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Reformation in the global context: the disturbing spaciousness of Jesus Christ.

"Seek the welfare of the city where I have sent you into exile; and pray to the Lord on its behalf, for in its welfare you will find your welfare" (Jer 29:7).

In his "Theses for the Heidelberg Disputation" (1518) Luther writes: "Without a theology of the cross, a human misuses the best things in the worst way." (1) The word "misuse" is familiar and relevant to us. The message of the Reformation calls us to emancipate humanity from the "misuse of the best," the misuse of the name of God. I see a connection between the ancient advice of Jeremiah to the exiled people of Judah and Luther's discovery of the gospel as he was pondering over the Epistle to the Romans. Both are concerned with the renewal of the quality of community life. Jeremiah affirms the wholesomeness, shalom, of the community, not that of a person or particular group. Luther affirms the righteousness of God that is actively at work among people. The spirit of the Reformation is focused on the building up of a universal blessed community. Hence, its message is relevant to us today, though it needs to be interpreted and translated.

The Buddha, meditating under the tree, maintained his mobility. The Christ, crucified upon the tree, lost his mobility. Mobility is basic to human dignity. Space is only meaningful when we can enjoy our mobility, whether spiritual, intellectual, or physical. When our mobility and space are happily harmonious, we experience salvation. The word "spaciousness" speaks to me more meaningfully than the word "salvation." At the time of my baptism I realized, though vaguely, that from the one who had lost his mobility on the cross came the broad space of new life for humanity. This is a striking paradox--a "scandal" (1 Cor 1:23). This image of paradox comes to me when I hear today Luther's expression theologia crucis, "theology of the cross."

My own version of a theology of the cross began emotionally, without any definite form or understanding, when I was 15 years old. In the morning following the midnight carpet bombing of March 10, 1945, in Japan, I saw the sun rise as usual, as though nothing had happened in the human world. The light and warmth of the sun embraced both the dead and the living. The sun quietly erased the distinction between enemy and friend. I became aware that a strange quietness had descended on me. I heard, or felt, the words of Jesus, that God "makes his sun rise on the evil and on the good, and sends rain on the righteous and on the unrighteous" (Matt 5:45). Those words have come back to me from time to time for nearly sixty years since that morning. When I was baptized during the war, the minister told me that God loves everyone, Americans as well as Japanese. I was baptized not into the religion of the enemy country but into the God of all nations.

How are we to speak about the connection between this healing universality of God and the line of the great hymn "0 sacred Head, now wounded, with grief and shame weighed down"? This has been the theme of my ecumenical theology.

The advice of Jeremiah, "Pray to the Lord on Babylon's behalf, for in its welfare you will find your welfare," is in harmony with the New Testament idea of the kingdom of God. "The Reign of God is a universal reality, extending far beyond the boundaries of the Church.. . . It is the fundamental 'mystery of unity' which unites us more deeply than differences in religious allegiance are able to keep us apart." (2)

Martin Luther King Jr. writes in a similar vein from the Birmingham City Jail: "We are caught in an inescapable network of mutuality, tied in a single garment of destiny. (3)

There is no church outside the world. There is no salvation outside the world since the church is in the world. There is salvation in the world because "Christ is hidden everywhere in the mystery of his lowliness." (4) And there is salvation outside the church because "In her sacramental mysterious existence the Church surpasses canonical measurements." (5) Extra ecclesiam nulla salus (The slogan "outside the Church there is no salvation" does not originate in the scriptures) is not consonant with the abundant generosity and spacious catholicity Christ created on the cross. Catholicity is, theologically speaking, a more fertile word than universality, because it does not suggest uniformity or imperialism. It is the universality expressed through the image of the "sacred head, now wounded, with grief and shame weighed down." It is a self-giving universality (Matt 16:24). The God of catholicity cannot be confined in the temple (1 Kgs 8:27). The biblical God is a boundary-breaking God. "Any claim to exclusivity or religious triumphalism will eventually run aground on the expansive vision of the biblical God." (6) The Holy Spirit moves where it wills (John 3:8).

