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Registration of 'Doyce' hulless barley.

'Doyce' (Reg. no. CV-317, PI 634932) is the first hulless, six-rowed, winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) developed by the Virginia Agricultural Experimental Station. It was released May 2003. Doyce was named in recognition of Dr. Doyce Graham, Professor Emeritus and former small grains breeder at Clemson University in South Carolina. Dr. Graham developed several hulless winter barley lines that were evaluated and used initially as parents in the Virginia hulless barley breeding program; one of them, 'H585', is a parent of Doyce. Doyce is high yielding, midseason maturity, and short in stature with stiff straw. Doyce provides winter barley producers and end-users with a new value-added crop having grain that is lower in fiber and higher in starch and metabolizable energy than traditional hulled winter barley. It has potential for use in feed, food, and ethanol production.

Doyce was selected from a population developed via a series of crosses comprised of 'Sangregado' sib (CMB79-54)//VA90-42-56/VA90-42-22/3/'Pamunkey'/4/H585 (Price et al., 1996a). CMB79-54 is a spring barley line obtained from the ICARDA-CIMMYT barley breeding program in Mexico and used as a parent for leaf rust (caused by Puccinia hordei G. Otth) resistance. The parentage of VA90-42-56 is 'Barsoy'*2/5/'Cebada Capa' (PI 539113)/'Wong'//Awnleted 'Hudson'/3/'Harrison'/4/Harrison/3/Cebada Capa/Wong//Awnleted Hudson/6/ VA79-44-167 (Jensen, 1964; Caldwell et al., 1966; Finkner et al., 1968). The parentage of VA79-44-167 is Harrison/3/Cebada Capa/Wong//Awnleted Hudson/4/Harrison/3/Cebada Capa/ Wong//Awnleted Hudson. Parental line VA90-42-22 was derived from the cross VA79-45-101/'Monroe'//'Sussex' (Starling et al., 1980a; 1984). VA79-45-101 was derived from an [F.sub.2] population comprised of two crosses: (i) CIho 7386/'Surry'// CIho 9623, CIho 9658, CIho 9708, BYDV Resistant 'Atlas'/ Many Genotypes; (ii) CIho 7386/Surry//Barsoy/'Hanover' (Starling et al., 1970; 1980b). H585 previously tested as SC890585 is a hulless cultivar derived from the cross VA75-42-45/SC793556// CIho 2457.

The cross from which Doyce originated was completed in spring 1994, and the [F.sub.1] generation was grown in the field as a single 1.2-m headrow in 1995 to produce [F.sub.2] seed. The population was advanced from the [F.sub.2] to [F.sub.4] generation using a modified bulk breeding method. Barley spikes were selected from the population in each segregating generation ([F.sub.2]-[F.sub.4]) on the basis of disease resistance, short plant height, desirable maturity, spike shape and size, and lack of hull adherence to kernels. Selected spikes were threshed in bulk, and the seed was sown in 20.8-[m.sup.2] blocks in the fall of each year. Spikes selected from the [F.sub.4] bulk were threshed individually and sown in separate 1.2-m headrows. Doyce was derived from a single [F.sub.4:5] headrow selected and harvested in bulk in 1999. The line was tested as entry 137 in nonreplicated observation yield tests in 2000 and was designated VA00H-137. In addition to high grain yield and test weight, Doyce was selected on the basis of good straw strength and resistance to leaf rust.

Juvenile plants of Doyce exhibit a semi-prostrate growth habit; flag leaves are slightly waxy and drooping at boot stage; leaf sheaths and stems are waxy, and anthocyanin is not visually apparent in leaves or stems. Stems have five nodes, closed collars, straight necks, and a 3- to 10-cm exertion above the base of the flag leaf. Six-rowed spikes of Doyce are erect, lax to dense, and glossy with no overlapping lateral kernels. The rachis is covered with hairs. Glumes are of medium length, completely covered with long hairs, and their awns are rough and greater than the glumes in length. Lemma awns are rough and longer in length than the spike. The basal marking of the lemma is a slight crease. Rachilla hairs are long. Kernels are hulless and short with colorless aleurone and lacking hairs on the ventral furrow.

