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Regional economics: survey of reading lists in universities in Canada and the United States.

1. Objective:

Regional economics plays an important role in the economics curriculum. The positive feedback from readers on earlier works like micro- and macroeconomics prompted the author to conduct the present survey. The intent of the survey is to provide information on books and journal articles assigned to students, the frequency or the number of universities using each title; the average number of books and journal articles assigned; the prerequisites to students before allowing them to register in a specific course; and the weights assigned to grading and new areas of emphasis, if any, introduced since 1981 by faculty members in the teaching of regional economics courses. The provision of such information might improve the quality of teaching by assisting faculty members to update their reading lists; might help students to choose frequently used titles for the completion of term projects and problem sets; might enable publishers to make decisions about reprinting of journal articles and monographs; and might help librarians to develop a balanced collection in the light of budget cuts in real dollars and high prices in printed materials far exceeding inflation.

2. Survey:

To fulfill the above outlined objectives, a sample of universities representing the South, North, East and West of the United States and Canada was selected. The data on North American universities where the program of economics at the undergraduate and graduate levels was considered to be the strongest has been retrieved from reference works like directories and guides at resource centers: 1. The World of Learning, by Europa Publications, 41st ed., 1991.

2. American Universities and Colleges, edited by American Council on Education, 13th ed., 1987.

3. Guide to Graduate Study in Economics, Agricultural Economics and Related Fields: United States of America and Canada, 5th ed., edited by W.F. Owen, 1979. 4. Peterson's Annual Guide to Graduate Study: Book 2, Humanities and Social Sciences, 24th ed., 1990.

A questionnaire along with a formal letter were directed to a sample of 97 (ninety seven) North American universities. After eight weeks had elapsed since the initial inquiry, reminders were sent to heads of economics departments requesting their cooperation in the transmittal of information.

Fifty eight (58) universities responded by providing information which shed light on books and journal articles assigned to students, objectives and scope of the courses, pre-requisites and grading. The information about recent developments in regional economics since 1981 and their incorporation in teaching was obtained by meeting senior faculty members at major universities who had spent several years in teaching and had contributed to research in regional economic issues. Also, the information was further augmented by a literature search in economic indexes and abstracts, such as journal of economic literature, index of economic articles and key to economic science. Typographical errors and incomplete bibliographic details were corrected by comparing catalogues and journals located in university libraries.

3. Tabulation:

A total of 140 (one hundred and forty) books and 213 (two hundred and thirteen) journal articles were selected from course reading lists. Books which were assigned as texts (45) were separated and listed alphabetically by last name of the author under the heading titled "Core Texts." Additional references and/or supplementary monographs were merged with journal articles and arranged alphabetically by last name of the author or by corporate body when there is no author. Space constraints prompted to condense the survey results without distorting its quality.(*) Monographs used by at least two or more universities and journal articles by three or more universities were listed under appropriate subject headings listed below:

1. Core Texts 2. Location Theories and Analysis 3. Migration and Interregional Markets 4. Models and Quantitative Analysis 5. Regional Differences 6. Regional Growth and Policies

There are titles which were used only by universities in Canada or in the United States and some were used by universities in both the countries. To report this information and also the frequency of use of each title by universities, the following symbols were used in (parenthesis): e.g.,

au2 = two American universities using the title.

cu4 = four Canadian universities using the title.

If a title was not followed by a symbol with an arabic numeral in parenthesis, it means that the title was used by one university which can be interpreted as a marginal title for consultation by students, for acquisitions by librarians and for reprinting by publishers. Each monograph indexed contained the name of the author, title, place, publisher, year of publication and the number of universities using it. In the case of journal articles, name of the author, name of the article, journal name, volume number, month, year of publication and the number of universities using it.

The analysis suggested the average number of books assigned in the course by each university was 2 and it was 4 in the case of journal articles. Unlike courses in macroeconomics, microeconomics and industrial organization, emphasis in reading materials was placed on monographs by assigning chapters as opposed to journal articles.

