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Registration of 'Tyto' barley.

'Tyto' barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) (Reg. no. CV-310, PI 632403) was released in 2002. Tyto was developed at the Field Crop Development Centre (FCDC) of Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (AAFRD), and was granted full registration (Reg. no. 5496) in 2002 by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Ottawa, ON, Canada. The name Tyto is adopted from the genus of birds commonly known as barn owls. Tyto is a hulless, six-rowed, smooth-awned, semi-dwarf, spring-habit, feed barley.

Tyto was derived from the cross of 'Falcon'/'Samson' that was made in 1989. Falcon (PI 59612) (Helm et al., 1996) was released in 1993 and is a hulless, six-rowed, semi-dwarf, smooth-awned barley cultivar developed by the FCDC, Lacombe. Falcon was derived from the cross 11012.2/'Tern'/ 'Tulelake'. Samson (PI 494767) (Helm et al., 1986) is a semi-dwarf, six-rowed, hulled, rough-awned, barley cultivar also developed at the FCDC, Lacombe and originated from the cross 'Olli'/M64-69//R72-181. Olli (CIho 6251) is a six-rowed early-maturing cultivar from Finland that was widely grown in the northern barley regions of Alberta and Alaska. The line M64-69, from Minnesota, is derived from the cross of 'Jotun'/'Kindred'//'Vantage'/3/'Trophy'/4/'Dickson'/5/M59-38 (Lambert, 1958; Johnston, 1965; Peterson, 1964; Peterson et al., 1968).

Tyto was developed by means of a modified bulk pedigree breeding method. Progeny from this cross were advanced in bulk in diseases (e.g., scald, smuts, net blotch) and yield screening nurseries in Alberta, Canada, and in California, USA, through the [F.sub.6] generation. Spike selections, based on disease resistant and robust plants, were made from the [F.sub.6] bulk and selection of an [F.sub.7] head row was made to establish a line designated as 'T89047103NX'. Yield trials of T89047103NX were conducted from 1995 to 2001 in the FCDC Barley Yield Trials. In 2000, T89047103NX was designated as 'HB513' and entered in the Western Cooperative Hulless Barley Test of the Canada Prairie Registration Recommending Committee for Grain. Breeder seed was developed from bulking 195 heads at the [F.sub.13] generation.

Juvenile plants of Tyto show semi-prostrate growth habit with short, green-colored coleoptiles, and glabrous pubescence on sheaths of the lower leaf blades. Tyto has a medium-long and wide flag leaf with an intermediate attitude. It has white auricles and slightly waxy sheaths. Tyto has medium stem thickness and slight stem exertion (0-3 cm). The plant height of Tyro averages 83 cm on the basis of data derived from 52 station years of the FCDC Barley Yield Trials. Tyto has strong straw and good resistance to lodging. It has semi-compact and nodding, medium long, medium density and tapering spikes that show kernel overlaps at the tips. Tyto has medium long rachillas and long rachilla hairs. It has medium-long glumes with medium length hairs that are confined to a band, and long smooth awns. Tyto has medium-long and medium-wide kernels that have clasping lodicules with an incomplete horseshoe-shaped lemma base.

Data generated from over 30 station years, including the 1995 to 2001 FCDC Barley Yield Trials and the Western Coop Hulless Barley Tests, show that Tyto has good grain yield, kernel weight, test weight and biomass production. It takes an average of 99 d from seeding to physiological maturity. Tyto has good kernel size measured by 1000-kernel weight (37.0 g), an average test weight of 72.0 kg h[L.sup.-1], and 79% plump seed. Tyto has silage potential of 12.9 Mg [ha.sub.-1] DM. Tyto yielded over 8000 kg [ha.sub.-1] of grain in areas with deep soils high in organic matter and relatively high summer rainfall, based on average yield derived from seven station years of the FCDC Barley Yield Trials.

Tyto has field resistance to scald [caused by Rhynchosporium secalis (Oud em.) J.J. Davis.]. It is moderately resistant to net-form of net blotch [caused by Pyrenophora teres f. teres Drechs.], and resistant to spot-form of net blotch [caused by P. teres f. maculata Smedeg.]. Tyto has good resistance to covered smut {caused by Ustilago hordei (Pers.) Lagerh.] and false loose smut [caused by U. nigra Tapke [syn. U. avenae (Pers.) Rostr.]}. It is moderately susceptible to loose smut [caused by U. nuda (Jens.) Rostr.], and susceptible to common root rot [caused by Cochliobolus sativus (Ito & Kurib) Drechster Ex Dastur.]. It is moderately resistant to stem rust [caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks & E. Henn.]. Tyto is resistant to spot blotch [caused by C. sativus (Ito & Kurib) Drechster ex Dastur.] and resistant to Septoria speckled leaf blotch (caused by Septoria paserinii Sacc).

The Field Crop Development Centre, Lacombe, Alberta, Canada, will maintain the Breeder seed of Tyto. Seed distribution rights were granted to Progressive Seeds Ltd. 4819C-48 Avenue, Red Deer, AB, T4N 3T2. Tel: (403) 347-4929, Fax: (403) 886-2098, Email:, Website: Application (Application No. 02-3061) has been made for Plant Breeder's Rights.


The technical assistance of David H. Dyson, Donna Westling, Tim Duggan, Lori Oatway, and John Bowness is gratefully acknowledged. We thank Dr. Kequan Xi and Dr. Jennifer Zantinge for reviewing this manuscript.


Helm, J.H., D.H. Dyson, and W.M. Stewart. 1986. Registration of 'Samson' barley. Crop Sci. 26:384.

Helm, J.H., M. Cortez, D.F. Salmon, P.E. Jedel, and W.M. Stewart. 1996. Registration of 'Falcon' barley. Crop Sci. 36:807.

Johnston, W.H. 1965. Keystone, Parkland, and Vantage barleys. Crop Sci. 5:195.

Lambert, J.W. 1958. Registration of barley varieties. XIV. Agron. J. 50:708.

Peterson, G.A. 1964. Registration of Trophy barley. Crop Sci. 4:239.

Peterson, G.A., A.E. Foster, and O.J. Banasik. 1968. Registration of Dickson barley. Crop Sci. 8:397.


Alberta Agriculture, Food & Rural Development, Field Crop Development Centre 5030-50 St., Lacombe, AB, T4L 1W8, Canada. Registration by CSSA. Accepted 31 May 2003. * Corresponding author (
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Title Annotation:Registrations Of Cultivars
Author:Helm, J.H.; Nyachiro, J.M.; Cortez, M.; Oro, M.; Juskiw, P.E.; Salmon, D.F.
Publication:Crop Science
Date:Jan 1, 2004
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