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Registration of 'Flor de Mayo 2000' common bean.

'Flor de Mayo 2000' common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Reg. no. CV-249, PI 639264) was developed and released by the 'Valle del Guadiana' Experiment Station of the National Research Institute for Agriculture, Forestry and Livestock (INIFAP) of Mexico as a high-yielding, disease-resistant cultivar for rainfed conditions in the highlands of Mexico. The commercial flor de mayo bean class in Mexico is classified as a medium-sized bean with a light pink-purple circular marbling pattern on a chamois (cream) background that becomes progressively less frequent from the hilum to the dorsal side of the seed.

Flor de Mayo 2000, tested as FM94050, was derived from the cross, RIZ30/'Flor de Mayo M38', made in 1989 at the Pabellon Experiment Station, Aguascalientes, Mexico to improve disease resistance of the flor de mayo seed class. Flor de Mayo M38 is an indeterminate Type III, 105-d maturity, disease resistant cultivar adapted to the highlands of Mexico (Acosta-Gallegos et al., 1995). RIZ30 is an anthracnose [caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. & Magnus) Lambs.-Scrib.] resistant, small-medium red mottled breeding line with an upright indeterminate (Type II) growth habit that was developed at CIAT, Call, Colombia. The [F.sub.1] plants were advanced in the greenhouse and the [F.sub.2] and [F.sub.3] generations were advanced in bulk at Pabellon, Aguascalientes. The [F.sub.4] populations were planted at four different locations in the highlands of Mexico and individual plants were selected on the basis of plant vigor, pod load, and disease resistance. [F.sub.4:5] families were advanced in a winter nursery at Los Mochis, Sinaloa, on the west coast of Mexico. [F.sub.4:6] families were planted in rows at both the Valle del Guadiana Experiment Station in Durango and Calera Experiment Station in Zacatecas and individual plant selections were made based on disease reaction, earliness, and plant vigor. The [F.sub.6:7] and [F.sub.6:9] lines were increased in an irrigated winter nursery at Los Mochis, Sinaloa, Mexico, while the [F.sub.6:8] and [F.sub.6:10] lines continued to be evaluated in the highlands at F.I. Madero, Durango, Mexico. The [F.sub.6:10] breeding line, coded FM94050, entered replicated trials in 1994.

Flor de Mayo 2000 was tested extensively in both the subhumid (average annual rainfall, 800 ram) and semiarid (450 mm) highlands of Mexico (>1900 m asl) for yield and agronomic traits at 23 locations from 1994 to 2003. In the subhumid highlands, Flor de Mayo 2000 averaged 2200 kg [ha.sup.-1] and out-yielded the check cultivars Flor de Mayo M38 and 'Flor de Mayo Bajio' by 5 and 52%, respectively. In the semiarid highlands, Flor de Mayo 2000 averaged 1850 kg [ha.sub.-1] and out-yielded the predominant cultivars in the region, 'Flor de Mayo Sol' and Flor de Mayo Bajio by 6 and 31%, respectively.

Flor de Mayo 2000 averaged 40 cm in height and exhibits an indeterminate Type IIIa growth habit, with pod distribution throughout the plant canopy. Flor de Mayo 2000 produces white blossoms and flowers 45 d after planting, although flowering is delayed at elevations above 2300 m asl in the subhumid highlands. Flor de Mayo 2000 is a midseason cultivar, maturing 94 d after planting with a range in maturity from 90 to 99 d, depending on season and altitude. Flor de Mayo 2000 matures 10 d later than Flor de Mayo Bajio and 15 d earlier than most flor de mayo landrace varieties.