There was some uniformity in course outlines examined. The literature search in academic libraries, interviews with senior faculty and analysis of reading lists led to the following overview:

Regarding the objectives and course content, it was offered as one semester course at the third-year undergraduate level to students majoring in economics and at the graduate level to those contemplating specialization and writing of a thesis in regional economics. The objectives of the course pertained to expose students to an examination of historical evaluations of cities and regions, especially of their hierarchical structures, their changes and their interaction with other sectors. Further to equip them with skills in applying economic theories and quantitative techniques in order to analyze and to interpret regional problems like unemployment, pollution and poverty; and to enable them to understand and to examine government policies both from the point of view of their abstract and their applied forms, in order to correct and to offer solutions to regional disparities. To fulfill these objectives, the course was organized to include the topics such as: structural problems, location analysis for rural and urban regions, regional business cycles, mobility of factors and interregional trade, integration of spatial and economic analysis with emphasis on theory and policy, statistical analysis relating to model building, input-output analysis and linear programming, role of regional sectors like transportation, natural resources, labor, housing, public policy and planning. Usually by the middle of the course, around the completion of the theoretical analysis like spatial economic theory, emphasis was placed on empirical analysis of regional issues, especially at the state or provincial level where the university is located. Though the course dealing with Canada and U.S.A., the theories discussed and applied to North American issues, were derived from the problems of third world countries in Asia and Africa. Regarding new trends, many Universities in recent years have been in the process of introducing graduate courses. In the last ten years, faculty members have been emphasizing the following areas in their teaching, deviating from the traditional approach toward spatial economic analysis and theories. The areas of emphasis consisted of the following:

1. urban issues like transportation, development of new towns, housing and migration;

2. encouraging student participation in class discussions, especially on local regional issues;

3. dependency and related theories;

4. transition and empirical analysis;

5. macroeconomic issues of growth and econometric modelling of regions;

6. institutional issues like logical reasoning, diagrams and graphs to interpret and analyze problems; and

7. public policy towards regional imbalances.

Regarding grading, there was a close uniformity in arriving at a final grade among most of the universities (90 percent). They emphasized term paper and its presentation to the class as mandatory requirement towards fulfilling course requirements by assigning a little over one-third of the weight (35-40%) to the final grade. The topics of term papers pertained to the use of a statistical test of a hypothesis about a region by describing the methodology of the test and its results, which were abstracted from using the data contained in census publications on land, population, housing and the size of cities. The paper should not exceed 10 typewritten pages, double spaced. Besides, a mid-term test was given by assigning a weight of 20-25 percent and a final examination with a weight of 35-40 percent to arrive at a final grade. Regarding prerequisites, students were required to have taken an introductory micro- and macroeconomics as well as intermediate microeconomics prior to registering in regional economics courses. Besides, a few universities (20 percent) expected a pre-requisite of an introductory econometrics course or statistics from students. Familiarity with basic calculus and algebra was also preferred by some departments (15 percent).

1. Core Texts

Abele, F., ed. How Ottawa Spends: The Politics of Fragmentation 1991-92. Ottawa: Carleton University Press, 1991. (cu2)

Anderson, A. E., et al. Advances in Space Theory and Dynamics. Amsterdam: North Holland, 1989. (au2)

Anderson, F. J., et al. Redundant Spaces in Cities and Regions: Studies in Industrial Decline and Social Change. London: Academic Press, 1983. (cu3)

Anderson, F. J. Regional Economic Analysis: A Canadian Perspective. Toronto: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1988. (cu4)

Blair, J. P. Urban and Regional Economics. Homewood, IL: R. D. Irwin, 1991. (au3)

Bradfield, M. Regional Economics: Analysis and Policies in Canada. Toronto: McGraw-Hill & Ryerson, 1988. (cu4)

Bradshaw, M. Regions and Regionalism in the United States. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1988. (au2)

Brewis, T. N. Regional Economic Policies in Canada. Toronto: Macmillan and Company of Canada, 1972. (cu4)

Clark, J. and Mathew, N. Regional Policy. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw Hill, 1988. (au1, cu1)

