Registration of `Chalus' Lathyrus cicera L.
Chalus was selected from the line IFLA 1279 supplied by the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Aleppo, Syria, and selected for adaptation to Western Australian conditions and low concentration of the neurotoxin 3-(N-oxalyl)-L-2,3-diamino propionic acid (ODAP) in the seed, at Northam, WA, in 1994. Plants were selected from this single plot for uniformity and multiplied in isolation to ensure uniformity for an additional three generations (1995, 1996, and 1997). Chalus was tested in regional trials in WA from 1995 to 1998 for stability of yield and ODAP concentration (1). Chalus was also tested in regional trials in South Australia, Victoria, and New South Wales in 1995,1996, and 1997.
Chalus yielded on average 5% more than `Lath-BC' in 15 trial sites across southern Australia. At dry sites within WA, its average yield has been equivalent to or greater than Pisum sativum L. cv `Dundale'. Chalus flowers 4 to 6 d earlier than Lath-BC, and about 20 d later than Dundale. Chalus finishes flowering before Dundale and has rapid seed filling. Maturity is reached at approximately the same time as Dundale. Chalus is not susceptible to black spot disease [caused by Mycosphaerella pinoides (Berk. & Blox.) Vestergr.] of P. sativum. Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus has been observed to infect Chalus but no other diseases have been recorded in Australia. As Chalus is resistant to blackspot of P. sativum, it can be used as an alternative legume to widen P. sativum rotations where blackspot is a serious problem.
The neurotoxin ODAP is present at high concentrations ([is greater than] 1.00%) in the seed of some Lathyrus species and heavy consumption can cause paralysis or Lathyrism in humans and animals. The ODAP concentration in the seed of Chalus has been shown to be consistently low (0.09%), in comparison with Lath-BC (0.16%). Average seed weight is 66 mg, compared with 55 mg for Lath-BC. Protein concentration is approximately 27% and lysine concentration is 6.1 g/16 g N.
Chalus can be used as a multipurpose crop for direct grazing, hay or silage production, green manuring, or grain production. Feeding studies of Chalus/grain mixtures show that pigs have equivalent growth as from a standard soybean-based diet (2). Preliminary work with poultry, sheep, and cattle indicate good performance with Chalus as a protein source.
Seed of Chalus was released publicly to a number of growers in Western Australia, South Australia, and Victoria in 1998. Breeder seed of Chalus will be maintained by CLIMA. Basic seed will be produced and distributed by Agriculture Western Australia. Seed of Chalus can be obtained for research purposes through the Germplasm Improvement Program, CLIMA, Nedlands, Western Australia, 6009.
C.D. HANBORY AND K.H.M. SIDDIQUE (3)
References and Notes
(1.) Hanbury, C.D., Siddique, K.H.M., Galwey, N.W. and Cocks, P.S. (1999). Genotype-environment interaction for seed yield and ODAP concentration of Lathyrus sativus L. and L. cicera L. in Mediterranean-type environments. Euphytica 110:45-60.
(2.) Mullan, B.P., Hanbury, C.D., Hooper, J.A., Nicholls, R.R., Hagan, C.R. and Siddique, K.H.M. (1999). Lathyrus (Lathyrus cicera): A potential new ingredient in pig grower diets. In Corbett, J.L. (ed.). Recent advances in animal nutrition in Australia 12, 12A. University of New England, Armidale.
(3.) C.D. Hanbury, CLIMA, University of Western Australia, Nedlands 6907, Australia, and K.H.M. Siddique, Agriculture Western Australia, Locked Bag No. 4, Bentley Delivery Centre 6983, Australia. Registration by CSSA. Accepted 31 Jan. 2000. *Corresponding author (email@example.com).