Recycling Uhland: Brahms and the Wanderlieder.
That Brahms was especially drawn to Uhland's poetry in the 1850s is clear from his letter of 6 December 1855 to Clara Schumann: "Yesterday a lady sent me Uhland's poems, which I have wished for a long time, and for which I would willingly have given away all my lyric poets." (2) Besides revealing a remarkable fervor, this comment shows that Brahms did not own Uhland's collected poetry before this date, so his previous familiarity with it probably came through his schoo1work, (3) or through musical settings, anthologies of poetry, and volumes of Uhland's Gedichte borrowed from other people--such as the one still found today in Robert Schumann's library. (4) Appendix 1 ("Brahms's Uhland Settings") shows that, for purposes of musical composition, Brahms preferred Uhland's short lyric poems to the poet's more popular ballads and romances, and that he was especially attracted to the nine-poem Wanderliakr cycle. (5)
Uhland wrote the Wanderlieder poems between June of 1806 and November of 1811, without initially intending to create a cycle. (6) For publication, however, he arranged them in an order that suggests a loose narrative of parting, absence, and return. (7) Appendix 2 provides their texts, while appendix 3 summarizes their narrative, a literal reading of which presents a conundrum: since the Wanderer's Beloved dies in the fifth poem, "Nachtreise," how could he return to her in the ninth one? Perhaps we are to understand that she has not died literally, hut that her relationship with the Wanderer has grown cold.8 In any case, "Nach-treise" divides the narrative into two parts. In this poem the Wanderer returns to the garden from which he had departed, closing the first stage of his journey, and then, in despair over the loss of his love, sets out again. The last four poems could then be read as a journey from Civilization (the village) into Nature (the apple tree), where the Wanderer is healed of his depression and alienation. In the final poem, "Heimkehr," he resolves to rush back to his Beloved.
Our view of Uhland's Wanderlieder today is conditioned by its important role in the development of the song cycle--both poetic and musical--and by skepticism about the logic of its narrative. (9) The Wander-lieder were viewed quite differently, however, in the 1850s. To begin with, while Uhland's poems are largely forgotten today, anthologies of German poetry published for use in the home or in schools show that they enjoyed a remarkable popularity in the mid-nineteenth century. They are often the most numerous poems in these sources after those of Goethe and Schiller. (10) Uhland's poems provided a nostalgic evocation of an idealized German past for readers living in an increasingly industrialized and urbanized environment, and valorized straightforwardly the traditional qualities of courage, honor, and devotion to God, family, and country. (11) Above all, many were couched in the form and style of folk song, with all its patriotic associations. As the literary historian Julian Schmidt put it in 1855, "Uhland's Lieder, so modest in their content, belong to the most beloved possessions of the German people; perhaps for the very reason that he gave them nothing less than the sentiment and viewpoint of the people ringing in the highest purity." (12)
Some contemporaneous literary critics provided a view of the Wanderlieder's narrative. (13) In 1842 Heinrich Kurz described it as a cycle
in which the poet leads past before our eyes a whole drama full of movement and variety, from the separation ("Lebewohl," "Scheiden und Meiden") up to the happy return ("Heimkehr"). In these lieder. Uhland's ability to portray things successfully in small ways arid just as successfully to unfurl in connected images or thoughts a comprehensive picture, and to let a rich flood of feelings well up, is very evident. Often it is only suggestions that he gives, but these are so full of life that the fantasy and the feeling of the reader find ample nourishment. (14)
While Kurz acknowledged the subtlety of the Wanderlieder's narrative inferences, he insisted on their fundamental coherence, likening the cycle to a "whole drama." Similar comments by other literary critics suggest that this was a relatively common view of the Wanderliederat mid-century. (15)
In this context, the fragmentary presentation of the Wondertieder in a small number of poetry anthologies is noteworthy. In his Deutsches Lesebuch of 1840, Wilhelm WackernageI presented only "Morgenlied" and "Einkehr," but under the title "Wanderlieder," and in their proper order from the cycle. It would appear that, given the spatial constraints of an anthology, Wackernagel intended one poem describing the Wanderer's social alienation and another indicating his healing to represent the overall narrative. (16) In 1853 George Scherer's Deutsche Dichterwald presented five of the nine Wanderlieder poems: "Lebewohl," "In der Ferne," "Morgenlied," "Nachtreise.," and "Einkehr." This arrangement results in a narrative that is arguably more coherent than Uhland's original one: the consolation of "Einkehr" still follows "Nachtreise," but without what Helen Mustard called the "completely unmotivated happy return" in the omitted "Heimkehr." (17) Another kind of fragmentary presentation appears in Theodor Fontane's 1852 anthology, Deuisches Dichter-Album, in which three of Uhland's Wanderlieder poems are mixed together with three poems by Alfred Graf von Schlippenbach and Justinus Kerner. It is possible to read this grouping either as a simple collection of wanderer poems or as a composite cycle loosely based on Uhland's narrative, but with a redrawn story line, since the Wanderer never returns to his Beloved or his homeland. (18)
Composers sometimes worked with the Wanderlieder in a broadly analogous way: in an opus collection they might present some, but not all, of the Wanderlieder poems in their original order, thus accessing their narrative, but also include other poems that embellish, redirect, or reinterpret the narrative, as in the Neun Lieder, op. 6, by Constantin Decker.19 Here the first three Wanderlieder poems establish a couple's parting and separation. They are followed by two Uhland poems from outside the cycle. In the first one, "Lauf der Welt," a young man--one might imagine that he is the Wanderer on his journey--encounters a simple country girl who returns his affections straightforwardly and easily. In the following Uhland song, "Der Hirten Winterlied," a young shepherd laments that in winter his Beloved is always indoors with her parents, and he looks forward to summer, when she will be in his arms again. The following two lyrics, by an unidentified poet, sing of spring, and the two concluding ones, by August Kopisch, move into summer and celebrate love's delights. (20) So Decker began with a leave-taking and separation drawn directly from Uhland's famous cycle, but then redirected the original narrative into a new one that analogizes the progression of the seasons to the blossoming of new love in the countryside.
It is impossible to know how much of this kind of music Brahms encountered in his youth, but it is reasonable to think that in the mid-1850s he was familiar with the Hamburg composer Carl Gradener's Acht vierstimmige Lieder fur gemischten Chor, op. 8, one of Gradener's most popular works. (21) Gradener organized the eight choral songs into two books, with book 1 consisting of the first four of Uhland's Wanderlieder poems. The second book contains "Irrwischsang" by the minor poet Wilhelm Viktor Christian Pfeiffer, (22) "Heimweh," which Gradener indicated to be a Nordish folk song, (23) and "Schwert," by Uhland. Gradener closed with Uhland's fifth Wanderlieder poem, "Nachtreise," thereby taking the Wanderer's "first journey" as a narrative framework that he embellished by the interpolation of three new poems. Appendix 4 provides their texts. With Pheiffer's "Irrwischsang," Gradener added a whimsical dash of spookiness to the Wanderer's journey; in German folklore, "will-o-the-wisps" were thought to tempt lonely travelers into the bogs, from which they would never return. "Heimweh" describes heartsick wandering through a bitter winter landscape. "Schwert" serves as an emotional turning point, much as "Einkehr" does in the VVanderlieder cycle. In this short Uhland lyric, a youth marshals his strength of character to overcome physical weakness. However, by ending his cycle with "Nachtreise," Gradener implied that not even the Wanderer's arduous journey and his overcoming of adversity could thwart depression and loss. A contrast with the fundamentally optimistic outcome of Uhland's cycle could hardly be more starkly drawn. (24)
Gradener's part-songs are contrapuntally quite elegant, the melodic writing simple but attractive. The tightly organized key scheme of the first book, B major--E minor--G major--B major, is typical of cyclic collections. Moreover, the first-book songs are connected by attacca beginnings, and figure 1 reveals a clear melodic reference to the opening of "In der Ferne" (la) in mm. 7 and 8 of "Morgenlied" in the alto voice (1b). Then in mm. 21-26 (lc), two further statements of the same melodic idea in the soprano are fused with the rhythm of "Morgenlied's" headmotive. The songs' shared meter and tempo facilitate these melodic connections, and the placement of the second allusion at the point of rounding in the binary form after a preparatory half cadence and fermata makes it especially prominent. The allusions appear to be textually motivated', the opening of "In der Ferne" (in a far-away place) is recalled when, in "Morgenlied," the Wanderer sings, "Ich hab' mich langst in's Feld gemacht" (I've risen early and gone out into the field). So in book 1 Gradener employed several compositional devices commonly associated with cyclic writing, including thematic recall.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
The key scheme of the second book, E minor/major/minor--E minor--G major--F-sharp minor, is tightly organized until the end, where the tonal relationship between the penultimate song and the last one is startling. (Perhaps Gradener intended this tonal rupture to reflect the unexpected pessimistic turn in the narrative.) There are no attacca connections or melodic allusions between songs in the second book.25 Still, Gradener's opus 8 as a whole projects a coherent narrative and contains notable cyclic characteristics. Indeed, it achieves its surprising, even shocking effect partly because its narrative contrasts so sharply with the one in Uhland's famous cycle. Thus, Gradener substantially transforms Uhland's narrative, yet also depends on it as an antecedent.
And now we turn to Brahms, whose earliest known song from Lihland's Wanderlieder, a setting of "Heimkehr," dates from May of 1851.26 He published it some three years later at the end of his opus 7, a collection that, as Ludwig Finscher has noted, elaborates the theme of the lonely maiden.27 Appendix 5 provides the texts. Although the collection is not harmonically closed, the predominance of E and A tonics in the interior songs provides more than enough tonal coherence to enhance the thematic connectedness of the texts. (28)
The pervasive sense of gloom that hangs over the collection was noted by its first reviewer, Brahms's friend Adolf Schubring, who connected the somber mood of the songs to Brahms's own depression:
The third book of lieder, Op. 7, is .a true mirror of the dark mood that [Brahms] had fallen into towards the end of 1854. "Wounds will await him on his path through the world," Robert Schumann had indeed prophesied about him. The chosen texts and the music set to them compete with each other in gloominess and grief. "I sit there in sorrow, it is an evil, hard time," "If only I could go out into the world, Because to me it is not pleasing here." Even where the texts, as in No. 2, and particularly in the last verse ["Greet him for me a thousand times!"], called for a happier interpretation, Brahms was not able to get his dark mood under control. Both of the songlike ballads Nos. 1 and 2 still stand on the heights of the earlier volumes (one cannot Fail to notice the beautiful play of the waves on page 4!); but the last four numbers are mere mood pictures, painted in the darkest colors, or even more, simple sketches, such its those a brilliant artist dashes oil all at once--in order then to leave them unfinished in the portfolio. in the last number. which is kept much too short for the great conceptions "0 break not, bridge.. 1-leaven do not give way," the ill humor intensifies to rage and finds in this its healing. (29)
So from the beginning of the work's interpretation history, there was a tendency to view the somber mood of opus 7 in autobiographical terms. Schubring's chronological orientation--"the end of 1854"--seems strange, however, because he suspected that some of the songs originated well before that year. In an earlier installment of the article, he had noted, after presenting a list of Brahms's first eighteen opera: "Robert Schumann, as he wrote the testimonial to Brahms [i.e., 'Neue Bahnen'] appears--on grounds that would lead too far astray to recount here--to have known, of the above enumerated works, only Op. 1-6 and perhaps individual pieces from Op. 7 and Op. 10." (30) So Schubring must have believed that opus 7 reflected Brahms's state of mind when he organized the collection for publication, rather than when he composed the individual songs. Since opus 7 appeared in print in November of 1854, Schubring seems to assume that Brahms assembled it "towards the end" of that year. But Brahms actually did so in April or May of 1854, so we will be concerned with his feelings then.