Davelaar, E. J. Regional Economic Analysis of Innovation and Incubation. Aldershot: Avebury Publishing Co., 1991. (au2, cu1)

Dean, R. D. et. al., eds. Spatial Economic Theory. New York: Free Press, 1970. (au4, cu1)

Economic Council of Canada. A Joint Venture: The Economics of Constitutional Options. 28th Annual Review, Ottawa: Department of Supply and Services, 1991. (cu3)

-----. Living Together. Ottawa: Department of Supply and Services, 1977. (cu14) Economic Development Council of Canada. From the Bottom Up: The Community Economic Development Approach. Ottawa: Canadian Government Publishing Center, 1990. (cu2)

Edel, M. and Rothenberg, J. Readings in Urban Economics. New York: Macmillan, 1972. (au3)

Emerson, M. J. and Lamphear, F. C., eds. Urban and Regional Economics: Structure and Change. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1975. (au3, cu2)

Giaoutzi, M. and Nijkamp, P. Informatics and Regional Development. Brookfield: Gower Publishing, 1988. (au2)

Glasson, J. An Introduction to Regional Planning. London: Hutchinson, 1970. (cu2)

Grody, P. The Economic Consequences of Quebec Sovereignty. Vancouver: Fraser Institute, 1991. (cu2)

Heilbrun, J. Urban Economics and Public Policy. 3rd ed. New York: St. Martins Press, 1988. (au7, cu1)

Hewings, J. Regional Industrial Analysis and Development. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1977. (cu2)

Higgins, B. and Savoie, D., eds. Regional Economic Development. London: Unwin Hyman, 1988. (cu2)

Hoover, E. M. and Gilarratani, F. An Introduction to Regional Economics. 3rd ed. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1985. (au13, cu7)

Isard, W. Introduction to Regional Science. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1975. (au2, cu3)

Kain, J. F. and Meyer, J. R., eds. Essays in Regional Economics. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971. (au2)

Levy, J. M. Economic Development Programs for Cities, Counties and Towns. 2nd ed. New York: Praeger, 1990. (au1, cu1)

McKee, D. L., et. al. Regional Economics: Theory and Practice. New York: Free Press, 1970. (au4, cu5)

Mills, E. S. and Hamilton, B. W. Urban Economics. 4th ed. Glenview, IL.: Scott Foresman Co., 1989. (au3, cu1)

Mills, E. S. and Nijkamp, P., eds. Handbook in Regional and Urban Economics v. 1: Regional Economics. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1987. (au2)

Nourse, H. O. Regional Economics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1970. (au4, cu3)

Richardson, H. W. Elements of Regional Economics. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1969. (cu7)

-----. Regional and Urban Economics. London: Pitman 1979. (au2)

-----. Regional Economics. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1979. (au11, cu6)

-----. Regional Economics: A Reader. London: Macmillan, 1970. (au1, cu4)

-----. Urban Economics. Troy, MO: Dryden Press, 1978. (au1, cu1)

Savoie, D. J. The Canadian Economy: A Regional Perspective. Toronto: Methuen, 1986. (cu7)

-----. Regional Economic Development: Canada's Search for Solutions. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1987. (cu6)

Sitwell, O. F. and Siefried, N. R. The Regional Structure of the Canadian Economy. Toronto: Methuen, 1984. (cu4)

Smith, D. Industrial Location. 2nd ed. New York: Random House, 1986. (au2, cu1) Sullivan, A. M. Urban Economics. Homewood, IL.: Richard D. Irwin, 1990. (au1, cu1)

Weinstein, B. L., et. al. Regional Growth and Decline in the United States. 2nd ed. New York: Praeger, 1985. (au2)

2. Location Theories and Analyses

Archibald, G. C. "Regional Multiplier Effects in the U.K." Oxford Economic Papers 19, March 1967. (cu3)

Beckman, M. Location Theory. New York: Random House, 1968. (au3, cu2)

Beckman, M. and McPherson J. "City Size Distribution in a Central Place Hierarchy: An Alternative Approach." Journal of Regional Science 13, April 1970. (au2)

