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Regional databases within invasive plant species spread monitoring.

INTRODUCTION

Due to the increasing human impact on nature, including the impact on its plant component, the actual problem is the study of the natural vegetation synanthropization processes, commensal floras development and the formation of anthropogenic flora and the development of anthropogenic plant communities [1].

As the result of the powerful intercontinental relations and communications development the anthropogenically induced invasions became global ones and pose a serious environmental problem [2, 3].

A lot of attention is paid to the study of invasive species, the mechanisms of their implementation, the nature of migrations in almost all countries. The significance of these studies is enhanced due to the implementation of the Global Invasive Species Programme [4]. The international cooperation in this area is also expressed by the creation of databases that serve as the invasive species inventory to assess their impact on natural systems and human economy and the distribution forecast. Such databases are developed as on the global level (GISD--Global Invasive Species Database) [5], so as the European project (DAISIE--Delievering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe) [6].

There is no national integrated program in Russia running on the accumulated information about invasive species. As the basis for such a program one may note the project of the Institute of Ecology and Evolution issues named after Severtsov (RAS) "Alien species on the territory of Russia" [7] and the work written by U.K. Vinogradova et al. [8]. The recent study states the issue of the regional blacklists development. The main task of such blacklists is the revealing of adventive species local invasions. These Such "Black Books" shall be also kept and at the regional level and become the basis of information support for the monitoring and the spread of living organisms invasive species like "Red Books". This hierarchical system of biological invasions monitoring will allow more effective decision-making to combat them.

Methods:

The "Flora" database developed at the Department of General Ecology, University of Kazan was used as the materials for the study. The database contains information about specific types of findings and geobotanic descriptions on the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan for the period from the end of the XIX century to the present. The database contains more than 220 thousand records and more than 7000 geographic locations in a separate GIS layer [9]. The information system contains tools for the vegetation cover species analysis. In the present study the analysis of flora taxonomic structure at the family level was used.

We used the MapInfo package to develop the maps of invasive species distribution.

We used the BioClim climatic data from the WorldClim database to develop the model of adventive species potential habitats [10, 11]. The model development was performed by using the QGIS (Quantum GIS) package [12].

Main part:

Here is the information about the flora specifics of human settlements (villages, towns), highways and railways, surveyed within 50 km from the city of Kazan. These settlements and highways are the centers of alien species distribution in the landscape, by the objects which to a large extent determine their modern fragmentation.

The flora structure analysis by families (Table. 1) in the habitats sinatropic areas identified common trends. Two families, Asteraceae and Poaceae remain the leading ones in the range. Gramineae are not so spread as legumes only along highways. Rosaceae occupy a stable forth place. Brassicaceae, Caryophillaceae, Lamiaceae and Schrophulariaceae as well as in the spectra of individual landscape flora retain high positions.

Labiatae in the flora of settlements occupy the third place, which is ahead of Rosaceae. The increased portion of legumes indicates that favorable conditions for the southern flora species appear in commensal habitats.

The share of adventive species in the flora of commensal habitats makes 31-38%. The Eurasian, Holarctic and European types of area species dominate among adventitious species. Cosmopolitans, Asian and North American species are presented widely enough here.

The spread of invasive species in the Republic of Tatarstan are registered by us along with the findings of other species and are stored in the "Flora" database [9]. These geobotanic descriptions also allow to store information about the species composition of communities exposed to invasion. Accurate geo-referencing of all findings allow us to develop maps of the alien species spread and to analyze the spatial dynamics of their distribution. Fig. 1 shows a map of the invasive Conyza canadensis spread in the Republic of Tatarstan.

The spatial modeling may be used to determine the areas that could potentially be colonized by alien plant species. The development of invasive species models, which use the environmental variables as predictors was carried out by various authors [13, 14, 15].

The example of the developed model taking into account the climatic parameters of the spatial pattern of habitat, which are the potential for the invasion of Lupinus polyphyllus is shown by Fig. 2.