Like .composers such as Decker and Gradener, when Brahms incorporated poems from Uhland's Wandetheder into an opus collection, he kept their order and position the same as in Uhland's cycle, thereby inviting traces of its narrative to be recalled by listeners. Accordingly, he placed "Heimkehr" at the end of opus. 7. In the Wandedieder, this poem counters the weight of depression, isolation, and longing with an energetic affirmation of the power of love and devotion as the Wanderer hastens back to his Beloved. "Heimkehr" functions similarly in opus 7, dispelling the gloom of the first five songs with its insistence that a comforter is coming--a lover-hero who will bring relief to the suffering maidens. Finscher put it wryly and succinctly--"Damsels in distress--but the rescuing hero comes" (31)--while Schubring's reading imputed a cathartic aspect to "Heimkehr" by focusing on its "healing" function. But whatever the nuances of interpretation might be, "Heimkehr" transforms opus 7 from an anthology into a narrative through the associative power of its original function in Uhland's cycle. Without "Heimkehr," we would merely have a collection of laments. (32)
Opus 7 does have autobiographical resonances, though in my view somewhat different ones than Schubring described. Brahms assembled the collection two or three months after Robert Schumann's suicide attempt on 27 February 1854 and his subsequent removal to an asylum at Endenich--that is, during the first bloom of Brahms's love for Clara Schumann. (33) At the beginning of Robert's confinement, the doctors ordered that she should have no communication with him at al1. (34) So the woman Brahms came to know in that spring and summer was filled with grief, fear, and uncertainty, consumed by thoughts of the husband that fate had taken from her, by doubts about whether he any longer thought of her, and by the ever-present question of when, or whether, he would return. Her state of mind was reflected in her diary: From 20 March: "News from Dr. Peters (assistant to Dr. Richarz), that Robert's condition on the whole is somewhat better than in the beginning, hut that the agitation still often recurs, where he goes back and forth restlessly in the room .and sometimes also kneels down and wrings his hands. ... I wept the whole day today! Sometimes I have no more tears whatsoever, yet then weep again without ceasing." (35) From 31 March:
Brahms and Grimm have been in Endenich and have inquired with the doctor about Robert themselves. He was significantly calmer and very much longed for flowers, which he always had had in Dusseldorf. Ah! I was so upset again by this, since I thought: if he thought of the flowers he had here, shouldn't he also have thought of me? And why did he then never ask about me? Why did he never long for news of me? Or did he keep the longing to himself? How dreadful then! What does he suffer then? Ah! When all these thoughts come over me, how horrible it is! April. A new month! How many will dawn before I see him again? 0 God, have pity on me. I am afraid I will drown in the pain. (36)
From 16 April: "I feel pretty unwell, cannot at all sleep through the nights, but when I sleep, I dream so unceasingly about Robert; this evening I again and again heard him sighing, so naturally, that I had to look towards his bed in order to convince myself that it was not him." (37) Opus 7, with its persistent references to abandoned, suffering women, is really about Clara. The Ferrand and Eichendorff texts reflect poetically her immediate situation in that spring and summer. While the following three songs do not so closely fit her outward circumstances, they express the thoughts of isolation, depression, and loss that filled her days and nights. By placing "Heimkehr" after these poems, Brahms connected Clara's experience to the narrative of Uhland's Wanderlieder--but with the focus on the abandoned Beloved rather than the Wanderer.
On learning of Robert's suicide attempt, Brahms had rushed from Hanover, where he was staying with Joseph Joachim, to the Schumanns' home in Dusseldorf, arriving on 3 March. He remained there for much of the next three years to provide whatever aid and comfort he could to Clara. If she was the "damsel in distress," Brahms was, in real life, the rescuing hero who came to her aid. There were others--especially the little clutch of young composers who had gathered around Schumann in the months before the catastrophe, and who would later come to call each other "1854ers": Albert Dietrich was in Dusseldorf on the day Schumann leapt into the Rhine; Joseph Joachim arrived on 6 March; and Julius Otto Grimm on the 8th. But it was Brahms who stayed by Clara as the others returned to their professional obligations, and it was Brahms who brought her the deepest comfort. On 1 April she noted: "The good Brahms shows himself ever more truly to be a deeply feeling friend. He doesn't say this very much outwardly, but one sees it in his features, in his speaking eyes, as he grieves with me over the beloved one, whom he indeed so deeply admires." (38) The love that grew between Brahms and Clara has been chronicled many times and need not be rehearsed here, but the chronology of Brahms's love for her is relevant. Brahms revealed his feelings for Clara openly to Joachim in a letter of 19 June 1854:
I believe that I do not have more concern and admiration for her than I love her and am under her .spell. I often have to restrain myself forcibly from just quietly putting my arms around her and even--I don't know. It seems to me so natural that she could not misunderstand. I think I can no longer love an unmarried girl--at least I have quite forgotten about them. They but promise heaven, while Clara shows it revealed to us. (39)
Brahms penned these lines only a month after he submitted opus 7, along with the Trio, op. 8, to Breitkopf & Hartel on 19 May. (40) In this context, it is important to note that in Uhland's cycle the Wanderer was no mere chivalrous protector, but the maiden's Beloved. So to the extent that he identified with Uhland's protagonist, Brahms would have enlarged his poetic identity from rescuer to lover. Viewed in this light, the act of placing "Hcimkehr" at the end of opus 7 may have represented for Brahms a private confession of his feelings for Clara, expressed, characteristically, through music, and hidden discreetly in the narrative connections between his song collection and Uhland's Wanderlieder cycle.
This reading of opus 7 needs to he problematized, however. One must stop and ask the question: how is it that Brahms was able to put together an opus collection in which many commentators have sensed a certain intangible coherence using songs that he already had on hand--indeed, songs he had composed at different times over a period of several years? (See the dates of composition in appendix 5.) For while the act of assembling opus 7 in the spring or early summer of 1854 was part of Brahms's compositional process, it strains credulity to imagine that he had composed the individual songs with that particular outcome in mind.
The interconnectedness of the opus 7 poems and the coherence of the collection as a whole can be explained to some degree by the fact that all of the songs except "Heimkehr" fall into closely linked pairs. "Treue Liebe" and "Parole" were both composed in November of 1852. Though written by different authors, these poems exhibit a remarkable number of organizational parallels. Both begin by situating a maiden in a scene: "A maiden sat at the seashore ..."/"She stood in the arch of the window. ..." Then the description of a simple action communicates. her state of mind: "And gazed, filled with longing, into the distance ..."/"And sadly braided her hair ..." Now we hear of her plight: "What has happened to you, my dearest, why do you linger so long? ..."/"The hunter was gone forth, The hunter was her beloved ..." In the second stanza of each poem, there is a passing of time: "The evening drew near, the sun sank ..."/"And when the spring arrived. ..." The maidens. seek some sign of their far-away lovers: "In vain my gaze keeps watch in the distance ..."/"She put her ear to the sod, And heard the sound of distant hooves. ..." Finally, one is drawn to be with her Beloved in death, the other reassured that he is alive. Brahms's pairing of these songs in opus 7 probably reflected both their structural parallels and their contrasting tropes on the "lonely maiden" theme: one ends in tragedy, the other in hope, the wrenching poles of Clara's emotional conflict.
As Finscher has pointed out, the two Eichendorff poems, "Parole" and "Anklange," also form a pair, in spite of the fact that they were composed in November of 1852 and March of 1853 respectively. Finscher notes that this was the first time Brahms placed two songs by the same poet consecutively in an opus collection, and that both poems originated in Eichendorff's novels and only later were transferred to his collected poems. He also suggests that Brahms's settings were influenced by the poems' original novelistic contexts. (41) The pairing of two lyrics by the same poet provides opus 7 with a certain degree of coherence merely through the continuity of authorial voice. Moreover, since Brahms, while seemingly aware of the poems' novelistic origins, drew on Eichendorirs collected works for the text of "Anklange," then it may be relevant that in that source the title was given collectively to a group of three numbered poems, i.e., the text Brahms called "Anklange" was simply titled by the number "2," since it was the second poem in this group. (42) This very short, disturbing lyric follows the longer and more dramatic "Parole" in Brahms's collection much as it follows, in Eichendorff's collected poems, "Liebe, wunderschones Leben," which poses the question: "Love, you exquisite life,/Do you want to seduce me again?" and answers with a resounding "Yes." Like "Parole," it is a poem that begins in loneliness but ends in hope. So "Anklange's" position in opus 7 might have been suggested to Brahms by a similar treatment initiated by the poet himself. Moreover, "Anklange" functions as a turning point in our perception of opus 7 as a whole. After the initial song pair, we arrive at "Anklange" poised between death and hope. In this context, "Anklange" is deeply disturbing, for its maiden quietly spins a wedding dress we sense she will never wear." The poem has a similar function in Eichendorff's works, where the following lyric, "Jagdlied," makes it clear that the new love hoped for in "Liebe, wunderschones Leben" will never bloom. More ominously, those who were familiar with "Anklange's" original appearance at the beginning of a long ballad in Eichendorff's novel Ahnung und Gegenwart would know that there the maiden was destined to be murdered by the ghost of her lover. There is an uncomfortable parallel between this scenario and Clara Schumann's situation, in that she was kept strictly away from Robert after his suicide attempt partly out of fear for her personal safety. In "Anklinge" the linkage between Clara's isolation and her vulnerability is palpable.