Bendavid, A. Regional Economic Analysis for Practitioners. Rev. ed. New York: Praeger, 1984. (au2, cu3)

Braid, R. M. "Uniform Spatial Growth With Perfect Foresight." Journal of Urban Economics 23, January 1988. (au3)

Browning, M. "The Regional Income Multiplier: An Attempt to Complete the Model." Scottish Journal of Political Economy 18, November 1971. (cu3)

Chintz, B. "Contrasts in Agglomeration: New York and Pittsburgh." American Economic Review 51, May 1961 (au2, cu1)

Friedman, J. and Alonso, W., eds. Regional Development and Planning. Cambridge: M.I.T. Press, 1964. (au2, cu9)

Goldfarb, R. S. and Yezer, A. M. "Evaluating Alternative Theories of Intercity and Interregional Differentials." Journal of Regional Science 18, December 1976. (au3)

Greenhut, M. L. and Ohta, H. Theory of Spatial Pricing and Market Areas. Durham: Duke University Press, 1975. (au2)

Hartman, L. M. and Seckler, D. "Toward the Application of Dynamic Growth Theory to Regions." Journal of Regional Science 7, Winter 1967. (au1, cu2)

Hoover, E. M. The Location of Economic Activity. New York: McGraw Hill, 1971. (au3, cu4)

Hotteling, H. "Stability in Competition." Economic Journal 39, March 1929. (au3) Isard, W. Location and Space Economy. Cambridge: M.I.T. Press, 1956. (au4)

Karaska, G. and Bramhall, D. Locational Analysis for Manufacturing. Cambridge: M.I.T. Press, 1969. (au2)

Khalli, A., et al. "Location and the Theory of Production: A Generalization." Journal of Economic Theory 9, December 1974. (au3)

Losch, A. "The Nature of Economic Regions" Southern Economic Journal 5, July 1938. (au2, cu3)

Moroney, J. and Walker, J. "A Regional Test of the Heckscherohlin-Hypothesis." Journal of Political Economy 74, December 1966. (cu3)

Moses, L. N. "Location and Theory of Production." Quarterly Journal of Economics 72, May 1958. (au3, cu3)

Muth, R. F. Cities and Housing. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969. (au2)

North, D. C. "Agriculture in Regional Economic Growth." Journal of Farm Economics 41, December 1959. (cu3)

Paelinck, J. H. and Nijkamp, P. Operational Theory and Method in Regional Economics. Lexington: Lexington Books, 1975. (au2)

Richardson, H. W. "The State of Regional Economics." International Regional Science Review 3, Fall 1978. (au4, cu1)

Rodwin, L. and Sazanami, H., eds. Industrial Change and Regional Economic Transformation: the Experience of Western Europe. London: Harper Collins, 1991. (au2, cu1)

Smithies, A. "Optimism Location in Spatial Completion." Journal of Political Economy 49, February 1941. (au3)

Valavanis, S. "Losch on Location." American Economic Review 45, September 1955. (au2, cu3)

Weber, A. Theory and Location of Industry. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1929. (au2)

Wheaton, W. "Urban Residential Growth With Perfect Foresight." Journal of Urban Economics 12, July 1982. (au3)

-----. "Urban Spatial Development with Durable, but Replaceable Capital." Journal of Urban Economics 12, July 1982. (au4)

3. Migration and Inter Regional Markets

Bowles, J. S. "Migration as Investment." Review of Economics and Statistics 52, November 1970. (au3)

Courchene, T. J. "Interprovincial Migration and Economic Adjustment." Canadian Journal of Economics 3, December 1970. (au5)

Curran, C., et. al. "A Theory of Residential Location Decisions in Two Worker Households." Journal of Urban Economics 12, July 1982. (au3)

Flatters, F., et al. "Public Goods, Efficiency and Regional Fiscal Equalization." Public Economics 3, May 1974. (au1, cu2)

Greenwood, M. J. "Human Migration: Theory Models and Empirical Studies." Journal of Regional Science 25, November, 1985. (au3)

