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Registration of 'TCP 93-4245' sugarcane. (Registration Of Cultivars).

'TCP 93-4245' sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum officinarum L., S. spontaneum L., and S. barberi Jeswiet) (Reg. no. CV-117, PI 632233) was selected in south Texas from progeny of a cross between 'CP 70-321' (Fanguy et al., 1979) and sp. 70-1143 (Machado, 1983) that was made in December 1989 at the USDA, ARS Sugarcane Field Station at Canal Point, FL. The seed was germinated in 1990, seedlings were selected, propagated vegetatively, and tested cooperatively by Texas A&M Agricultural Experiment Station, Rio Grande Valley Sugar Growers, Inc., and Rio Farms, Inc. TCP 93-4245 was released for commercial production in the fall of 1999.

The primary advantage of TCP 93-4245 is its higher sugar yield than other commercial cultivars. The increased yield is due to the combination of higher cane yield (cane/ha) and a moderately high sugar content (kg sugar/Mg cane). Sugar content is less than the early season cultivar TCP 87-3388 (Irvine et al., 1997) when harvested in September or October. It is equal to or better than the early to midseason cultivars CP 70-321 and CP 72-1210 (Miller et al., 1981) and maintains its sugar content until the end of harvest in April. TCP 93-4245 is a semierect cultivar suitable for machine harvesting. The cultivar has not flowered in south Texas, but does so in southern Florida where it is being used in new crosses. The zig-zag stalks of TCP 93-4245 are of medium diameter and are green where shaded and reddish-purple when exposed to sunlight. The internodes are waxy (but not as much as CP 70-321) and are conoidal, and the bud groove is reduced or lacking. The leaf scar protrudes under the bud, which is shield shaped, and the outer bud scales are brownish. The collar is brown, and the auricles are 1 to 2 cm long. Leaves are medium in width and length; the canopy is semierect and similar to TCP87-3388. Older, dry leaf sheaths tend to adhere to the stalks and are a potential problem in green-cane harvesting but not in burned cane. Younger leaf sheaths are green where shaded and red when exposed to direct sun. The leaves have distinctive hair groups at the collar margins, like 'NCo 310' (Nuss and Brett, 1995), but lack hair on the abaxial side of the leaf sheaths. The furry ring of hair at the basal nodes that is present in CP 70-321 and TCP87-3388 is absent in TCP-93-4245.

Replicated testing of TCP 93-4245 began in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas in 1995, and in 5 yr, was harvested in 22 tests across 10 locations; harvests included plant cane, first-, and second-ratoon crops. As an average of all tests, TCP 93-4245 produced 1.3 tons of sugar/ha more than any other cultivar. TCP 93-4245 was significantly higher or equal to the commercial checks (CP70-321, CP72-1210, and NCo 310) for sugar and cane yield and sugar content. TCP 93-4245 was also significantly higher or equal to the three check cultivars in stalk weight. In addition to sugar content, cane quality is also a function of fiber and ash content, since both reduce the recovery of sucrose. The new cultivar was equal or lower in fiber content in the three check cultivars, equal or higher in ash content compared with CP 70-321, and equal or lower in ash content compared with CP 72-1210 and NCo 310.

Ratooning ability is an important character when growers expect three to seven annual harvests from one planting. Multiple-location replicated tests show that TCP93-4245's first- and second ratoon yields are higher or equal to plant cane yields, suggesting longer than average field life and reduced costs for replanting. Because of recent mild winters, no data are available for cold tolerance or post-freeze deterioration in TCP 93-4245.

Surveys of replicated tests show that the frequency of sugarcane smut (caused by Ustilago scitaminea H. Syd. & P. Syd.) is lower in TCP 93-4245 than in the commercial varieties NCo 310 and CP 72-1210, and is equal to CP 70-321. Although present in other cultivars in south Texas, sugarcane rust (caused by Puccinia melanocephala H. Syd. & P. Syd.), leaf scald [caused by Xanthomonas albilineans (Ashby) Dows] and Sorghummosaic virus (SrMV) Strain H have not been observed in TCP 93-4245. Its resistance to ratoon stunting disease (caused by Clavibacter xyli subsp. xyli Davis et al.) was demonstrated in a replicated field trial where infected TCP 93-4245 showed no significant loss of yield compared to heat-treated cane, and the number of colonized vascular bundles were lower than in susceptible cultivars. The new cultivar appears more resistant to Mexican rice borer (Eoreuma loftini Dyar) and sugarcane borer than NCo 310 and TCP 87-3388.

Seed cane of TCP 93-4245 will be maintained for 5 yr at the Texas A&M Research & Extension Center, Weslaco, TX, and at the Rio Grande Valley Sugar Growers, Inc., Santa Rosa, TX.

References

Fanguy, H.P., P.H. Dunckelman, and R.D. Breaux. 1979. Registration of 'CP 70-321' sugarcane. Crop Sci. 19:413.

Irvine, J.E., J.D. Miller, and B.L. Legendre. 1997. Registration of 'TCP 87-3388' sugarcane. Crop Sci. 37:1019.

Machado, G.R., Jr. 1983. SP 70-1143. p. 21. In Novas variedades Copersucar. Boletim Tecnico Copersucar, Edicao Especial. Sao Paulo.

Miller, J.D., E.R. Rice, J.L. Dean, and P.Y.P Tai. 1981. Registration of 'CP 72-1210' sugarcane. Crop Sci. 21:797

Nuss, K.J., and P.G.C. Brett. 1995. The release of NCo 310 in 1945 and its impact on the sugar industry. Proc. S. Afr. Sugar Technol. Assoc. 68:3-8.

J.E. IRVINE, * N. ROZEFF, E. HERNANDEZ, AND J.D. MILLER

J.E. Irvine and E. Hernandez, Texas A&M Research & Extension Ctr., 2415 E. Hwy 83, Weslaco, TX 78596; N. Rozeff, Rio Grande Valley Sugar Growers. Inc., Santa Rosa, TX 78593; J. D. Miller, USDA-ARS Sugarcane Field Stn., 12990 US Highway 441 N., Canal Point, FL 33483. Joint contribution of the Texas Agric. Exp. Stn, the USDA-ARS and the Rio Grande Valley Sugar Growers, Inc. Registration by CSSA. Accepted 30 Nov. 2002. * Corresponding author (j_e_irvine@msn.com).
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Author:Irvine, J.E.; Rozeff, N.; Hernandez, E.; Miller, J.D.
Publication:Crop Science
Date:May 1, 2003
Words:1016
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