Christ is the head of both kosmos and ekklesia (Col 1:15-18). In human life the sacred and the profane coexist. (7) We are asked to pray for the welfare of the enemy city, "for in its welfare you will find your welfare." When the kosmos suffers, ekklesia suffers. When kosmos is honored, ekklesia is honored (1 Cor 12:26). There is a sacramental communion between the two. This is the astounding design and operation of God's hesed/agape (loyalty/love) in God's creation. Kosmos is being transformed to ekklesia and vice versa. This grand ecumenical message is addressed to twenty-first-century humanity.(8) It is good for us to note with appreciation the teaching of theosis (deification) of the Eastern Orthodox Church.(9)

Nailed down, Christ submits himself to the onslaught of human violence. Yet from him no violence emanates. Human violence loses mobility by the power of the completely disarmed defeated victor! Christ, the incarnation of the Word which was "in the beginning" and by which "all things came into being" (John 1:3), was confined in the extreme Angst (from the Latin angustiae, "narrows"), "the narrow space." The Christ in the Angst is the author of the life-giving spaciousness. When he became immobile, he became most mobile. In the great tradition of the holy icons of the Eastern Orthodox Church we see the spacious reality of the divine community. Since the icon is "not made by hands" (acheiropoietos) its space is not humanly defined. The sacred quality of space belongs to God. It is God who tells us, "the place on which you are standing is holy ground" (Exod 3:5). The presence of the Orthodox Church in the ecumenical movement is significant because of the positive decision on the use of the icon taken at the Secon d Council of Nicaea in 787.

"Love your enemies." When the enemy is loved, the structure of violence crumbles. The way of the Sermon on the Mount is that when all diplomacy has failed in hostile international, communal, or personal relations, the last resort is not to go to war but to love your enemies. This suggestion is totally opposite the words I personally remember in the Japanese Emperor's Declaration of War against the United States and Great Britain in 1941: "our adversaries, showing not the least spirit of conciliation ... our empire... has no other recourse but to appeal to arms and to crush every obstacle in its path."

When Christ in his last supper broke the bread, eucharistic space was opened up for the whole world. This visual moment is the symbol of the mystery that unites all people in an inescapable network of mutuality. In this space there is other recourse than to appeal to arms. Archbishop Sir Ellison Pogo of Melanesia says, "Christ has shown us a better way than violence."(10) In Hiroshima/Nagasaki, living space itself was instantly evaporated and disappeared. God responds to human violence with the spaciousness of the eucharistic space. God's spaciousness is judgment. But the judgment is not condemnation; it is a call to repentance and new hope.

Space is as sacred as time. This is so because both space and time relate to freedom. When we hear "mystery of unity" or "a single garment of destiny," our association is the life-giving sacredness of space. There is only one space, and that space is crowded with many urgent human topics: ecology, ecumenism, economy, religions, pluralism, globalization, contextualization, medicine, transportation, education, inculturation, multiculturalism, international relations, evangelism, liturgy, human sexuality, generation gap. In all of these there cannot be, according to Jeremiah, a private, just-for-me-alone welfare. The righteousness of community members must be an imitatio Christi, the righteousness that makes the unrighteous community righteous. The concern for the community's welfare is central.

This concern expresses the spirit of the theology of the cross. The words "his lowliness" in the sentence "Christ is hidden everywhere in the mystery of his lowliness" intimate the amazing nature of Christ's catholicity, completely free of imperialism, authoritarianism, paternalism, and colonialism. These are the powers that take away the gift of authentic mobility in blessed space. The advice of Jeremiah exposes the destructive power of racism, sexism, caste system, militarism, terrorism, mammonism, religious fanaticism, and exceptionalism.

Exceptionalism--"God, I thank you that I am not like other people" (Lk 18:11)--contradicts the spirit of Jeremiah and Luther. Exceptionalism is a hallmark of the empire complex. It speaks religious language with ease. "Religiously self-centered is a violent condition. Exceptionalism, like dispensationalism and fundamentalism, arranges time and space for the exclusive salvation of a favored group. It violates the cosmic ecological truth that all living beings can exist and prosper only in the form and spirit of webbed interdependence and mutual respect. It thrives with the idea that the world is moving toward ultimate division rather than toward reconciling community. When exceptionalism infects Christianity, it begins to say, "Christ is hidden everywhere in the mystery of his arrogance." This pseudo "mystery theology" decimated the indigenous peoples of the Americas. It embraces mammonism, teaching that Jesus supplies every material need just for you. Exceptionalism is antithetical to pluralism and tolerance. It cannot see that it is pluralism that gives space for a particular religious or political commitment to assert itself. Without pluralism, humanity will only have religious wars. Exceptionalism supports imperial globalization and shows no understanding of Christian ecumenism. Ecumenism abhors any caste system, whether local or global.