"Volkslied" and "Die Trauernde" form a pair not only because they were composed within a span of two days (4-5 August 1852), but also because they fall close together in Brahms's source for both texts, Georg Scherer's Deutsche Volkslieder. (44) Like many anthologists, Scherer organized his volume according to topics. These texts appear in a section devoted to poems about loneliness and loss that speak of portentous dreams, funeral roses, churchyards, graves, prayer, and grieving, elements that belonged by tradition to mourning songs. The recurring words and images have the effect of binding together the poems in this part of Scherer's anthology even though there is no suggestion of narrative continuity. Of the eight poems in this section, the last four form a subgroup of dialect poems. "Volkslied" and "Die Trauernde" are the two shortest of these. So Brahms's organization of the five deserted-maiden poems in opus 7 mirrors that of Scherer's topical section in that a group of dialect poems follows a group of hochdeutsch lyrics. Both collections mix together some poems that treat of absent lovers with others that express the keener pain of separation by death. Scherer presents, however, a genuine miscellany, whereas in opus 7. Brahms's pairings of poems provides the collection with an enhanced sense of structure and coherence. The intensity of opus 7 increases as the poems become shorter and starker, beginning with "Anklange" and continuing with the song pair from Scherer's anthology. By the end of "Die Trauernde," stillness reigns. So Brahms shaped his collection in such a way that the rescuing hero could burst onto the scene in the most dramatic possible way. As figure 2 shows, his youthful setting of "Heitnkehr" was perfectly suited to the task. In the piano introduction, the crescendo from p to ff, the rapid textural expansion, the harmonic tension created by the omnibus progression in m. 3, the chromatically descending bass, the ritardando in m. 4, the prolonged dominant in mm. 4 and 5, the fermatas over the following rests--all combine to create the effect that something portent nous is about to follow. Indeed, the introduction is more like that of a heroic operatic aria than a lied comprising a single strophe. To our modern ears, it might all seem a little overwrought, but to a young man newly in love, it would have been a deeply satisfying way to proclaim the strength of his secret devotion.
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
In 1858, Brahms set two more of Uhland's Wanderlieder texts, "Scheiden und Meiden" and "In der Ferne." Once again, he kept their order and position the same as in Uhland's original cycle when he published them as the second and third songs in his Rini Gedichte, op. 19. They are preceded by "Der Kuss," by Ludwig Holty, as rewritten by Johann Heinrich Voss, (45) and followed by "Der Schmied," by Uhland, and "An eine Aeolsharfe," by Eduard Morike. Appendix 6 provides the texts.
By beginning with Holty's "Der Kuss," Brahms subtly strengthened his collection's ties to Uhland's Wanderlieder, in which the first poem, "Lebewohl," also centers around a kiss. (46) "Lebewohr is filled with ambiguities. We never learn why the Wanderer must leave in such haste. He asks his Beloved to pluck a blossom for him--like a kiss, symbolic of a pledge of love--but the moral frame is one of propriety: he wishes no fruit. connoting sexual ripeness, to be plucked for him. By contrast, "Der Kuss" is intense, direct, and passionate. In it a young man, initially focused on dalliance, discovers that a single kiss has aroused in him an unexpected flood of desire. He begs not for a kiss, but for some cooling relief from the passion aroused by the one he has received. Despite these significant distinctions, the narrative functions of the two poems are similar: (47) Both communicate the fervor of a young man's entreaty; there is a sense of urgency; everything turns on the meaning of a kiss.
In "Scheiden und Meiden" and "In der Ferne," we encounter one of Brahms's musically connected song pairs. (48) In this instance, both songs begin with the same melody and piano figuration. (49) But beyond their common openings, figures 3a and 31) show that "In der Ferne" is actually a thoroughgoing recomposition of "Scheiden und Meiden." Motive A functions as a "headmotive" or phrase in both songs, since it always initiates a poetic stanza. Motive B could be called a "closing motive" or phrase; except for the last verses of the two stanzas in "Scheiden und Meiden," it always completes a syntactical unit of the poetry (i.e., points of strong punctuational closure--the second verse of both stanzas of "Scheiden und Meiden," and the second and Filth verses in both stanzas of "In der Ferne"). The interior motives. C and D, both of which elaborate the interval of a third, have more complex functions. In "Scheiden und Meiden" the descending-third motive in the piano in mm. 7-8 first appears as a cadential figure that Brahms then uses to initiate the following vocal entrance on the third verse of text. This "link technique," in which a cadence motive is used to begin the subsequent phrase, is a common device for Brahms. (50) But despite its initiating function in mm. 8-9, this motive continues to be associated with cadences, both at the end of "Scheiden und Meiden" (mm. 19-20) and, in inverted form, in mm. 9-12 and 44-45 of "In der Ferne." This means that motive C is found at the same point in the poetic stanzas of both songs, i.e., separating the end of the second verse from the beginning of third verse in each stanza. It is interesting that the thirds are inverted in the second song, perhaps indicating that Brahms did not wish to make the correspondences between the songs too obvious, or perhaps as a subtle response to the second song's somewhat more hopeful character. Motive D first appears in m. 13 of "Scheiden und Meiden." It is distinct from the "cadential" thirds discussed above partly because it is filled-in stepwise, but more essentially because it is initiated from the downbeat in the measure rather than the upbeat. Since it ends on a weak metric position, demanding continuation, it has the effect of "launching" the following phrase. In "In der Ferne," motive D launches both the third and fourth verses in each stanza, but there is a distinction between the two. In the fourth verse, the "launching" third continues on a downward trajectory (mm. 21-22) just as it had at the concomitant point in the form in "Scheiden und Meiden" (mm. 13-14). But in the third verse, the "launching" third is repeated at the same pitch level (mm. 13-14 of "In der Ferne"), just as the "cadential" thirds had done in initiating the third verse of "Scheiden und Meiden" (mm. 8-10). This suggests that the "launching" thirds, though distinct from the "cadential" thirds in surface rhythm, continue to be related to them through the link technique that motivated their original appearance in "Scheiden und Meiden."
[FIGURE 3a OMITTED]
[FIGURE 3b OMITTED]
From this survey we see .that Brahms created "In der Ferne" by stretching out the motivic material of "Scheiden und Meiden" .over the longer verses and stanzas of "In der Ferne," a process simultaneously of motivic development and melodic adaptation to a new text. Moreover, the connections between the songs can be viewed as a more sophisticated treatment of the ones that bind together "In der Ferne" and "Morgenlied" in Gradener's opus 8, where consecutive songs are joined by common meter, tempo, and melodic ideas, and the melodic material shared between the songs is recast rhythmically.
There are other broad similarities between Griidener's collection and Brahms's opus 19. As in Gradener's opus 8, Brahms incorporated poems from the Wanderhaler as the core of his collection and expanded this core with another Uhland lyric--providing a certain unity of poetic voice--as well as poems by other authors. Like the songs in Gradener's book 1, the first four songs of opus 19 exhibit close key relationships within a tonally closed system: B-flat major--D minor--D minor/major--B-flat major. The argument that Brahms formed this key scheme deliberately while assembling the opus collection is supported by a manuscript, dated "Oktober 58" in Brahms's hand, that contains only the song-pair "Scheiden und Meiden" and "In der Ferne," which for convenience I will refer to as the Dermota manuscript. (51) In this source, both songs have a tonic of E, as shown in figures 4a and 4b. So Brahms transposed the songs down a major second for publication, perhaps to lower the vocal tessitura, but also, it would seem, to create close tonal connections to the neighboring songs in opus 19. The Derinota manuscript also shows that "In der Ferne" was originally marked Con moto rather than Eistesso tempo. So at some point Brahms linked the tempos of the two songs together in the same way Gradener did with "In der Ferne" and "Morgenlied." Most importantly, Brahms and Gradener's works share the idea of "recycling" Uhland's Wanderlieder--accessing their narrative by incorporating some of the poems in their original cyclic order and position, while also introducing new texts that inflect the meaning of the whole.
The first four songs of opus 19 also exist in a unified manuscript that is found in the Moravian Museum in Brno. (52) A peculiarity of this manuscript is that its title page lists the fifth song, Morike's "An eine Aeols-harfe," yet only the first four songs are actually contained within it. This apparent anomaly led Zdenek Nouza to speculate that the Marike song had at one time been included in the manuscript, but had somehow become separated from it. (53) It seems to me, however, that the title page was simply intended to communicate the title of the opus collection and the publication order of the songs within it to the publisher, Peter Joseph Simrock, since both the unpaginated Brno manuscript and an independently paginated Abschnft containing only "An eine Aeolsharfe" were used as Stichvorlage for the first edition. Therefore from the outset Simrock most likely received the fifth song of opus 19 separated from the first four. (54) It was unusual for Brahms to provide his publishers with even a partially unified manuscript of a song-collection opus. More commonly he submitted individual song manuscripts and indicated the order in which they were to appear in print. Brahms probably prepared a partially unified manuscript in this case because he had to recopy the second and third of the opus 19 songs in a new key. (55) This is strongly suggested by a detail of the Brno manuscript which indicates that Brahms copied "In der Ferne," from a source in E minor. On beat 1 in m. 41, he wrote A# in the bass rather than G#. A# would be an obvious error in D minor, but would have been the correct bass tone in E minor. This suggests that the song-pair remained in E minor until Brahms prepared the Brno manuscript. The clear ordering of the songs presented on its title page in turn suggests that Brahms prepared the Brno manuscript only after having decided on the publication order of the songs in opus 19.
[TABLE 4a-b OMITTED]
The literal recalling of the opening of "Scheiden und Meiden" at the beginning of "In der Ferne" was a very unusual procedure, and questions remain about what Brahms intended by it. (56) There does not seem to be any particular textual motivation for Brahms's allusion. (57) Moreover, since the two Uhland poems are not in the same meter, Brahms had to go out of his way to link them melodically; indeed, "In der Ferne" recalls "Scheiden und Meiden's" opening perhaps a little awkwardly, with its repetition of the rising-fifth motive in mm. 2 and 3. The wide-leaping theme, already vocally challenging, becomes even more so. (58) As it turns out, a plausible reason for this unusual thematic recall lies in the biographical realm.
All the opus 19 songs except "Der Schmied" originated during Brahms's romance with Agathe von Siebold in Gottingen during the summer and fall of 1858. Because Brahms exchanged rings with Agathe and then withdrew from his commitment, most of the documentary evidence of their relationship was destroyed--including any letters they might have passed back and forth through their mutual friends, Julius Otto Grimm, and his wife Philipine. Some traces of the relationship have come down to us, however, in short reminiscences Agathe wrote much later in life for her children. (59) These reminiscences also show that she had spent a lot of time with Joseph Joachim during his visit to Gottingen the previous summer, and had become quite friendly with him. (60)
So Agathe was close to her teacher, Grimm, to Joachim, and to Brahms--that is, to three of the young composers who had clustered around Robert Schumann in the early 1850s. Since she was also by all accounts a rather capable musician--a pianist of some ability as well as an excellent singer--one might expect her to be familiar with the occasional use within that circle of musical motives based on the letters in words. (61) It is of great interest, then, that the Dermota manuscript gives "Scheiden und Meiden" and "In der Ferne" in E, since in that key the vocal motive that so conspicuously begins both songs spells out the letters E-H-E, or Ehe, the German for "marriage." (62) (Comparison of figs. 3a and 3b with figs. 4a and 4b shows that the anacrusis of this motive was unstable, but the essential crux remained undisturbed.) Whatever other reasons Brahms may have had for connecting the songs melodically, he effectively set the cipher in sharp relief by that means. (63) The manuscript is dated three months before Brahms and Agathe exchanged rings in January of 1859. Brahms prepared it during a four-month absence from her while he was employed as a court musician in Detmold. Was this his first hint of a proposal? It would be like Brahms to make his intentions known through music, and somewhat cryptically.
