto are usual check cultivars for the region. On average, HT621 anthesis was 8 d later than Cartaya and 6 d later than Simeto.

In 4 yr of Guadalquivir River Valley irrigated trials with three replications (37[degrees] 85' N; 04[degrees] 85' W), HT621 had an average grain yield of 4000 kg [ha.sup.-1], less than Cartaya (6000 kg ha 1) and Simeto (4800 kg [ha.sup.-1]). In the same trials, HT621, Cartaya, and Simeto had test weights of 755, 800, and 790 kg [m.sup.-3]. The thousand seed weight was 35, 39.5, and 53 g for HT621, Cartaya, and Simeto, respectively. All seed data were collected without glumes. Alveograph deformation energy (W) was 125 x [10.sup.-4] J for HT621 and 150 x [10.sup.-4] J for Cartaya. A randomized block design was used in all the trials.

Although HT621 is not suitable for cultivation due to its brittle rachis, hard glumes, and excessive height, it is adapted to Mediterranean environments. The unique characteristic of HT621 is its high seed carotenoid content. Four separate carotenoid content evaluations were conducted on the grain produced in the 4 yr of trials. HT621 had a high seed carotenoid content with an average of 19 mg [kg.sup.-1] compared with Simeto at 8 mg [kg.sup.-1] and Cartaya at 4 mg [kg.sup.-1]. This was much higher than reported in the Andalusian nursery trials for the registration of new wheat cultivars developed in the Guadalquivir river valley (RAEA, 2003), where the best durum wheat cultivars assayed were barely 10 mg [kg.sup.-1] and Simeto was used as the cultivar check. Therefore, HT621 constitutes a valuable germplasm line for seed carotenoid content.

HT621 will be maintained by IAS-CSIC in Cordoba, Spain. Small samples of seed for research purposes may be obtained from the corresponding author.


S.G. Atienza acknowledges financial support from the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science ('Juan de la Cierva' program).


Ballesteros, J., C. Garcia-Llamas, M.C. Ramirez, and A. Martin. 2003. Low relative humidity increases haploid production in durum wheat x maize crosses. Plant Breed. 122:276-278.

Martin, A., J.B. Alvarez, L.M. Martin, F. Barro, and J. Ballesteros. 1999. The development of tritordeum: A novel cereal for food processing. J. Cereal Sci. 30:85-95.

Martin, A., and V. Chapman. 1977. A hybrid between Hordeum chilense and Triticum aestivum. Cereal Res. Commun. 5:365-368.

Martin, A., and J.I. Cubero. 1981. The use of Hordeum chilense in cereal breeding. Cereal Res. Commun. 9:317-323.

Martin, A., C. Martinez, D. Rubiales, and J. Ballesteros. 1996. Tritordeum: Triticale's new brother cereal, p. 57-72. In H. Guedes-Pinto et al. (ed.) Triticale: Today and tomorrow. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.

Martin, A., and E. Sanchez-Monge Laguna. 1982. Cytology and morphology of the amphiploid Hordeum chilense x Triticum turgidum conv. durum. Euphytica 31:262-267.

RAEA. 2003. Bread and durum wheat, barley and triticale cultivars trial 2002-2003. (In Spanish). Consejerla de Agricultura y Pesca. Junta de Andalucia, Espana.

Williams, P.C., F.J. El-Haramein, H. Nakkoul, and S. Rahawi. 1988. Crop quality evaluation. Methods and guidelines. ICARDA Tech. Manual No. 14. Aleppo, Syria.


J. Ballesteros, M.C. Ramirez, S.G. Atienza, A. Martin, Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible (CSIC), Apartado 4084, E-14080 Cordoba, Spain; C. Martinez, IFAPA, Area de Mejora y Biotecnologia, Apdo. 3092, E-14004 Cordoba, Spain. Registration by CSSA. Accepted 31 May 2005. * Corresponding author (

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Author:Ballesteros, J.; Ramirez, M.C.; Martinez, C.; Atienza, S.G.; Martin, A.
Publication:Crop Science
Geographic Code:4EUSP
Date:Nov 1, 2005
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