-----. "Research on Internal Migration in the United States: A Survey." Journal of Economic Literature 13, June 1975. (au5, cu2)

Greenwood, M. J. and Hunt, G. L. "Jobs vs. Amenities in the Analysis of Metropolitan Migration." Journal of Urban Economics 25, January 1989. (au3)

Henderson, V. "Evaluating Consumer Amenities and Interregional Welfare Differences." Journal of Urban Economics 11, January 1982. (au3)

Kau, J. and Sirmans, C. "The Influence of Information Costs and Uncertainty of Migration." Journal of Regional Science 17, April 1977. (au2, cu1)

Sjaastad, L. "The Costs and Returns of Human Migration" Journal of Political Economy 70, October 1962. (au1, cu3)

Vanderkamp, J. "The Effect of Outmigration on Regional Employment." Canadian Journal of Economics 3, May 1970. (cu9)

-----. "Integrational Mobility in Canada: A Study of the Time Pattern of Migration." Canadian Journal of Economics 13, August 1970. (cu4)

Wrage, P. "The Effects of Internal Migration on Regional Wage and Unemployment Disparities in Canada." Journal of Regional Science 21, February 1981. (au2, cu1)

4. Models and Quantitative Analysis

Adams, G. F., et al. "On the Specification of Regional Econometric Model: A Model of Mississippi." Review of Economics and Statistics 5, August 1975. (au4) Bolton, R. "Regional Econometric Models." Journal of Regional Science 25, November 1985. (au3)

Crow, R. T. "A Nationally Linked Regional Econometric Model." Journal of Regional Science 13, August 1973. (au3)

Gerking, S. D. and Isserman, A. M. "Bifurcation and the Time Pattern of Impacts in the Economic Base Model." Journal of Regional Science 21, November 1981. (au3)

Glickman, N. J. Econometric Analysis of Regional Systems. New York: Academic Press, 1977. (au3)

Hua, C. I. and Porell, F. "A Critical Review of the Development of the Gravity Model." International Regional Science Review 4, Winter 1979. (au3)

Hutchinson, B. and Batty, M. eds. Advances in Urban Systems Modelling. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1986. (au1, cu1)

Isard, W. Methods of Regional Analysis. Cambridge: M.I.T. Press, 1960. (au4, cu4)

Isserman, A. M. "Estimating Export Activity in a Regional Economy: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis of Alternative Methods." International Regional Science Review 5, Winter 1980. (au3)

Latham, W. R. et al. "Regional Econometric Models: Specification and Simulation of a Quarterly Alternative for Small Regions." Journal of Regional Science 19, February, 1979. (au3)

Morrison, W. I. and Smith, P. S. Input-Output Methods in Urban and Regional Planning. New York: Pergamon Press, 1977. (au2)

Richardson, H. W. "Input-Output and Economic Base Multipliers: Looking Backward and Forward." Journal of Regional Science 25, November 1985. (au3, cu1) -----. Input-Output and Regional Economics. New York: Halsted Press, 1972. (au2, cu1)

Tiebout, C. M. "Regional and Interregional Input-Output Models: An Appraisal." Southern Economic Journal 24, October 1957. (cu3)

5. Regional Differences

Broadway, R., et al. "Revenue Sharing and the Equalization of Natural Resource Revenues." Canadian Public Policy 9, June 1983. (cu3)

Borooah, V. K., et. al. Regional Income Inequality and Poverty in the United Kingdom. Aldershot: Dartmouth Publishers, 1991. (au1, cu1)

Capithorne, L. "Resources and Regional Disparities." Canadian Public Policy 5, Spring 1982. (au3)

Courchene, T. J. "A Market Perspective on Regional Disparities." Canadian Public Policy 7, Autumn 1981. (cu4)

Hansen, N. M. "Development Pole Theory in a Regional Context." Kyklos 10, September 1967. (cu3)

Kain, J. F. "Housing Segregation, Negro Employment and Metropolitan Decentralization." Quarterly Journal of Economics 83, May 1968. (au3)