This interpretation resonates with a comment in Brahms's letter to the Grimms with which the songs were enclosed: "I shall not write for a couple of weeks. You people owe me a reply and this (the music too) is yet again a letter. Greet Agathe for me. I enclose a few songs for her, that--[in] one of them--well, and with it, I wished, well--in brief, [speak] very politely for me." (64) Styra Avins notes that "one cannot translate this halting embarrassment without guessing. What is certain is that Brahms couldn't bring himself to write what he meant." In light of the E-H-E references in the Uhland song pair, and in light of Brahms's emphasis that the music was also a letter, it is perfectly understandable why he wrote so obscurely to the Grimms. The coded message demanded concealment. But it seems to me that Grimm, who also saw the songs, may have taken in their full meaning. He replied to Brahms: "But the pair of Uhland songs have had such a strong effect on me and so filled my heart that in this moment there is not much of a place for the Brautlied; the word as well as the melody in the songs is too affecting to allow one to enter calmly into the blessed house." (65) This enigmatic expression refers to the text of a Brautgesang that Brahms had sent to Agathe either at the same time or close in time to the Uhland song pair--another hint at marriage. (66) Its text, also by Uhland, celebrated in glowing sexual imagery the richness of a house that has received a lovely bride. (67) If, by "the word as well as the melody" Grimm meant to refer especially to the song pair's extraordinary shared openings, as seems likely, then he may have been letting Brahms know that he had understood the cipher, and was much affected by it. (68)
All these considerations play into our interpretation of opus 19 as a song collection. "Der Kuss," connotes the passionate first blooming of romance. "Scheiden und Meiden" and "In der Ferne," with their secret hint at marriage, take on a markedly more optimistic outlook than they do in Uhland's cycle that is reflected musically by "In der Ferne's" decisive turn to. D major, increasingly animated piano figuration, and doke performance rubric. "Der Schmied" portrays a sexually charged relationship; when the blacksmith's Beloved draws near, the bellows blow--one can hardly imagine a more potent phallic metaphor--and his desire for her flames up. It is with this exuberant, virile song that the key of B flat--the key of "Der Kuss"--returns. (69)
It is more than a little ironic that the first four songs of opus 19 trace a confident, passionate relationship with the narrative of the Wanderlieder standing in the background; after all, Uhland's Wanderer had to flee from his Beloved and come to himself through the experiences of his journey in order ultimately to return and embrace her. In far-away Detmold, Brahms tried to live out the Wanderer's role. Even though ultimately he could not do so, when he wrote these songs, and later when he selected and ordered them for publication, one doubts that the parallels between his real-life situation and that of Uhland's Wanderer were lost on him. What is perplexing about this collection, however, is how its last song, Morike's "An eine Aeolsharfe," seems separated from the first four. Its key of A-flat major lies outside their tight key scheme, the change of poetic voice after the three Uhland lyrics is disorienting, and the implied narrative of the first four songs simply breaks off. (70) But knowing the care with which Brahms assembled his songs for publication, we must consider what his placement of Morike's poem at the end of the collection might mean.
When we view opus 19 as a whole, a symmetrical structure emerges in which the three Uhland poems, with their simple, rhymed strophes and connotations of German folk song, are flanked by two sophisticated, unrhymed lyrics with verses based on the complex metrical patterns of the ancient Greek odes. (71) "Der Kuss" is in the form of an asclepiadic ode, much favored by Holty. Morike's "An eine Aeolsharfe," though written in free verse, betrays the influence of the odes of Horace. (72) Most importantly, in Morike's works it bears an epigram taken from the ninth ode in Horace's second book: "But you persist with endless lamentation/Over Mystes farewell; neither when Hesperus/rises do you leave off your longing,/nor when he flees the almighty power of the sun." (73) In the ancient world, Hesperus was the evening star, so Horace is speaking here of one who grieves day and night because of some great loss. Horace's ode critiqued this behavior: one must at some point leave off grieving and move on with life. (74)
One can scarcely countenance that Brahms would have set "An eine Aeolsharfe" to music without knowing the meaning of its epigram. (75) When we consider Brahms's placement of this song at the end of opus 19 in this light, the likelihood arises that he intended it as an acknowledgement of his continuing grief over his lost relationship with Agathe. We know it took Brahms a long time to get over her from his letter to Grimm in the summer of 1864, a full five and a half years after he last saw her: "... dip a pen in at once and let me know what it looks like in all the houses that one would so much want to go to. Write to me also of that house and that garden by the gate," meaning Agathe's house, and the garden where Brahms must have courted her. (76) It was also in 1864, more than a year after opus 19 appeared in print, that Brahms memorialized Agathe's name in the notes of the first movement of his String Sextet, op. 36 (AGA(t)HE, in mm. 162-68). (77) Viewed in this light, the "break" that "An eine Aeolsharfe" creates in opus 19 constitutes a shift in perspective from the narrative to the reflective. (78) The song stands outside the story of the remembered relationship traced in the first four songs and reflects back on it with deep regret. It can be read as an acknowledgement of Brahms's sadness and his struggle to move on. So in the end, opus 19 presents itself as a remarkably coherent whole suffused with deeply felt autobiographical resonance. (79)
It has by now become clear that the way Brahms used Uhland's Wander-lieder poems bears on the issue of "cyclic tendencies" in his song collections, something that has been much discussed in Brahms scholarship. (80) The two song opera considered here are special cases, since both gain in meaning by borrowing narrative inferences from a famous pre-existing poetic cycle. This kind of "recycling" of Uhland's Wanderlieder was far from uncommon among composers and even a handful of literary anthologists. So Brahms was hardly being innovative. On the contrary, he was contributing to what was arguably an established tradition of Uhland reception. In the process, Brahms invoked Uhland's "whole drama" of parting, absence, and return to express in music things he could not bring himself to say in words about the two great loves of his young manhood.
APPENDIX 1: BRAHMS'S UHLAND SETTINGS Title Composed Published "Heimkehr" (no. 9 of May 1851 Nov. 1854 as op. 7, Wanderlieder in Uhland's no. 6 Gedichte) "Scheiden und Meiden" (no. 2 of Oct. 1858 March 1862 as op. 19, Wanderlieder im Uhland's no. 2 Gedichte) "In der Feme" (no. 3 of Oct. 1858 March 1862 as op. 19. Wanderlieder in Uhland's no. 3 Gedichte) "Der Schmied" (from Uhland's May 1859 March 1862 as op. 19, Gedichte) no. 4 "Derjager" (no. 338 in Uhland. Summer Oct. 1K62 as op. 22. eel., Alle hoch- und 1859 no. 4 niederdeutsche Volkslieder) "Ruf zur Maria" (no. 346 in Summer Oct. 1862 as op. 22. Uhland, ed., Alle hoch und 1859 no. 5 niederdeutsche Volkslieder) "Magdalena" (no. 322 in Uhland. Summer Oct. 1862 as op. 22. ed., Alte hoch- und 1859 no. 6 niederdeutsche Volkslieder) "Ich schwing mein Horn" (no. Before Nov. 1867 as op. 41, 179 in Uhland, ed., Me limit- 1860 no. 1 and niederdeutsche Volkslieder) "Das Lied vom Herrn von Fall 1857? Falkenstein" (2d strophe from Title no. 124 in Uhland. ed., Alle hoch- und niederdeutsche Volkslieder) "Die Nonne" (from L'hland's 1859-60? Oct 1866 as op. 44. Gedichte) no. 6 "Die Marznachi" (from Uhland's 1859-60? Oct. 1866 as op. 44. Gedichte) no. 12 "Sonntag" (no. 63 in Uhland. 1859? Oct. 1868 as op. 47, ed., Alle hoch- und no. 3 niederdeutsche Volkslieder) "Hiantgesang" (from Uhland's Fall 1858 Unpublished, bin Gedichte) melodv used in 6 8 section of Brahms's song "Von ewiger Liebe," op. 43, no. 1 "Wann hort der Himmel anf zu Before 1927. Brahms's strafen" (album entry recorded 1881 Samtliche Werke, Bd. in Friedrich Notter, Ludwig 21. Uhland: Sein Lehen und seine Dichtungen, p. 226)
APPENDIX 2: LUDWIG UHLAND, WANDERLLEDER *
Lebe wohl, lebe wohl, mein Lieb!
Muss noch heute scheiden.
Linen Ku[beta], einen Ku[beta] mir gieb!
Mu[beta] dich ewig meiden.
Eine eine Bluth' mir brich,
Von dem Baum im Garten!
Keine Frucht, keine Frucht fur mich!
Darf sie nicht erwarten.
2. Scheiden und Meiden
So soil ich nun dich meiden,
Du meines Lebens Lust!
Du kussest mich zum Scheiden,
Leh drucke dich an die Brust.
Ach, Liebchen, hei[beta]t das meiden,
Wenn man sich herzt und ku[beta]t?
Ach, Liebchen! hei[beta]t das scheiden,
Wenn man sich fest umschlieBt?
3. In der Ferne
Will ruhen tinter den Baumen hier,
Die Voglein ich so gerne.
Wie singet ihr so zum Her zen .mir!
Von unsrer Liebe was wisset ihr
In dieser weiten Ferne?
Will ruhen hier an des Baches Rand,
Wo duftige Blumlein sprie[beta]en.
Wer hat euch, Bitimlein, hieher gesandt?
Seyd ihr em n herzliches Liebespfand
Aus der Ferne von meiner SiiBen?
Noch ahnt man kaum der Sonne Licht,
Noch sind die Morgenglocken nicht
Im finstern Thal erklungen.
Wie still des Waldes weiter Raum!
Die Voglein zwitschern nur im Traum,
Kein Sang hat sich erschwungen.
Farewell, farewell, my love!
I must this very day depart.
One kiss, one kiss give me!
I must forever shun you.
A blossom, a blossom pluck for me,
From the tree in the garden!
No fruit, no fruit for me!
I must not expect it.
2. Parting and Flight
So now I am to shun you,
You, my life's desire!
You kiss me at parting,
I press you to my heart.
Ah, beloved, is it called shunning,
When one embraces and kisses?
Ah, beloved! Is it called parting,
When one clasps another close?