Born outside the caste system, Dalits [in India] are considered worthless and as such are deprived of access to basic human rights. On a daily basis 250 million people suffer humiliation, segregation and brutality. Not only are they discriminated against at every level but as the nation's menial labor force they are also expected to work in appalling conditions doing unthinkable tasks.(11)

Exceptionalism is, to use the words of Luther, theologia gloriae, the theology of glory, which calls "the bad good and the good bad."(12) The demonic nature of exceptionalism comes from its repudiation of the truth demonstrated by Christ, that is, "Being as Communion,"(13) when the New Testament affirms that God is love (1 Jn 4:16).

Love ceases to be a qualifying--i.e. secondary--property of being and becomes the supreme ontological predicate. Love as God's mode of existence "hypostasizes" God, constitutes his being. Therefore, as a result of love, the ontology of God is not subject to the necessity of the substance. Love is identified with ontological freedom.(14)

That love is identified with ontological freedom can be associated with Luther's theology of the cross, in which the strange work of God (opus alienum, "to work his work-alien is his work!" Isa 28:21) is emphasized. Luther's struggle with the revealed God, deus revelatus, who is the hidden God, deus absconditus, is consonant with the idea that the ontology of God is not subject to the necessity of the substance. Exceptionalism is violent because it rejects being as communion.

By human violence I think primarily of wars. "Deaths from warfare in the first ninety years of the twentieth century would come to 107,800,000 in all."(15) It is appalling that in the face of such massive destruction of human life, theologians are still talking about just-war theory, as Donald Shriver quotes Walter Wink's view.(16) Genocide, ethnic cleansing, racism, economic oppression, sexism, absolute poverty, hopeless slum life, and hunger because of wars starkly demonstrate the reality of human violence. The two world wars of the twentieth century should be called two world mass murders. The cold war was cold murder. Today biological, chemical, and nuclear attacks by humans against humans are a possibility. Western "Christian" civilization is threatening the integrity of the biosphere in which alone life is sustained. Violence is the conscious act of humans destroying the ecological foundation of community. Whenever being as communion is replaced by a dualistic scheme of us against them, there will be violence.

That morning in 1945, though my vision was impaired by the fire flakes of the great fire storm, I saw that the sun light erased the dualism of us against them. I witnessed the self-destruction of Japan in 1945. Following our own tribal ventriloquistic god, who parroted whatever we said and who specialized in blessing Japan only, we marched to national destruction. Our undereducated god drummed into us the enticing dualistic scheme that Japan was the righteous empire, while America and Great Britain were evil empires.

Wherever there is violence, there is a false god. According to Ecumenical News International (Oct. 21, 2002), five Dalits were beaten to death by a Hindu mob because of the rumor that they had killed a cow. A fundamentalist Hindu leader justified the killing of the five, saying that "the life of a cow is more precious than that of a human being." The crusaders chanted "deus vult!" (God wills!). "War is more humane if God is left out of it," says Roland Bainton. (17) The word "crusade" is problematic. It self-righteously uses the image of Christ suffering to speak of war and campaign. It is impossible to call the Rape of Nanjing an act of Japanese self-defense. What then of the American nuclear attack on two inhabited cities? Was that an act of American self-defense? A tribal god, whether it speaks Japanese or English, has no understanding of the line between self-defense and aggression. A tribal god is immensely popular because it requires no self-examination and encourages self-justification. It is a crusadi ng god.

The spirit of Protestantism calls for direct examination of oneself before God, coram deo. I could be the Police Battalion 101 member who shot Jews in the fields of Poland. I could have wielded the machetes that killed eight hundred thousand Tutsis in Rwanda. I could have been a Serbian soldier who helped kill seven thousand Muslim prisoners in Srebrenica.... (18)

"I could be!" This is a shocking thought. But this is the way to free oneself from the snares of dualistic exceptionalism and of the parochial tribal god. When freed, we may understand that we cannot disarm others while we are armed, and we cannot demonize others without demonizing ourselves. The books of the Bible call this moment of realization "repentance." Luther said of himself, "I am dust and ashes and full of sin." This extreme statement can stand only if it was the report of self-examination before the holy God (see Isa 6:5, Lk 5:8). When one is reduced to zero, one has nothing to lose. With nothing to lose, one becomes truly free. One's observation of the world becomes open and unfettered. The Mahayana Buddhist east would appreciate this logic.