Moscovitch, A. and Drover, G. Inequality: Essays on Political Economy of Social Welfare. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1981. (cu5)

Norrie, K., ed. Disparities and Interregional Adjustment. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1986. (cu4)

Philips, P. Regional Disparities. 2nd ed. Toronto: James Lorimer, 1982. (cu6)

Thompson, W. A Preface to Urban Economics. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1965. (cu3)

Weiss, S. J. and Gooding, G. "Estimation of Differential Employment Multipliers in a Small Regional Economy." Land Economics 54, May 1968. (cu3)

6. Regional Growth and Policies

Bade, F. "Large Corporations and Regional Development." Regional Studies 17, November 1983. (au2, cu1)

Barnard, J. R. and Krautmann, A. C. "Population Growth Among U.S. Regions and Metropolitan Areas: A Test for Causality." Journal of Regional Science 28, February 1988. (au3)

Borts, G. "The Equalization of Returns and Regional Growth." American Economic Review 50, June 1960. (au5, cu1)

Cloke, P. J., ed. Policies and Plans of Rural People. Winchester: Unwin Hyman, 1988. (au1, cu1)

Damesick, P. and Wood, P., eds. Regional Problems, Problem Regions and Public Policy in U.K. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987. (au1, cu1)

Firestone, O. J. ed. Regional Economic Development. University of Ottawa Press, 1974. (cu3)

Friedman, J. and Alonso, W. Regional Policy. Cambridge: M.I.T. Press, 1975. (au4, cu2)

Hansen, N. M., ed. Growth Centers in Regional Economic Development. New York: Free Press, 1975. (au3, cu2)

Lande, P. S. and Gordon, P. "Regional Growth in the United States: a Re-examination of the Neo-Classical Model." Journal of Regional Science 17, April 1977. (au3)

Leven, C. "Regional Development Analysis and Policy." Journal of Regional Science 25, November 1985. (au2, cu1)

Lithwick, N. H. Regional Economic Policy: The Canadian Experience. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd., 1978. (cu16)

Markusen, A. Regions. New Jersey: Rowman and Littlefield, 1987. (au1, cu1)

Mathias, P. Forced Growth. Toronto: James Lorimer and Company, 1971. (cu4)

Melvin, J. The Interregional Effects of Canadian Tariffs and Transportation Policy. Toronto: Ontario Economic Council, 1988. (cu2)

Meyer, J. R. "Regional Economics: A Survey." American Economic Review 53, March 1963. (au3, cu2)

Needleman, L., ed. Regional Analysis: Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1968. (au2, cu7)

Perloff, H., et al. Regions, Resources and Economic Growth. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1984. (cu2)

Richarson, H. W. Regional Growth Theory. New York: Wiley, 1973. (au3, cu2)

Siebert, H. Regional Economic Growth: Theory and Policy. Scranton: International Textbook Company 1969. (au3, cu2)

Smith, D. M. "Neoclassical Growth Models and Regional Growth in the U.S." Journal of Regional Science 15, August 1975. (au2, cu1)

-----. "Regional Growth: Interstate and Intersectoral Factor Substitution." Review of Economics and Statistics 56, August 1974. (au3)

Tiebout, C. M. "The Pure Theory of Local Government Expenditures." Journal of Political Economy 5, October 1956. (au1, cu2)

Tucker, Wm. The Excluded Americans: Homelessness and Housing Policies. Washington, D.C.: Regenery Gateway, 1990. (au2)

Van Den Broker, G. Regional Development and the International Division of Labor: International Firms in the Netherlands and India. Waitsfeld, VT: Concept Publishing, 1990. (au1, cu1)

Watkins, M. H. "A Staple Theory of Economic Growth." Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science 29, May 1963. (au1, cu2)

Williamson, J. G. "Regional Inequality and the Process of National Development: A Description of the Patterns." Economic Development and Cultural Change 13, July 1965. (cu7)
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Author:Venkateswarlu, Tadiboyina
Publication:American Economist
Date:Sep 22, 1993
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