3. Far Away
I'll rest under the trees here,
I love to hear the little birds so much.
How you sing to my heart!
What do you know of our love
In this far-away place?
I'll rest here at the edge of the brook.
Where fragrant little flowers sprout.
Who has sent you here, little flowers?
Are you a heart-felt pledge of love
From far away, from my darling?
4. Morning Song
Still one scarcely perceives the sunlight,
Still the morning bells are not
Rung in the gloomy vale.
How hushed the vast expanse of the forest!
The little birds only twitter in dreams,
No singing has arisen.
Ich hab' mich 'angst in's Feld gemacht,
Und habe schon dies Lied erdacht,
Und hab' es lam gesungen.
Ich reit' in's finstre Land hinein,
Nicht Mond, noch Sterne geben Schein,
Die kalten Winde tosen.
Oft hab' ich diesen Weg gemacht,
Warm goldner Sonnenschein gelacht,
Bei lauer Lufte Kosen.
Ich reit' am finstern Garten hin,
Die durren Baume sausen drin,
Die welken Blatter fallen.
Hier pflegt' ich in der Rosenzeit,
Warm Alles sich der Liebe weiht,
Mit meinem Lieb zu wallen.
Erloschen ist die Sonne Stral,
Verwelkt die Rosen allzumal,
Mein Lieb zu Grab getragen.
Ich reit' in's finstre Land hinein,
Im 'Wintersturm, ohn' alien Schein,
Den Mantel umgeschlagen.
6. Win terreise
Bei diesem kalten. Wehen
Sind alle Strafien leer,
Die Wasser stille
Ich aber schweif umher
Die Sonne scheint so trube.
MuB fruh hinuntergehn.
Erloschen ist die Liebe,
Die Luft kann nicht bestehn.
Nun geht der Wald zu Ende,
Im Dorfe mach' ich Halt,
Da warm' ich mir die Hande,
Bleibt auch das Herze kalt.
So hab' ich nun die Stadt verlassen,
Wo ich gelebet lange Zeit;
Ich ziehe rustig meiner Strassen,
Es giebt mir Niemand das Geleit.
Man hat mir nicht den Rock zerrissen,
Es war' auch Schade fur das Kleid!
I have risen early and gone out into the fields,
And have indeed composed this song,
And have loudly sung it.
5. Night journey
I ride into the dark Land,
Neither moon nor stars give light.
The cold winds roar.
Often I have come this way,
When golden sunshine laughed.
With mild caressing breezes.
I ride into the gloomy garden.
The barren trees rustle in it,
The faded flowers droop.
Here I used to wander in the bloom of youth,
When all was devoted to love,
With my darling.
Extinguished is the sunbeam,
Withered the roses one and all,
My darling is borne to the grave
I ride into the dark land,
In a winter storm, without any light,
Wrapping my coat about me.
6. Winter journey
By these cold snowdrifts
All the streets are empty.
The waters are frozen,
But I wander about.
The sun shines so dimly,
It must set early,
Love is extinguished,
Breath cannot endure.
Now the forest ends,
I slop in the village,
There I warm my hands.
But the heart remains cold.
So now I have left the town,
Where I lived for a long time;
I pass nimbly through my streets,
There is no one to escort me.
My coat has not been torn,
It would be a shame for the garment!
Noch in die Wange mich gebissen
Vor ubergro[beta]em Herzeleid.
Auch keinem hat's den Schlaf vertrieben,
Da[beta] ich am Morgen weiter geh';
Sic konnten's halten nach Belieben,
Von Einer aber thut mir's weh.
Bei einem Wirthe, wundermild,
Da war ich jungst zu Gaste;
Ein goldne Apfel war sein Schild
An einem langen Aste.
Es war der gute Apfelbaum,
Bei dem ich angekehret;
Mit suBer Kost und frischem Schaum
Hat er mich wohl genahret.
Es kamen in sein grimes Haus
Viel leichtbeschwingte Gaste;
Sic sprangen frei und hielten Schmaus
Und fangen auf das Beste.
Ich fand ein Bett zu suBer Ruh
Auf weichen, grunen Matten;
Der Wirth, er deckte selbst mich zu
Mit seinem kuhlen Schatten.
Nun fragt' kit nach der Schuldigkeit,
Da schattelt' er den Wipfel.
Gesegnet sey er allezeit,
Von der Wurzel bis zum Gipfel!
0 brich nicht, Steg, du zitterst sehr!
0 starz' nicht, Fels, du drauest schwer!
Welt, geh' nicht tinter. Himmel, fall' nicht ein,
Eh'ich mag bei der Liebsten seyn!
My cheek is not bitten
Because of the immense heartache.
Also nobody's sleep was disturbed,
That I continue on in the morning;
They can believe whatever they want,
There is but one who causes me pain.
With a strangely gentle innkeeper,
I was recently a guest;
A golden apple was his sign.
On a tall branch.
It was the good apple tree,
Where I stopped over;
With sweet food and refreshing froth
It had indeed nourished me.
There arrived in its green house
Many light-winged guests;
They hopped free and held a feast
And snatched up the best.
I found a bed to rest in sweetly
On soft, green matting;
The innkeeper, he himself covered me up
With his cool shadows.
Now I asked about the obligation,
Then he shook the branches.
Let him be consecrated ever more,
From the roots to the tree top!
Oh break not, bridge, you tremble sorely!
Oh fall not, rocks, you threaten severely!
World, perish not, Heaven, do not give way,
Before I may be with my darling!
APPENDIX 3: NARRATIVE OUTLINE OF UHLAND'S WANDERLIEDER 1. Lebewohl The Wanderer seeks a kiss from his Beloved in the garden, saying he must leave her. 2. Scheiden und As he leaves his Beloved, he asks, "Is it Meiden really parting when people hold and kiss one another?" 3. In der Feme Resting under the trees, the birdsongs he hears and the (lowers he sees remind him of his Beloved. 4. Morgenlied Alone in the predawn stillness beside a silent forest, he composes a song. 5. Nachtreise He returns to a now-dead garden to discover that his Beloved, too, has gone to the grave. He rides out alone into a winter storm. 6. Winterreise He wanders through the empty, cold streets of a village and slops to warm his hands, but his heart is cold. 7. Abreise He leaves his town behind, passing through the streets alone, filled with heartache; only One (person) causes him pain. 8. Einke hr He stops a! an "inn" that is actually an apple tree and receives healing from eating its fruit and resting underneath it. 9. Heimkehr Restored in spirit, he proclaims his urgent desire to return and he with his Beloved.
APPENDIX 4: TEXTS OF CARL G. P. GRADENER'S ACHT VIERSTIMMIGE LIEDER FOR GEM1SCHTEN CHOR, OP. 8
1. "Lebewohl" (no. 1 of Uhland's Wanderlieder)
2. "Scheiden und Meiden" (no. 2 of Uhland's Wanderlieder)
3. "In der Ferne" (no. 3 of Uhland's Wanderlieder)
4. "Morgenlied" (no. 4 of Uhland's Wanderlieder)
5. "Irrwischsang" (Wilhelm Viktor Chritian Pfeiffer) "Song of the Will-o-the-Wisps"
Wir hupfen und schaukeln und tandeln umher,
Und tanzen und gaukeln die Kreuz und die Quer.
Auf grunen Gefilden ist unser Gemach,
Die Wolken, sie bilden das schimmernde Dach.
Bei nachtlicher Stifle im wehenden Ried,
Da schwirrt uns die Grille zum Reigen ihr Lied.
We hop and sway and daily around.
And dance and flutter about this way and that.
Our quarters are on the green fields,
The clouds, they form the shimmering roof.
In the gloomy stillness in the waving reeds,
There the crickets whir to us their song for dancing.
Dann schleichen wir leise aus stillem Versteck,
Und schwingen im Kreise uns kfinstlich und keck.
Kaum neigt sich das Graschen bei unserem Tritt,
Nicht Wiesel noch Haschen hat leichteren Schritt;
Jetzt hilpfen wir oben, jetzt unten im Grund,
Husch! Sind wir zerstoben, husch! wieder im Rund.
He, Wanderer wend' dich khiglich zum Tanz,
Und reich' uns die Hande zum luftigen Kranz!
Es weht ja so schaurig im Walde die Luft,
Hu, hu, wie so traurig das Kauzchen dort ruft!
Wie Bursche, so bange, so kornm doch, komm schnell;
Dein harrten wir lange, du bloder Gesell!
Da kommt er gegangen, leicht glaubiger Wicht!
Jetzt bist du gefangen, wir lassen dich nicht!
6. "Heimweh" (Nordisch)
Wo der rauhe Nord braust,
Dutch sturm'schen Port,
Dahin treibt's mich fort,
Dahin steht mein Sinn!
Wo bei Tag und Nacht
Eises Rinde kracht,
Und kein Fruhling lacht,
Dahin mocht' ich flieh'n!
Wo rings starrt Natur
Und auf weisse Flur
Schimmert der Arctur,
Dahin, ach! Dahin!
Mag's auch rauh dort sein,
Seht, des Nordlichts Schein
Ladet freundlich ein:
Lasst mich, Freunde, ziehn!
Then we crawl softly out of our still hiding place,
And dance in the circle artfully and boldly.
The little grass is scarcely bent by our step.
Neither weasel not hare has a lighter step;
Now we hop overhead, now close to the ground,
Quick! We vanish. Quick! Again in the round.
Hey, wanderer, wisely turn yourself to the dance,
And join hands with us in the airy circle!
The air in the forest wafts so frighteningly,
Hu, hu, how mournfully the little owl calls there!
Hey boy, so frightened, so come now, come quick;
We wait on your waiting, you bashful companion!
There he comes running, the gullible brat!
Now that you're captured, we'll not let you go!
Where the bitter North storms,
Through tempestuous Port,
To that place I press on,
My mind is set on it!
Where by day and night
The ice's edge cracks,
And Spring never smiles,
To that place I want to flee!
Where everywhere Nature is numb
And on a white field
The arctic shimmers,
To there, Oh! To there!
May it really be harsh there,
See, the northlight's gleam
invites me kindly:
Friends, let me go!
7. "Schwert" (Uhland)
Zur Schmiede ging ein junger Held.
Er hate ein gutes Schwert bestellt,
Doch als er's wog in freier Hand,
Das Schwert er viel zu schwer erfand.
Der alte Schmied den Bart sich streicht:
Das Schwert ist nicht zu schwer noch leicht,
Zu schwach ist euer Arm, ich mein',
Doch Morgen soil geholfen sein!
Nein heut'! bei alter Ritterschaft!
Durch meine, nicht durch Feuers Kraft!
Der Jangling spricht's, ihn Kraft durchdringt,
Das Schwert er hoch in Luften schwingt!