On average (14 station years), head emergence of Doyce is similar to that of 'Wysor', 3 d later than hulless cultivar H585, 2 d later than 'Nomini' and 'Price', and 5 d later than 'Callao' (Starling et al., 1987; 1994; Price et al., 1996b; Brooks et al., 2005). Average (10 station years) plant height of Doyce (81 cm) is similar to that of Price, 5 cm shorter than H585, 18 cm shorter than Nomini, and 5 cm taller than Callao. Straw strength assessed (12 station years) on the basis of Belgian Lodging Score (0.2 = no lodging to 10 = completely lodged) of Doyce (3.2) is good and similar to those of Nomini (2.4) and Price (2.5) and significantly (P [less than or equal to] 0.05) better than that of Callao (6.1). Winter hardiness of Doyce is most similar to that of the semihardy check cultivar Tennessee Winter (PI 11193). In the 2002 to 2003 USDA-ARS Uniform Barley Winter Hardiness Nursery (9 station years), Doyce ranked 9th among 16 entries for winter hardiness with a mean survival score of 85%, compared with 76% for Tennessee Winter, 93% for 'Kentucky 1' (CIho 6050), and 61% for 'Trebi' (Wiebe, 1965).

On the basis of disease assessments [Infection type (IT), 0 = immune to 4 = susceptible) of seedlings conducted in greenhouse tests from 2001 to 2003, Doyce is moderately resistant (IT = 2.6) to powdery mildew [caused by Blumeria graminis (DC.) E.O. Speer f. sp. hordei Em. Marchal]. It is resistant (IT = 1) to leaf rust race 8 and race 30. In field tests conducted during 2001 to 2003, adult plants of Doyce expressed high levels of resistance (assessed on a scale of 0-9, where 0 = resistant and 9 = susceptible) to leaf rust with an average score of 1.0 compared with 7.7 for H585 and 3.0 for Callao. Doyce also expressed resistance to powdery mildew (0.1) and Septoria speckled leaf blotch (2.0) (caused by Septoria passerinii Sacc.). Doyce expressed moderate susceptibility (6.0) to net blotch (caused by Pyrenophora teres Drechs). In a field test of entries in the 2002 to 2003 USDA-ARS Uniform Winter Barley Yield Nursery conducted at Mt. Vernon, WA, Doyce expressed resistance (IT = 0 and severity = 0%) to stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. hordei).

In Virginia's State Variety Trials (2001-2003), average (14 station years) grain yields of Doyce (5330 kg [ha.sup.-1]) exceeded (P [less than or equal to] 0.05) those of H585 (4829 kg [ha.sup.-1]) by 501 kg [ha.sup.-1]. Average grain yields of Doyce (5330 kg [ha.sup.-1]) have been only 8 to 12% lower than those of the hulled check Callao (5820 kg [ha.sup.-1]) and, therefore, are relatively good considering that grain yield of hulled barley is comprised of 10 to 13% hull weight. Average (12 station years) test weight of Doyce (717 kg [m.sup.-3]) was 30 kg [m.sup.-3] higher than the overall test average (687 kg [m.sup.-3]), but lower than that of hulless check H585 (727 kg [m.sup.-3]). In the 2002 to 2003 USDA-ARS Uniform Winter Barley Yield Nursery, Doyce had an average grain yield of 4240 kg [ha.sup.-1] over six locations and ranked 2nd among 16 hulless lines and 8th among all 25 hulled and hulless entries. Doyce had an average test weight of 699 kg [m.sup.-3] over five locations.

An initial source of Doyce Breeder seed was developed in 2001 via thorough removal of visual variants from a 0.4-ha [F.sub.7] seed-increase strip. In fall 2003, a purer source of Doyce Breeder seed, derived as a bulked composite of 395 [F.sub.9] headrows selected among 400 rows evaluated, was provided to the Foundation Seed Farm of Virginia Crop Improvement Association. Breeder seed of Doyce will be maintained by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station under the auspices of the Department of Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA. Authorized seed classes are: Breeder, Foundation, Registered, and Certified. Application will be made for protection of Doyce under the amended U.S. Plant Variety Protection Act of 1994. Request for availability of Foundation seed should be directed to Bruce Beahm (804-472-3500), Manager, Foundation Seed Farm, Mount Holly, VA 22524.