In the world today "1.5 billion people live in absolute poverty. Most of these people go hungry every day. Seventy percent of these are women and children. 1.75 billion lack safe drinking water." (19) What is the gospel for this world? Should not the life condition of these billions of people be the theme to ponder night and day? Isn't that the way to find a merciful God? The doctrine of justification by faith that Luther called articulus stantis et cadentis ecclesiae (the article by which the church stands or falls)--to what does it call us? The gospel of Jesus Christ for the world today is to provide safe drinking water for 1.75 billion people, abolish the absolute poverty of 1.5 billion people, and to outlaw war and bombing. It is to restore life and hope to billions of children on the earth.

Some may say that I have abandoned the transcendent dimension of the gospel. They will protest that the gospel is concerned with something far more important than providing safe water to drink or even the abolition of war. Is safe drinking water more important than the forgiveness of sins, the elimination of poverty than eternal salvation? Those with safe water to drink would disapprove my "liberal" stand. "My view may be guilty of confusing the two separate kingdoms that Luther upholds:

There are two kingdoms, one the kingdom of God, the other the kingdom of the world.... God's kingdom is a kingdom of grace and mercy... the kingdom of the world is a kingdom of wrath and severity." (20)

Richard Niebuhr observes that Luther "makes sharp distinctions between the temporal and spiritual life, or between what is external and internal, between body and soul, between the reign of Christ and the world of human works or culture.... Luther does not, however, divide what he distinguishes." (21)

Luther's dualism is not metaphysical but historical and Christological. The catholicity of Christ is at the root of Luther's dualism. It points to the dynamic expression of the one sovereign Christ who is revealed yet hidden, and thus "endlessly surprising," to use an expression characteristic of the theology of Second Isaiah. (22) Boldly, the gospel of the incarnate God proclaims that the eternal destiny of a person depends on giving safe water to thirsty persons. "I was thirsty and you gave me something to drink" (see Matt 25:31-46). "Those who do not love a brother or sister whom they have seen, cannot love God whom they have not seen" (1 Jn 4:20). A theologian of the theology of the cross is one "who with the apostle knows the crucified and hidden God." (23) Are not hungry people crucified people? Is not God hidden in the naked people? Is not Christian faith the most physical faith of the world religions because of the teaching on the incarnation of God? The vehemence of Luther's essay "Against the Robbi ng and Murdering Hordes of Peasants "did violence to his own theology of the cross.

The theology of the cross affirms that the righteousness of God that makes the unrighteous righteous through sheer mercy is the God of being as communion. Christ, on the cross "believed in God, hoping against hope" (contra spem in spem credere). (24) His death on the cross was the supreme example of fleeing "to God against God" (ad deum contra deum confugere). (25)

The God of being as communion cannot be domesticated. How can we comprehend the hidden God who is a revealed God yet remains hidden? (26) Believers stand before "the wisdom of the cross (crucis sapientia) which is hidden in a profound mystery (abscondita in mysterio profundo)." (27) How can we fathom the strange work of God in which a human is savingly killed? (28) To know Christ is to "understand God in the midst of the crucifixion of the flesh." (29) God cannot be comprehended. The theology of the Reformation shares the apophatic quality of Eastern Orthodox theology. (30)

The message of the Protestant Reformation for humanity consists of a warning against the abuse/misuse of transcendence. To put it specifically in the language of the cultural zone of monotheism, it is the domestication of God. Domestication here means "wrongful use of the name of the Lord" (Exod 20:7). We read in Luther's Large Catechism,

It is a misuse of God's name if we call upon the Lord God in any way to support falseness or wrong-doing....In general, a wrong use is seen in the first place in worldly business and in things relating to money, possessions and honor....But its greatest abuse is found in spiritual matters when false preachers arise and present untruthful teachings as the Word of God.

Luther, however, goes on and tells us that there is a right use of the name of God:

Since it is here forbidden to use this holy name in the service of falsehood and wickedness, it necessarily follows that we are, on the other hand, commanded to use it in the service of truth and everything that is good....We are not to swear in support of evil, that is to a falsehood, or unnecessarily; but we are to swear in support of the good, and for the welfare of our neighbor.