Flor de Mayo 2000 carries the single dominant hypersensitive Igene for resistance to Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) but is sensitive to the necrosis-inducing strains of Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV), which induce the black root reaction. Strains of BCMNV are relatively infrequent in the highlands of Mexico (Flores-Estevez et al., 2003). In Central Mexico, Flor de Mayo 2000 has not exhibited field symptoms of anthracnose or rust [caused by Uromyces appendiculatus (Pers.:Pers.) Unger var. appendiculatus] in spite of the large number of physiological races detected in the region (Araya et al., 1996; Balardin et al., 1997; Gonzalez et al., 1998). Flor de Mayo 2000 is resistant to local isolates of halo blight [caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (Burkholder) Young et al.]; and is tolerant to local isolates of common bacterial blight [caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Smith) Vauterin et al.], and root rots (primarily caused by Fusarium spp. and Rhizoctonia solani Ktihn) in the highlands.

Flor de Mayo 2000 produces a typical flor de mayo seed with a pink-purple marbled pattern on a cream background. Seed size is medium and averages 28.3 g 100 seed-1, ranging from 27.6 to 32.3 g 100 [seed.sub.-1] depending on location. The seed is similar in size, shape and color to common highland landraces in the flor de mayo class, but larger in size than Flor de Mayo Bajio. Average cooking time for cultivar Flor de Mayo 2000 is slightly longer (66 min) than the time for Flor de Mayo Bajio (61 min), but is less than the time for Flor de Mayo M38 (71 min).

Breeder and Foundation seed of Flor de Mayo 2000 is maintained at the Valle del Guadiana Experiment Station and small samples for research purposes can be obtained from the corresponding author.

References

Acosta-Gallegos, J.A., J.Z. Castellanos, S. Nunez-Gonzalez, R. Ochoa-Marquez, R. Rosales-Serna, and S.P. Singh. 1995. Registration of 'Flor de Mayo M38' common bean. Crop Sci. 35:941.

Araya, C.M., J.R. Steadman, and J.A. Acosta-Gallegos. 1996. Pathogenic variability of Uromyces appendiculatus on dry edible beans in Mexico. Annu. Rep. Bean Improv. Coop. 39:150-151.

Balardin, R.S., A.M. Jarosz, and J.D. Kelly. 1997. Virulence and molecular diversity in Colletotrichum lindemuthianum from South, Central and North America. Phytopathology 87:1184-1191.

Flores-Estevez, N., J.A. Acosta-Gallegos, and L. Silva-Rosales. 2003. Bean common mosaic virus and bean common mosaic necrosis virus in Mexico. Plant Dis. 87-21-25.

Gonzalez, M., R. Rodriguez, M.E. Zavala, J.J. Jacobo, F. Hernandez, J.A. Acosta-Gallegos, O. Martinez, and J.P. Simpson. 1998. Characterization of Mexican isolates of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum by using differential cultivars and molecular markers. Phytopathology 88:292-299.

F.J. IBARRA-PEREZ, * J.A. ACOSTA-GALLEGOS, B. CAZARES-ENRIQUEZ, R. ROSALES-SERNA, AND J.D. KELLY

F.J. Ibarra-Perez, J.A. Acosta-Gallegos, B. Cazares-Enriquez, R. Rosales-Serna, Bean Program of INIFAP, Apartado Postal No.186, Dutango, Durango, Mexico; James D. Kelly, Crop and Soil Sciences, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, MI. 48824. The authors thank: Eng. R. Zandate, MS P. Fernandez-Hernandez, MS S. Nunez Gonzalez for their help in conducting the field trials. The research was supported in part by the Grant No. DAN-G-SS-86-00008-00 from the USAID Bean/Cowpea-CRSP. Registration by CSSA. Accepted 31 May 2005. * Corresponding author (fcojip@hotmail.com).

doi:10.2135/cropsci2005.0099
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Title Annotation:'Valle del Guadiana' Experiment Station of the National Research Institute for Agriculture, Forestry and Livestock of Mexico
Author:Ibarra-Perez, F.J.; Acosta-Gallegos, J.A.; Cazares-Enriquez, B.; Rosales-Serna, R.; Nelly, J.D.
Publication:Crop Science
Geographic Code:1MEX
Date:Nov 1, 2005
Words:1133
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