Conclusions:

The use of the regional databases containing the floristic and geobotanic information showed the possibility of their application to assess the current state of communities, the spatial and temporal dynamics of the alien species introduction and the implementation of the invasion distribution prediction.

ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

R Received 25 April 2014

Received in revised form 8 May 2014

Accepted 20 July 2014

Available online 18 August 2014

REFERENCES

[1] Abramova, L.M., B.M. Mirkyn, 2000. Anthropogenic evolution of vegetation in the Republic of Bashkortostan: the scale of the process and the approaches to management // Journal of the Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 5(3): 18-25.

[2] Wake, M.H., 1995. The current status of the diversities program and its implementation // Biol. Inetern, 31: 7-18.

[3] Shutova, I.U., 2003. Invasive alien types: new publications review // Contemporary library success, 123(1): 110-112.

[4] McNeely, J.A., H.A. Mooney, L.E. Neville et al., 2001. Global strategy on invasive alien species. IUCN, Gland, 55 p.

[5] Global Invasive Species Database. Date views 01.05.2014 http://www.issg.org/database.

[6] Delievering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. Date views 01.05.2014 http://www.europealiens.org.

[7] Alien types in Russia. Date views 01.05.2014 http://www.sevin.ru/invasive/.

[8] Vinogradova, Y.K., S.R. Mayorov, L.V. Khorun, 2009. Black Book of Central Russia flora (Alien plant species in the ecosystems of Central Russia). M.: GEOS. 494 pages.

[9] Rogova, T.V., V.E. Prokhorov, G.A. Shaikhutdinova, B.R. Shagiev, 2010. Electronic data bases of phyto indicative data in the systems of the natural ecosystems states evaluation and maintaining the inventories of biodiversity. // Scientific Notes of the Kazan University. Natural Sciences series, 152(1): 174-181.

[10] WorldClim--Global Climate Data. Free climate data for ecological modeling and GIS. Date views 01.05.2014 http://www.worldclim.org/.

[11] Hijmans, R.J., S.E. Cameron, J.L. Parra, P.G. Jones and A. Jarvis, 2005. Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas. International Journal of Climatology, 25: 1965-1978.

[12] QGIS Development Team, 2014. QGIS Geographic Information System. Open Source Geospatial Foundation Project. Date views 01.05.2014 http://qgis.osgeo.org.

[13] Guisan, A., W. Thuiller, 2005. Predicting species distribution: Offering more than simple habitat models. Ecology Letters, 8: 993-1009.

[14] Thuiller, W., D.M. Richardson, P. Pysek, G.F. Midgley, G.O. Hughes, M. Rouget, 2005. Niche-based modeling as a tool for predicting the global risk of alien plant invasions. Global Change Biology, 11: 2234-2250.

[15] Afonin, A.N., S.L. Green, N.I. Dzyubenko, A.N. Frolov, 2008. Agricultural ecological atlas of Russia and neighboring countries: economic plants and their diseases, pests and weeds. Date views 01.05.2014 http://www.agroatlas.ru.

Prokhorov Vadim and Rogova Tatiana

Kazan Federal University, Kremlevskaya str., 18, Kazan, Russia

Corresponding Author: Prokhorov Vadim, Kazan Federal University, Kremlevskaya str., 18, Kazan, Russia.

Table 1: Flora range of commensal habitats.

#     Settlements          Railways           Highways

1      Asteraceae         Asteraceae         Asteraceae
2       Poaceae            Poaceae            Fabacea
3      Lamiaceae           Fabaceae            Poacea
4       Rosaceae           Rosaceae           Rosacea
5     Brassicaceae     Caryophillaceae      Brassicaceae
6       Fabaceae          Lamiaceae       Caryophillaceae
7       Apiaceae         Brassicaceae        Lamiaceae
8   Scrophulariaceae   Scrophulariaceae   Scrophulariaceae
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Author:Vadim, Prokhorov; Tatiana, Rogova
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Date:Aug 1, 2014
Words:1333
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