These plain words have world historical importance. The wrong use or the right use of the name of God is a serious matter in the history of humanity. The wrong use of the name of God is bad theology, and the right use of the name of God is good theology. For Luther, the main antithesis is not between philosophy and theology; it is between good theology and bad theology, according to Gerhard Ebeling. (31)

The Chinese sage Confucius was not interested in the world beyond this present life. His concept of Heaven or the Cosmic Law is located within his understanding of human moral integrity. Human integrity is conclusive within this present world. There was no apocalypticism and no prophecy with him. The other great spiritual guide, Gautama Siddharta, the Buddha, focused on the tangible destruction of human greed during one's lifetime. One would find nirvana in the destruction of greed here and now. Mahatma Gandhi, a student of the Bhagavadgira, held that good is good, evil is evil, without making reference to the ultimate. It is called "desireless action," niskama karma. These three religious leaders held humanity responsible, here and now, for the destiny of the world and of humanity. Conspicuous with these great Eastern sages is the absence of the rhetoric of "enemy," though they clearly distinguished between good and evil. It may be that they thought enemy rhetoric is not helpful to the welfare of humanity. T he Buddhist admonition is that greed brings forth suffering; therefore "eliminate one's greed!" Notably, the tradition does not say "greed is our enemy" or speak of a "war on greed." Its speech is nonviolent. Asia's sages also preferred not to approach the idea of omnipotence or of a divine being, which would confuse the integrity of human moral endeavor. For them, sincere moral effort is not "boosting" oneself. (32)

The spirit of the West conceals a kind of frustration that seems to breed violence. Perhaps the frustration arises in the gap between knowing the omnipotent God and human inability to become omnipotent as God is. Equally it seems to come from knowing the merciful God yet being unable to be merciful as God is. Radical monotheism does not permit people to relax spiritually. The great museums of the world bear witness to the deep and extensive impact of the stormy monotheistic spirituality upon human civilization. The word "stormy" is advisedly used. The biblical religion infused into human minds that one can celebrate the destruction of the infidels (Exod 15:1-21,1 Kgs 18:40).

"How do I find a merciful God?" Luther struggled with this turbulent question. It would remain a foreign question for the Buddha and Confucius. But if, instead, we ask, "How do I find meaning in a meaningless world?" the Asian sages have much to say. (33)

In his exposition on Romans 4:7, Luther first develops the idea of Christians being "lust and sinner in the. same time." He compares this with a sick man who is well in trusting the doctor but is in fact sick. The man is both well and sick.

He is at the same time both a sinner and a righteous man (simul peccator et iustus); a sinner in fact, but a righteous man by the sure imputation and promise of God (peccator re vera, Sed lustus ex reputatione exprornissione Deicerto), that he will redeem him from sin until he heals him totally. (34)

This is a strong theology of trust in the promise of God. Lohse quotes Ebeling, who reads in the simul iustus simul peccator "the antithesis between the old and the new man, the 'age of the law' and the 'age of"' (35) If we were able to translate this to the language of moral development by self-discipline, then again the spiritual tradition of Asia has much to contribute. This type of translation poses a serious challenge to the contextualization of theology.

In Luther's Larger Catechism we read, "The confidence and faith of the heart make both God and an idol. If your faith and confidence are right, then likewise your God is the true God. On the other hand, if your confidence is false, then you have not the true God."

The quest after "the right mind" (the Buddhist samma ditthi, Pali) is a universal human concern. For the Buddha, the right mind is the mind free from greed. For Confucius, the right mind is the one that is harmonious with Heaven. The right mind discriminates between good and evil. In order to discriminate between the two, one must know about good and evil. Since good and evil come together in human experience, our moral and political judgment is historical and relative. Some such historical judgments become obsolete. Some become suddenly meaningful. Some remain vital for all time. As history changes, the framework of the "field of righteousness" (dhamaksetre, the Bhagavadgita) changes. One great moment of insight in history is found in the words of Jeremiah, "But seek the welfare of the city where I have sent you into exile; and pray to the Lord on its behalf, for in its welfare you will find your welfare" (Jer 29:7).

Jeremiah expresses, in such concise form and with great passion, the essence of the Reformation in a global context--that there is no individualism in salvation. We live only in the context of the human family and human unity. This planet is the Noah's ark on which all living beings live, all six billion of us. If the ark breaks down, we all perish. Good eschatology recognizes the mystery of unity of humanity on the basis of the mystery of Christ's lowliness. The gospel moves toward the creation of community, not toward division of the saved from the unsaved. We are admonished to pray and work for the welfare of the given community, whatever its religious orientation. For only in its welfare we will find our welfare.