8."Nachtreise" (no. 5 of Uhland's Wander&der)
A young hero went to the forge,
He had ordered a good sword,
But as he weighed it with free reign,
He found the sword much too heavy.
The old blacksmith stroked his beard:
The sword is neither too heavy nor light.
Your arm, is too weak. I believe,
But tomorrow it should be fixed."
"No today! By all knighthood!
By mine, not by the fire's power!"
The youth said, and strength filled him.
And he swung the sword high in the breezes!
APPENDIX 5: TEXTS OF BRAHMS'S SECHS GESANGE, OP. 7*
1 "Treue Liebe" (Eduard Ferrand)--comp. Nov, 1852
Ein M'agdlein sass am Meeresstrand, Cud blickte von Sehnsucht in's Weite:
"Wo bleibst du, mein Liebster, wo weilst du so lang?
Nicht ruhen lasst mich des Herzens Drang.
Ach kamst du, mein Liebster, doch heute,
Ach karnst du, mein Liebster, doh heute!"
Der Abend nahte, die Sonne sank
Am Saum des Himmels darnieder.
"So tragt dich die Welk mir nimmer zuruck?
Vergebens spaht in die Ferne mein Blick.
Wo find' ich, mein Liebster, dich wieder,
Wo find' ich, mein Liebster, dich wieder?"
Die Wasser umspielten ihr schmeichelnd den Fuss,
A maiden sat at the seashore
And gazed, filled with longing, into the distance:
"What has happened to you, my dearest, where do you linger so long?
My heart's longing gives me no rest.
Ah, if you would just come today, mv dearest.
Ah, if you would just come today, my dearest!"
The evening drew near, the sun sank Down on the fringe of the heavens.
"So the waves will never carry you back to me?
In vain my gaze keeps, watch in the distance.
Where will I find you again, my clearest,
Where will I find you again, my dearest?"
The water played, cajoling, around her feet,
Wie Traume von seligen Stunden, Es zog sic /hi Tiefe mit stiller Gewalt;
Nie stand mehr am Ufer die holde
Gestalt, Sie hat den Geliebten gefunden!
2. "Parole" (Josef Freiherr von Fichendorff)--comp. Nov. 1852
Sie stand wohl am Fensterbogen Und flocht sich tranrig das Haar, Der Jager war fort gczogen, Der |Jager ihr Licbster war.
Und als die Fruhling gekommen, Die Welt war von Bluthen verschneit. Da hat sie ein Herz sich genommen, Und ging in die grime Haid.
Sie legt das Ohr an den Rasen. Hort ferne Hufe klang--Das sind die Rche die grasen Am schattigen Bcrgeshang.
Und abends die Walde rauschen
Von fern nur fallt noch ein SchuB, Da sicht sie stille sna lanschen: "Das war meines Liebsten Grass!"
Da sprangen vom Pels die Qnellen, Da llohen die Voglein in's Thai. "Und wo ihr ihn trefft ihr Gesellen,
O grussl tnir ilm lausend mal!"
3. "Ankliinge" (Josef Freiherr von Eichendorff)--comp. Mar. 1853
Hoch uber stillen Hohen Stand in dem Wald ein Haus; So cinsam war's zn sehen, Dort uber'n Wald hinaus.
Ein Madehen sass darinnen Bei stiller Abendzeit. That seidne Faden spinnen zu ihrem Hochzeitskleid.
4. "Volkslied" (Seihierer's Deutsche Volkslieder)--comp. 4, 5 Aug. 1852
Die Schwalble ziehet fort, ziehet fort, Weil an en andre, andre Ort;
Like dreams of blissful hours, It drew her to the deep with silent power; Never more stands the lovely shape on the shore, She has found the Beloved!
She stood in the arch of the window And sadly braided her hair, The hunter was gone forth, The hunter was her Beloved.
And when the spring arrived, The world was snowed over with flowers, Then she took heart, And went out in the green grove.
She put her ear to the sod, And heard the sound of distant hooves, That is the deer, that graze On the shadowed slopes.
And in the evening as the woodlands rustle,
From far away a shot is fired, Then she stands silently to listen, "That was my Beloved's greeting!"
Then the springs sprang from the rocks, Then the little bird flew into the valley! "And where you come upon him, you comrade, Oh greet him for me a thousand times!"
High above the silent heights Stood in the forest a house; It looked so lonely There above the forest.
A maiden sat there in it In the quiet evening, Spinning silken threads For her wedding dress.
The little swallow migrates, migrates Far to another place, another place,
Lind i sitz do in Traurigkeit,
Es isch a base, schwere Zeit.
Konnt i no fort durch d'Welt, fort durch d'Welt,
Weil mir's hie gar net, gar net gfallt!
O Schwalble, komm, i bitt, i bitt!
Zeig mir de Weg, und nimm mi mit!
5. "Die Trauernde" (Scherer's Deutsche Volkstieder)--comp. 4, 5 Aug. 1852 Mei Mueter mag mi net,
Und kei Schatz han i net,
Ei warum starb i net,
Was thu i do?
Gestern isch Kirchweih g'wa,
Mi hot mer gwis net g'seh,
Denn mir ischs gar so weh,
I tanz ja net.
Lasst die drei Rose stehn,
Die an dem Kreuzle bluhn
Hent ihr das Madle kennt,
Die drunter liegt?
6. "Heimkehr" (Ludwig Uhland)--composed 6 May 1851
O brich nicht Steg, du zitterst sehr,
O sturz nicht Fels, du drauest schwer;
Welt geh nicht unter, Himmel, fall nicht ein
Bis ich mag bei der Liebsten sein!
And I sit there in sorrow, It is an evil, hard time.
If only I could go out into the world, out into the world,
Because to me it is not pleasing here, not pleasing here!
0 come, little swallow, I beg you, I beg you.
Show nie the way and take me with you!
My mother doesn't want me,
And I don't have a sweetheart.
Oh, why don't I die,
What am I to do?
Yesterday I went to the church fair,
No one knew me or looked at me,
Since I am indeed so sad,
That I don't dance.
Let the three roses alone
That bloom by the little cross:
Did you know the maiden,
That lies underneath it?
Oh break not. bridge, you tremble Sorely,
Oh fall not rocks, you threaten severely;
World perish not, heaven, do not give way
Until I my be With my darling!
APPENDIX 6: TEXTS OF BRAHMS'S FUNF GEDICHTE, OP. 19 *
1. "Der Kuss" (Ludwig Holty)
Unter Bluthen des May's spielt ich mit ihrer Hand,
Koste liebelnd mit ibr, schaute mein schwebendes
Bild im Auge des Madchens,
Ratan ihr bebend der ersten Kuss.
Beneath May's blossoms I played with her hand, Tried flirting with her, gazed at my image
Floating in the girl's eye, Robbed from her, trembling, the first
Zuckend fliegt nun der Kuss, wie emn versengend Feu'r,
Mir durch Mark und Gebein. Du die Unsterblichkeit
Durch die Lippen mir spriihte,
Wehe, wehe mir Kiihlung zu.
2. "Scheiden unci Meiden" (Ludwig Uhland)
So soli ich dich nun meiden
Du meines Lebens Lust!
Du kussest mich zum Scheiden,
Ich drake dich an die Brust.
Ach Liebchen, heisst das meiden,
Wenn man sich herzt unci kusst?
Ach Liebchen! heisst das scheiden,
Wenn man sich lest umschliesst?
3. "In der Ferne" (Ludwig Uhland)
Will when unter die Baumen hier,
Die Voglein hor' ich so gerne.
Wie singet ihr so zum Herzen mir?
Von unsrer Liebe was wisset ihr
In dieser weiten Ferne?
Will ruhen bier an des Baches Rand,
Wo duftige Blumlein spriessen.
Wer hat euch Blurnlein hicher gesandt?
Seid ihr ein herzliches Liebespfand
Aus der Ferne von meiner Sussen?
4. "Der Schmied" (Ludwig Uhland)
Ich hor' meinen Schatz,
Den Hammer er schwinget,
Das rauschet, das klinget,
Das dringt in die Weite
Durch Gassen uncl Platz.
Am schwarzen Karnin,
Da sitzet mein Lieber,
Doch geh' ich voritber,
Die Balge dann sausen,
Die Flarnmen aufbrausen
Und lodern um ihn.
5. An eine Aolsharfe (Eduard Morike)
Angelehnt an die Epheuwand
Dieser alten Terrasse,
Convulsively now the kiss flies, like a scorching fire,
Through my marrow and bones. You who send forth.
Immortality to me through the lips,
Waft, waft cooling to me.
"Parting and Shunning"
So now I am to shun you,
You, my life's desire!
You kiss me at parting,
I press you to my heart!
Ah, beloved, is it called shunning,
When people embrace and kiss each other?
Ah, beloved, is it called parting,
When people clasp each other close?
"In a Far-Away Place"
I'll rest under the trees here,
I love to hear the little birds so much.
How can you sing so to my heart?
What do you know of our love
In this far-away place?
I'll rest here at the edge of the brook,
Where fragrant little flowers sprout.
Who has sent you here, little flowers?
Are you a heart-felt pledge of love
From far away, from my darling?
I hear my sweetheart,
He swings the hammer,
That rushes, that rings.
That penetrates the distance
Like the pealing of bells
Through the streets and the square..
At the black hearth,
There sits my dear one,
But when I go past,
Then the bellows blow,
The flames blaze up
And glow around him.
"On an Aeolian Harp"
Leaned against the ivy-covered wall
Of this old terrace,
Du, einer luftgebornen Muse
Fange wieder an
Deine melodische Klage.
Ihr kommet Winde fern herober,
Ach[!] Von des Knaben
Der mir so lieb war,
Und Fruhlingsbluthen unterweges streifend
Ubersattigt mit Wohlgeriichen
Wie suss bedrangt ihr dies Herz!
Und sauselt her in die Saiten,
Angezogen von wohllautender Wehmuth,
Wachsend im Zug meiner Sehnsucht
Und hinsterbencl wieder.
Aber auf einmal
Wie der Wind heftiger herstosst,
Ein holder Schrei der Harfe
Wiederholt mir zussem Erschrecken
Meiner Seele plotzliche Regung;
Und hier, die voile Rose streut geschuttelt
All' ihre Matter vor meine Fusse!
You. a Muse touched off by the wind.
With mysteriously played strings,
Your melodious lament.
You come over here, winds, from far away
Oh! From the boy
Who wits so dear to me,
From the fresh, greening hill,
And wandering among spring blossoms along the way
Surfeited with fragrances,
How sweetly you press against this heart!
And you rustle in the strings here.
Pulled tight by euphonious sadness,
Increasing in the promptings of my desire
And dying away again.
But all at once
As the wind pushes more intensely,
A more pleasing cry of the harp
Brings back to me, to the sweet terror
OF my soul, suddenly the emotion; And here, the Full Rose strews shuddering
All its petals 11 my feet!
