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Registration of 'Jinmai 50' wheat.

'Jinmai 50' is a hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar (Reg. no. CV-978, PI 634020) developed by the Wheat Breeding Innovation Group (WBIG) in the Cotton Research Institute of Shanxi Agri. Sci. Academy, Yuncheng, China. Jinmai 50 was officially registered and released by the Testing and Appraising Committee of Crop Cultivars of Shanxi Province (TACCCSP) in 1996. Jinmai 50 was released for its high grain yield on the infertile dryland soils, for its widespread adaptation to both the Huang-Huai Wheat Growing Region (HHWGR) and the Northern-China Winter Wheat of Late Maturity Growing Region (NCWWLMGR), and for its early maturity in both regions. It was named as Jinmai 50 according to the TACCCSP's registration rules. "Jin" refers to the "Shanxi province," "mai" means "wheat" in Chinese, and 50 is the serial number of wheat cultivars registered by the TACCCSP.

Jinmai 50 was developed from the cross 'Pingyang181'/ 'Qingfeng1' made in 1988. The breeding target for Jinmai 50 was mainly for the poor year and infertile farmland in HHWGR. Pingyang181 was derived from the cross 'Hanxuan3'/'Lin4113' and was developed by Professor Wang Wenbang's group in Linfen, Shanxi province. Hanxuan3 was a selection from the cross 'Peking6'/'Mabo'. Peking6 was a selection from the cross 'Triumph'/'Yanda1817'. Mabo is a foreign variety with unknown pedigree. Lin4113 was a selection from the cross 'Weidong7'/'Weidong8'. Weidong7 and Weidong8 were sister lines from the cross 'Shizhuang54'//'English wheat'/'Anhui5'. Shizhuang54 was derived from the cross 'Bima4'/'Zaoyang'. Bima4 was derived from the cross 'Biyumai'/'Mazamai'. Zaoyang is a foreign variety with unknown pedigree. Qingfeng1 was developed by Professor Li Jiaquan's group in Qingyang, Gansu Province. Qingfeng1 was derived from the cross 'Xifeng3'/'Peking9//'Ganmai 4'. Xifeng3 was a selection from the cross 'Bima4'/'Ukraine83'. Peking9 was a selection from the cross ('Shite14'/'Peking1')/('Xibei54'/'Zaoyang'). Ganmai 4 was derived from the cross 'Qianjiao'/'Baiqi'. The selection serial number for Jinmai 50 is 8856-9-20-3-Yunfengzao3. 8856 refers to the cross 56 (i.e., Pingyangl81/Qingfengl) made in 1988.

Plants were selected in the [F.sub.2] to [F.sub.5] generations based on their cold and drought tolerance, vigor, high yield, and early maturity. In 1990 through 1992, successive selections were made from [F.sub.2] plant family 9, [F.sub.3] plant family 20, and [F.sub.4] plant family 3. [F.sub.5] plant families entered into the preliminary yield trials. Jinmai 50 was officially tested as 'YunFengZao3' in the Southern Shanxi Performance Test Nursery from 1993 to 1995 (3 yr in a total of 37 environments). Average grain yields of Jinmai 50 were 3954 kg [ha.sup.-1], 3483 kg [ha.sup.-1], and 3570 kg [ha.sup.-1] in 1993, 1994, and 1995, respectively. Those yields were 0.2, 10.7, and 5.6% higher than the check cultivar Jinmai 33, respectively. Jinmai 50 was 6.5 d earlier and 5 cm shorter than Jinmai 33. The mean heading date was 17 April and 20 April for Jinmai 50 and Jinmai 33, respectively. The mean harvesting date was 26 May and 1 June for Jinmai 50 and Jinmai 33, respectively, in HHWGR. In the National Performance Tests that were conducted in six provinces over 2 yr in a total of 19 environments, grain yields of Jinmai 50 were 3275 kg [ha.sup.-1] and 4107 kg [ha.sup.-1] in 1994 and 1995, respectively. Those yields were 2.35 and 13.4% higher than Jinmai 33. In eight environments of the Demonstration Trials conducted in 1994 and in 1995 in both Lifen and Yuncheng, grain yields of Jinmai 50 were 3813 and 3435 kg [ha.sup.-1], respectively. Those yields were 16.8 and 13.2% higher than Jinmai 33, respectively. Of all the released and tested cultivars in both HHWGR and NCWWLMGR regions, Jinmai 50 had the earliest maturity.