This advice sets the world upside down (Acts 17:6). If followed, it will create ecological and ecumenical wholesomeness in our world. Jeremiah's advice will place us inside eucharistically created blessed space, the space of grace of the one who trusted in God "hope against hope." It is sound eschatology, since it expresses the spirit of "Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven."

We are called to participate in the creation of eucharistic shalom space for all people. This is the meaning of the name of Jesus Christ in the 21st century.

(1.) Martin Luther, Selections from His Writings, ed. John Dillenberger (Doubleday, 1961), 503.

(2.) For All the Peoples of Asia: Federation of Asian Bishops' Conferences. Documents from 1970 to 1991, ed. Gaudencio Rosales and C. G. Arevalo (Orbis, 1992), 342.

(3.) Martin Luther King Jr., "Letter from the Birmingham City Jail," 1963.

(4.) Georges Khodr, quoted in The Ecumenical Movement, An Anthology of Key Texts and Voices, ed. M. Kinnamon and B. E. Cope (Win. B. Eerdmans, 1997). 403.

(5.) Ibid., 84.

(6.) D. Senior and C. Stuhlmueller, The Biblical Foundations for Mission (Orbis, 1983), 340.

(7.) "It belongs to life's ambiguity that both qualities, the holy and the profane are always present in its structures." Paul Tillich, Systematic Theology m (University of Chicago Press, 1963): 94.

(8.) The words "ecological" and "ecumenical" derive from the New Testament Greek oikos, meaning "house." Both mean "good-house-keeping."

(9.) "In fact, in patristic theology the deification of man preserves the absolute transcendence of God and his absolute freedom: He gives us His own life. In receiving it, man does not 'possess' God, he does not become God in essence; he participates in that which is given to him and thanks God for His ineffable grace." John Meyendorff, Catholicity and the Church (St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1983), 73.

(10.) WCC News, Oct. 2002.

(11.) Dalit International Newsletter (Feb. 2002).

(12.) Martin Luther, The Heidelberg Theses, #21.

(13.) Title of a book written by Orthodox theologian John D. Zizioulas in 1993.

(14.) Zizioulas, Being as Communion (St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1993), 46.

(15.) "In war alone, the twentieth century saw the death of humans at an average of one hundred every hour." Donald W. Shriver, An Ethic for Enemies (Oxford University Press, 1995), 65. Also, "in the century just past, intelligence was coopted to the service of terror." Shriver, 'The Terror in Ourselves," in Surviving Terror: Hope and Justice in a World of Violence, ed. V. L. Erickson and M. L. Jones (Brazos Press, 2002), 106.

(16.) Shriver, An Ethic for Enemies, 65.

(17.) Bainton, Christian Attitudes toward War and Peace (Abingdon, 1960), 49.

(18.) Shriver, An Ethic for Enemies, 110.

(19.) The Local Church in a Global Era, ed. M. L. Stackhouse et al. (Wm. B. Eerdmans, 2000), 39.

(20.) Quoted in H. Richard Niebuhr, Christ and Culture (Harper and Row, 1951), 171. "The sword" belonged to the kingdom of the world; the business of the church was "the Word." Bernhard Lohse, Martin Luther's Theology (Fortress, 1999), 319.

(21.) Niebuhr, Christ and Culture, 171-72.

(22.) Water Brueggemann, Isaiah 40-66 (Westminster John Knox, 1998), 2.

(23.) Jaroslaw Pelikan, The Christian Tradition: Reformation of Church and Dogma (1300-1700) (University of Chicago Press, 1984), 166.

(24.) Operationes in Psalmos 1519-21. WA V. 84-39.

(25.) WA V. 204-26.

(26.) Pelikan, The Christian Tradition, 166.

(27.) WA V.84-93.

(28.) WA V. 512-26.

(29.) WA V. 108-9.

(30.) Luther "frequently refers also to Chrysostom's treatise On the Incomprehensibility of God." Meyendorff, Catholicity and the Church, 69.

(31.) Gerhard Ebeling, Luther: An Introduction to His Thought (Collins, 1970), 79.

(32.) See Paul Tillich, Systematic Theology I, 16.

(33.) Tillich, Systematic Theology III, 242.

(34.) Lohse, Martin Luther's Theology, 76.

(35.) Lohse, 24.
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Author:Koyama, Kosuke
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Date:Apr 1, 2003
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