In the 1850s, Ludwig Uhlancl's Wanderlieder poems were regarded as a coherent cycle, prompting some poetry anthologists and composers to use them to provide a narrative context for new cyclic collections. In keeping with this practice, Brahms placed "Heimkehr," the last Wander-lieder poem, in which Uhland's Wanderer rushes back to his abandoned Beloved, at the conclusion of his opus. 7, following five songs focusing on abandoned, isolated, and vulnerable women. The resonance of this narrative outline with Clara Schumann's plight after her husband's 1854 suicide attempt enriches our reception of opus 7.
The second and third Wanderlieder poems, "Scheiden und Meiden" and "In der Ferne," are placed second and third as a musically connected song-pair in Brahms's opus 19 collection, which largely stems from his 1858 courtship of Agathe von Siebold. In an October 1858 manuscript, these two songs are found in E minor rather than the published key of D minor, suggesting that Brahms transposed them down a step to align them tonally with the B-flat-major songs that precede and follow them in opus 19. Brahms may have used the original E-minor song-pair to send a private message to Agathe, as both begin with the pitch motive E--H--E, spelling out the German for "marriage." Opus 19 emerges as a "recycling" of the Wanderlieder in which Brahms accesses the narrative associations of Uhland's famous cycle to create a new one replete with autobiographical associations.
* Source: Ludwig Utiland. Gedidae, Neueste Auflage [12th ed.) (Stuttgart und Tabingen: Verlag (ler J. G. Cotta'schen Buchhandlung, 1839). This is the edition of Uhland's poetry in Brahms's personal library. I am grateful to Helma Kaldewey for her valuable suggestions about the translations of poetry that appear in this paper.
* Source: johannes Brahms, Sechs Cesange, op. 7 (Leipzig: Breitkopf und Hartel, 1854), first edition.
* Source: Johannes Brahms, Funf Gedichte, op. 19 (Bonn: Simrock, 1862)
(1.) For a broad exploration of issues related to coherence in Brahms's song collections. see Inge van Rij, Brahms's Song Collections (Cambridge: New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006).
(2.) Clara Schumann Johannes Brahms: Briefe aus den Jahren 1853-1896, ed. Berthold Litzmann, 2 vols. (Leipzig: Breitkopf & Hanel. 1927). 1:158: "Gestern schenkte mir eine Dame Uhlands Gedichte. die ich mir hinge wtinschte, und wofur ich gent all meine andern Lyriker weggegeben hatte." (Translations are my own unless otherwise noted.) The volume of poems is now in the archive of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Vienna: Ludwig Uhland, Gedichte, Neueste Auflage (Stuttgart; Tubingen: Verlag der J. G Cotta'schen Buchhandlung. 1839). Unland's name crops up in several other letters between Brahms and Lu a from the late 1850s. At one point Clara briefly considered taking a position in Stuttgart. in Uhland's native Swabia. In a letter to her of 27 January 1858, Brahms lightheartedly suggested that if she took the position, the two of them might go and meet Unland. Clara's letter to Brahms of 5 August 1859 shows that she knew Brahms continued to be interested in the poet: "Yesterday I was with [Moritz] Hartmann off and on, who told me such interesting things that I wished you had been there. He knows persons and places exactly, and told me about all (if it with much wit. So yesterday he told me about Uhland. whom he knew for a whole year. He confirmed this much--what people told me in Stuttgart--that he is very plain and speaks with no one except after meeting him several times, and then only in the evening in the pub. But then he thaws out and becomes extremely amiable and in addition deeply learned. He loves wine very much and says himself that since his 18th year he has never drunk a drop of water. How it would please me to get to know him. From Stuttgart I would have been close by. But how I that help me if in the end he were to run off!" (Ibid.. 1:272: "Gestern wurde ich unterbrochen mit Harmann, der mir so Interssantes erzahlte, da[deta] ich wunschte, Du warest dabei gewesen. Er kennt Menschen und Lander genau und erzahlt mit vielem Geiste von allen. So gestern mir von Uhland, den er ein ganzes Jahr erkannt. Er bestatigte insofern. was man mir in Stuttgart erzahlt. da[deta] er sehr ha[deta]lich sei und mit niemand spreche, auber nach ofterem Zusarmmensein und abends in der Knejipe. dann aber taue er auf und seji auberst liebenswurding und gejistvoll. dabei tief gelehrt Er liebt sehr den Wein und erzahlt selbst, da[deta] er sejit seinem 18. Jahr nie mehr einen Tropfen Wasser getrunken. Wjie gern lernte ich ihn kennen, von Stuttgart aus hatte ich es nah, doch was hilft es mir, wenn er am Ende davonlarft!") Brahms's enthusiasm for Uhland must have Listed at least until about 1860, when another comment in his correspondence with Clara Schumann suggests that reading Uhland's poetry aloud was a cherished activity of their intimate friendship. See ibid., 1:345.
(3.) We have relatively little specific information the curriculum of the Elementarschule that Brahms entered at the age or six (in 1839), or the Burgerschule of Johann Friedrich Hoffmann that he attended from age eleven to fourteen (1844 to 1847). It is clear, however, that Hoffmann was one of the more progressive educators in Hamburg. and that his school had a well-prepared faculty and a sizable library. See Robert Meisner, "Atts Johannes Brahms' Sch illicit." in Brahms Studien 2 (Hamburg: Karl Dieter Wagner, 1977), 85-94. Like many schoolmen of his time, Hoffmann published brochures tor parents that described his school's curriculum. See "Hoffmann. Johann Friedrich." in Lexikon der hambzugisehen Schrifisteller zur Gegenwart, ed. Haus Schroder, 8 vols. (Hamburg: Pontt & von Dobren, 1851-83), 3:319-20. While it appears that none of Hoffmann's brochures have survived, typical contemporaneous brochures from schools in Westphalia slims that Uhland's poetry had become an important component in school curricula in the 1840s. Among the Uhland works most frequently cited in these brochures were the ballades "Des Ringers Fluch" and "Das Das Chick von Edenhall," which were often assigned to be recited from memory during closing exercises for the year, and "Einkehr." the eighth Wanderlieder poem, which was often the subject of required essays. See Ilonka Zimmer, Uhland im Kanon: when zur Praxis literarischer Kanonisierung int 19. und 20. Jahrhundert (Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2009). 87-213.
(4.) Brahms had extensive access to lite Schumann family library beginning in 1854 and continuing for approximately two Years thereafter. Schumann owned Uhland's Gedichte in the 11th edition (Stuttgart und Tubingen, 1837). The volume, which Schumann received as a gift from the organist Oswald Lorenz in 1840, is located in the Robert-Schumann-Haus in Zwickau. signature 6104-A4/CI. The Uhland verses Brahms included in Dec jungen kreislers Scjalzhiistlein probably came from this volume (sec
(5.) By contrast, Robert Schtimann was attracted to Uhland's ballads and romances. especially during his later years. Schumann's late compositions based on Uhland's poetry include Der Konigssohn for solo voices, chorus, and orchestra, op. 116 (1851); Des Sangers Fluch for solo voices, horns, and orchestra op. 139 (1852); and Das Ghick von Edenhall for solo voices, chorus, and orchestra, op. 143 (1853): as well as the part-songs "Der Schmidt" and "Der Sanger" from the Romanzen and Ballade), 111, op. 145 1849- 51); and "Brautgesang," "Del Trawl)," and "Das Schifflein" from the Romanzen und IV. op. 146 (1S49-51).
(6.) See Barbara Turchin, "Robert Schumann's Song Cycle in the Context of the Early Nineteenth-Century Liederkreis" (Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, 1981), 73-75. For the origin and publication of the Wanderlieder poems, see Ludwig I bland Werke, ed. Hartmut Froschle and Walter Scheffler, 4 vols. (Munich: Winkler Verlag, 1,980-84), 1:536-38,
(7.) There were only eight Wanderlieder poems in Uhland's initial published order, with "In der Ferne." omitted. See Justinus Kerner, Friedrich Baron de la Motte Fouque. Ludwig Uhland, et al., Deuarker Dichlermald (Tubingen: F. F. Heergrandt'si hue Buclihandlung, 1813), 212-15. The completed nine-poem cycle first appeared in Ludwig Uhland, Gedichte (Stuttgart; Tubingen: Cotta, 1815).
(8.) See Turchin, "Robert Schumann's Song Cycle," 75; and Barbara Turchin. "The Nineteenth-Century Wanderlieder Cycle," Journal of Musicology 5, no. 4 (Fall 1987): 498-525. Because of the fragmentary and open-ended character of the Wanderlieder poems, the cycle's narrative admits of many interpretations. For example, some readers today might plausibly consider its final text, "Heimkehr," to speak of the Wanderer's desire to join his Beloved in death. in the nineteenth century. however, most critics wrote admiringly of the-honesty, simplicity, and straightforwardness of Uhland texts and I have seen no evidence that "Heimkehr" was regarded as a Liebestod by thew. Even Wilhelm Muller, the poet of the Winterreise cycle. which ends darkly by implying its Wanderer's descent into insanity. viewed "Heimkehr" at face value: "The link poem, 'Die Heimkehr' has always appeared to me to be the greatest among the 'Wanderlieder.' It is so full of love and longing. ..." See Wilhelm Muller, "Lieber die neueste lyrische Poesie der Demschen: Ludwig Uhland und Justinus Kerner," Hermes oder Kritisches Jahrbuch der Literatur 28 (1827): 94-129: "Das kleine Gedicht 'Die Heimakehr' hat mir Hermes der Wanderliedern' immer das grobte erschienen. Es ist so voll von Liebe und Sehnsucht. ..." For an overview of Uhland's critical reception, see Victor G. Doerksen, Ludwig Uhland and the Critics, Studies in German Literature, Linguistics, and Culture. Literary Criticism In Perspective (Columbia, SC: Camden House, 1994).
(9.) Laura Tunbridge presents a current view of the Wanderliedeis narrative: "The individual poems of Uhland's Wanderlieder are too disconnected chronologically and geographically to present a logical, inviolable narrative. Claims that they are linked by imagery and phrasing are sometimes persuasive, but cannot be pushed too far." See Laura Tunbridge. The Song Cycle, Cambridge introductions .to Music (Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. 2010), 33. See also Helen Mustard. The Lyric Cycle in German Literature (New York: King's Crown Press, 1946), 78-79.