References

Brooks, W.S., M.E. Vaughn, C.A. Griffey, A.M. Price, T.H. Pridgen, W.L. Rohrer, D.E. Brann, E.G. Rucker, H.D. Behl, W.L. Sisson, R.A. Corbin, J.C. Kenner, D.W. Dunaway, R.M. Pitman, R. Premakumar, and D.P. Livingston. 2005. Registration of 'Price' barley. Crop Sci. 45:791-792.

Caldwell, R.M., L.E. Compton, F.L. Patterson, and J.F. Schaler. 1966. Registration of 'Harrison' barley. Crop Sci. 6:387.

Finkner, V.C., C.R. Tutt, and W.R. Coffman. 1968. Registration of 'Barsoy' barley. Crop Sci. 8:397.

Jensen, N.F. 1964. Registration of 'Wong' barley. Crop Sci. 4:238.

Price, A.M., C.A. Griffey, T.M. Starling, W.L. Sisson, and D.E. Brann. 1996a. Registration of 'Pamunkey' barley. Crop Sci. 36:1077.

Price, A.M., C.A. Griffey, T.M. Starling, W.L. Sisson, and D.E. Brann. 1996b. Registration of 'Callao' barley. Crop Sci. 36:1077.

Starling, T.M., C.W. Roane, and H.M. Camper, Jr. 1970. Registration of 'Hanover' barley. Crop Sci. 1:456.

Starling, T.M., H.M. Camper, Jr., and C.W. Roane. 1980a. Registration of 'Monroe' barley. Crop Sci. 20:284.

Starling, T.M., H.M. Camper, Jr., and C.W. Roane. 1980b. Registration of 'Surry' barley. Crop Sci. 20:284.

Starling, T.M., C.W. Roane, and H.M. Camper, Jr. 1984. Registration of 'Sussex' barley. Crop Sci. 24:617.

Starling, T.M., C.W. Roane, and H.M. Camper, Jr. 1987. Registration of 'Wysor' barley. Crop Sci. 27:1306.

Starling, T.M., C.A. Griffey, A.M. Price, C.W. Roane, W.L. Sisson, and D.E. Brann. 1994. Registration of 'Nomini' barley. Crop Sci. 34:300.

Wiebe, G.A. 1965. 'Trebi' and 'Harlan' barleys. Crop Sci. 5:196.

W.S. BROOKS, M.E. VAUGHN, C.A. GRIFFEY, * A.M. PRICE, T.H. PRIDGEN, W.L. ROHRER, D.E. BRANN, E.G. RUCKER, H.D. BEHL, W.L. SISSON, R.A. CORBIN, J.C. KENNER, D.W. DUNAWAY, R.M. PITMAN, R. PREMAKUMAR, D.P. LIVINGSTON, H.E. VIVAR, AND R.L. PARIS

W.S. Brooks, C.A. Griffey, A.M. Price, T.H. Pridgen, W.L. Rohrer, D.E. Brann, E.G. Rucker, and H.D. Behl, Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences Dep., Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA 24061; M.E. Vaughn, W.L. Sisson, R.A. Corbin, J.C. Kenner, D.W. Dunaway, and R.M. Pitman, Eastern Virginia Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Warsaw, VA 22572; R. Premakumar and D.P. Livingston, USDA-ARS Plant Science Unit, Department of Crop Science, North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC 27695; H.E. Vivar, Retired Barley Breeder, ICARDA-CIMMYT, Lisboa 27, Colonia Juarez, Apdo. Postal 6-641, 06600 Mexico; and R.L. Paris, USDA-ARS, P. O. Box 345, Stoneville, MS 38776. Registered by CSSA. Accepted 30 Sept. 2004. * Corresponding author (cgriffey@vt.edu).
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Title Annotation:Registrations Of Cultivars
Author:Brooks, W.S.; Vaughn, M.E.; Griffey, C.A.; Price, A.M.; Pridgen, T.H.; Rohrer, W.L.; Brann, D.E.; Ru
Publication:Crop Science
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Mar 1, 2005
Words:1876
Previous Article:Registration of 'Price' barley.
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