Jinmai 50 has a pale and medium-long coleoptile. The seedling is prostrate with short to medium-long and mid- to dark-green leaves. The auricles are smooth and pale green. At the flowering stage, the height of the auricle on the top node was 70 cm. The plant height averaged 88 cm over all 64 location-years. The flag leaf was narrow and medium-long with bright yellowish green color on the back side and midyellowish green color on the front side. The foliage layers were interlocked and jagged so that the sunlight could penetrate down to the base of the plants even in a crowded population (more than 500 ears [m.sup.-2]). At maturity, the ears and straw had a golden color even in the dry, hot, windy weather. Jinmai 50 has a middense head with white and short awns. The glumes are white with medium beak (3 mm) and oblique shoulder. The kernels are white and ovate with vitreous texture. Photos taken using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) show that the starch grains are mostly global and small (Pan and Xie, 1997). The mean 1000kernel weight of Jinmai 50 was 37 g compared with 38 g for Jinmai 33.The mean grain volume weight was 810 g [L.sup.-1] compared with 775 g [L.sup.-1] for Jinmai 33. The protein content was 139.8 g [kg.sup.-1] for Jinmai 50 compared with 132 g [kg.sup.-1] for Jinmai 33. The mean wet gluten content was 30.8% for Jinmai 50 compared with 29% for Jinmai 33.

Protein electrophoresis of high molecular weight glutenins using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) indicates that Jinmai 50 has the Glu-Alc, Glu-Blb, and Glu-Dlc (Pan et al., 1998) alleles. Jinmai 50 has better quality for steam-bread making and Chinese-noodle making than Jinmai 33. In 1998, more than 100 Chinese wheat cultivars were tested by the Nanfang Milling Company. The steam-bread and Chinese-noodle patent flour rate for Jinmai 50 was 51%, ranked the first. Countryside consumers' sensory comments were that steam-bread made of Jinmai 50 was much whiter and the steam-bread's surface was also much smoother with no cracks on it compared to that made of Jinmai 47. No texture analyzer data is available for Jinmai 50.

Jinmai 50 showed very good resistance to yellow rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici), brown rust [caused by Puccinia recondita Rob. ex Desm. f. sp. tritici (Eriks. & E. Henn.) D.M. Henderson], black rust (caused by Puccinia graminis Pers. f. sp. tritici Erik.), and powdery mildew (caused by Erysiphe graminis DC f. sp. tritici Em. Marchal) in severe epidemic years since 1993 according to the field observation. Jinmai 50 was moderately resistant and Jinmai 33 was moderately susceptible to yellow rust based on artificial innoculation in 1995 in green house with a bulk of uredospores initially collected from HHWGR in 1994 by associate professor Li Yanfang in Shanxi Plant Protection Institute. The race composition of the bulk is unknown. The brown rust resistant grade for Jinmai 50 was 1 as identified by Professor Li Yuqin in Hebei province in 1999(0 = resistant, 5 = susceptible). Jinmai 50 was considered resistant to powdery mildew based on the greenhouse innoculation by the Shanxi Plant Protection Intitute in 1995 (race composition unknown), and was ranked first for resistance among the 126 dryland wheat cultivars tested including Jinmai 33.

In National Drought-Resistance Test Nursery conducted by Professor Li Yuqin's group in 1998 and 1999 under both natural rain-fed and artificial dry land conditions, Jinmai 50 ranked No. 1 in yield (3272 kg [ha.sup.-1]), water efficiency index [1.31 (31% higher than the check cultivar Shi 415)], and maturity (golden) among the nine cultivars selected for cold and drought tolerance from all over the country.

Breeder seed was developed from the [F.sup.6] plant families. Small quantities of Breeder seed are available by request from the corresponding author. In the USA, small quantities of seed may be obtained from the National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS).


Pan, X.L., and S.G. Xie. 1997. Introduction of Jinmai 50. J. Triticeae Crops 17(5):1.

Pan, X.L., D.B. Smith, E.A. Jackson, E Lister, and S.G. Xie. 1998. Diversity of Glu-1, Glu-3 and Gli-1 in 16 wheat cultivars bred in Huanghuai wheat growing region in China. Acta Genetica Sinica 25(3):252-258.


Pan, X.L., S.G. Xie, Y.H. Shi. Dep. of Food Crop Sciences, Cotton Research Institute, Shanxi Agri. Sci. Academy, Yuncheng, Shanxi, 044000 ER. China. Q.Y. Pan. College of Foreign Languages, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 710062 ER. China. Research was supported in part by the Shanxi Sci. & Teck. Committee and NSFC 30370874. Registration by CSSA. Accepted 31 Aug. 2005. *Corresponding author (
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Title Annotation:REGISTRATIONS OF CULTIVARS; Wheat Breeding Innovation Group
Author:Xinglai, Pan; Sangang, Xie; Qianying, Pan; Yinhong, Shi
Publication:Crop Science
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Mar 1, 2006
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