(10.) Although Uhland's ballads and romances usually predominated in anthologies, examples from the liedter, including the Wanderlieder, were also presented. The eighth poem in the cycle, "Einkehr," appeared most frequently. One such anthology that Brahms owned is August Adolph Ludwig Follen, Bildersaal deutsrher Dirlitung, 2 vols., (Winterthur, Switz.: Steinische Buchhandlung, 1828). See Kurt Hofmann, Die Bibliothek von Johannes Brahms (Hamburg: Karl Dieter Wagner, 1974). 30. A later, widely used anthology with a similar organization was edited by Brahms's friend, the educator Gustav Wendt: Sammlung deutscher Gedichte fur Schule und Ham (Berlin: G. Grote'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1867). Wendt used forty-three poems by Goethe, forty-three by Schiller, and thirty-three by Uhland, but only fourteen by Platen, thirteen by Ruckert, and so on--a representative distribution in such collections. Anthologies that went through multiple editions were sometimes gradually enlarged. In the first edition of Oskar Ludwig Bernhard Wolff's Poetoscher Hausschatz des deutscheVolkes: Vollstandigste Sammlung deutscher Gedichte, nach den Gattungen geordnet ... Ein Buch fur und Haus (Leipzig: Otto Wigand, 1847). Uhland is represented by thirty-five poems, Ruckert by thirty-four, Goethe by thirty, Schiller by thirty, and all other poets by considerably fewer works. Uhland is represented mainly by romances and ballads, with "Einkehr" being the only Wanderlieder poem. However, in the 28th, edition of this book (1884), the editor (now Carl Ostrogge) presented Uhland's complete Wanderlieder cycle and noted that was "equally excellent in his Lieder as in the romances and ballads" (gleich vortrefflich in seinen Liedern wie in den Balladen und Romanzen, p. xxix). The remarkably uniform preference for the works si hiller, Goethe, and Uhland in anthologies from the 1840s through the later part of the nineteenth cot can be traced to developments in school pedagogy. and especially to a single influential work: Robert Heinrich Hiecke, Der deutsche Unterricht auf deutschen Gymnasien: Em pedagogische Versuch (Leipzig: Eduard kisenach, 1842). Hiecke's endorsement of Uhland's poetry tor use in the schools was based on his belief that, while Schiller and Goethe could provide students with "depth and wealth of content, artistic composition., and solemnity of language" [die Title und den Reichthum des Inhalts, die Kunst der Composition und das Pathos derSprache], Uhland, better than any other modern author, could provide a true sense of the German national character. See Zimmer, 223-29.
(11.) It is partly owing to their political associations that Uhland's poems were so frequently anthologized. Most nineteenth-century literary historians regarded Uhland as a political poet. For example. Georg Gottfried Gervinus wrote in 1842 that: "[Uhland's] poetry stands against the southerly and oriental lyric poetry of the Romantics through its patriotic tendency in a way that is similar in steadfastness to how the indigenous epic of the German middle ages stood against the derivative courtly romances of foreigners." Georg Gottfried Gervinus, Handbuch der Geschichte der poet is, hen National-Literatur der Deutschen, (Lepizig: Englemann, 1842), 307: "Seine Dichtung steht gegen die suflivhr und orientalische Lyrik der Romantiker (lurch diese vaterlandische Tendenz in ether ahnlichen Festigkeit, wie das einheimistche Epos des deutschen Mittelalters gegen die entlehnten Ritterromane des Aushinders." Here is the idea 01 Uhland as a bulwark against foreign literary influences, steadfastly holding true to the ancestral German national character. For many readers, the patriotic aura around Uhland's verse would have been enhanced by his service in the legislature of Wurtemburg following the Befreiungskriege of 1813-15 and in the Frankfurt Parliament after the revolutions of 1848. Alter his death .on 13 November 1862, he would be celebrated equally as a poet, patriot, and scholar of early German and French poetry, as in a remembrance by the literary historian Franz Pfeiffer found in Brahms's library. See "Ludwig Uhland" in Franz Pfeiffer, Freie Forschung: Kleine Schriften zur Geschichie der deutschen Literatur und Sprache (Vienna: Tendler & Comp., 1867). 397-412.
(12.) Julian Schmidt, Geschichte der deutschen Literatur im neunzehnten jahrhundert, 3 vols. (Leipzig: F. L. Herbig, 1855). 3:190: "Uhland's Lieder. so bescheiden ihr Inhalt ist, gehoren doch zu dem liebsten Besitz des deutschen Volks; vielleicht gerade darum, weil er ihnen nichts gegeben hat. als die zur hochsten Reinheit gelauterten Empfindungen und Ansi hamingen des Volkes." This view of Uhland must have resonated with the young Brahms, who collected I ), h the high-toned thoughts of the best German writers in a series of notebooks that have come collectively to be titled Des jungen Kreislers Schatzldistlein, and the simple sayings of ordinary people in a little vol; line he called Deutsche Sprichroorte.. See Des jungen Kreislers SchatzJuistlein: Ausspruche von Dichtern, Philosopher, und Kunstlern. Zusammengetragen durch Johannes Brahms. ed. Karl Krebs (Berlin: Verlag der Deutschen Brahmsgesellschaft, 1909); and George Bozarth, "Johannes Brahms's Collection of 'Deutsche Sprichworte' (German Proverbs)," in Brahms Studies 1. ed. David Brodbeck, 1-29 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. 1994). The five Uhland poems Brahms entered into Do jungen Kreislers Schatzkastlein include item no. 195, which quotes from Uhland's famous patriotic poem "Freie Kunst." The poem in its original context suggested that the German people, laboring under the yoke Of the Restaurationszeit, could find spiritual fret' dot a way forward toward political liberty--by actively expressing the nation's artistic and cultural heritage. Brahms conflated verses from the second and seventh stanzas to create a more personal manliesto declaring that practitioners of the "art of song" (Liederkunst), while honoring the old masters, should be free As artists. Items 316,317, and 318--"Die Ruinen," "Mutter und Kind," and "Marznacht"--all .epigrams in the form of unrhymed couplets--are clustered together in the .Gedichte; and item 319, "Die Schlummernde," is found nearby. Brahms composed one of these texts, "Marznacht," as op. 44, no. 12.
(13.) Literary criticism in Brahms's time ran from highly sophisticated and philosophical works to straightforward books iii let for 'popular consumption. The Wanderlieder are discussed more commonly in the latter category.
(14.) Heinrich Kurz, Handbuch der poetischen Nationallitexatur der Deutschen von Flatter bis (cal die neuesle Zeit, a vols. (Zurich: Verlag von Meyer 'mei Zeller, 1842). 3:374-75: "An die 'Frilhlingslieder' schliefBen sich die 'Wanderlieder' an, in welthen der Dicker ein ganzes Drama voll Bewegung and Mannigfaltigkeit, von der Trennung an ('lebewohl,"Scheiden and Meiden') his zur glucklichen Ruckkunft ('Heimkehr') vor unsern Augen vorilberfahrt. In diesen Liedern 1st das Talent Uhland's twin sicht-bar, in wenigen glacklich dargestellten mid eben so glacklich verbundenen Bildern .oder Gedanken ein umfangreiches Gemalde zu entialten, oder einen reichen Strom von Gefilhlen hervorquellen zu lasscn. Oft sind es nur Andeutungen, die er gibt, abet-diese sind so lebendig, dial die Phantasie und this Gefahl des Lesers reichliche Nahrung finden."
(15.) See Carl Barthel. Die deutsche Nationalliteratur der Neuzeit in einer Reihe von Vorlesungen, 2d enlarged ed. (Braunschweig: Verlag der Hofbuchhandlung von Eduard Leibrock, 1851), 71-72.
(16.) Wilhelm Wackernagel, Deutsche% Lesebuch, 2d ed., 3 vols. (Basel: Schweighauserischen Buch-handlung, 1840), 2:1386-87. See also J. Schenkcl, Deutsche Dichterhalle des newnzehnten Jahrhunderts, ed. F. C. Paldamus. 2 vols. (Mainz: C. G. Kunze, 1856). 2:65-416.
(17.) Deutscher .Dichtenoald: Lyrische Anthologie von Georg Scherer (Stuttgart: Eduard Hallberger, 1853), 120-22. Like Wackernagel, Scherer headed the poems with Uhland's title, "Wanderlieder." See also Mustard, 79. In a similar fashion, Gustav Schwab presented "Lebewohl," "Morgenlied," "Nachtreise," "Abreise," "Einkehr," and "Heimkehr" in his Funf Bucher deutscher Lieder und Gedichte: Eine Muster-sammlung mit einer kiicksicht auf den Gebrauch in Schulen, 3d ed. (Leipzig: Wiedman'sche Buchhandlung, 1848), 489-91. Schwab shortened and darkened the narrative by omitting "Scheiden und Meiden" and "In der Ferric," but left the original narrative outline intact. Theodor Storm later anthologized six of the nine Wanderlieder in his Hausbuch des deutschen Dichtern sea Claudius. By presenting the first, second, fourth, seventh, eighth, and ninth poems, Storm preserved the overall contour of the Wanderlieder's narrative, but, by omitting "Nachireise," removed the incongruities posed by the death of the Wanderer's Beloved. See Theodor Storm, Hau.sbuch des deutschen Dichtern sell Claudius (Leipzig: Wilhelm Maute, 1870), 212-15. Storm was apparently a childhood friend of Brahms's Hamburg friend, Karl Gradener. Kurt Hofmann notes that in the frontispiece of a volume of Storm's poetry found in Brahms's library is written: "Johannes Brahms: diesen sinnig-zarten Kranz aus .Liedern eines Kinderfreundes C. G. P. Graedener." See Kurt Hofinann, 112.
(18.) Deutsches Didam, Album, ed. Theodor Fontane (Berlin: Otto Janke, 1852), 155-60. The poems used are "Scbeiden und Meiden" from Uhland's Waaderlieder. "Abschied" (by Schlippenbach, possibly a narrative substitute for Uhland's "In der Ferric"), "Wanderlied" (Schlippenbach), "Einkeht" and "Nail, treise" from Uhland's Wanderlieder, and justinus Kerner's "Wanderlied." By placing "Nachtreise" after "Ein-kehr," Fontane took the "first journey" within Uhland's original narrative as the basis for this composite cycle.
(19.) Constantin Decker, Neon Lieder, op. 6 (Berlin: Bechtold u[nd] H [umblot], [1837?]). Decker (1810-1878) became known as a good pianist and capable composer in Berlin in the late 1830s. Several of his works were reviewed prominently in the musical press, including his First String Quartet in C minor, op. 14, reviewed by Robert Schumann in the Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik 8 (19 June 1838): 193-94;. his Sonata for Violin and Piano, op. 33, by an anonymous reviewer in the Niederrheinische Musik-Zeitung fur Konstfreunde und Kiinstler 1 (1853): 17-18; and by ET11. Klitzsch in the Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik 21 (1854): 208; and his three String Quartets, op, 32, by an anonymous reviewer in the Neue Berliner Musilezeitung 10 (1856): 217-18. Decker's attraction to song composition is mentioned repeatedly (Gustav Schilling, Enzyclopadia der gesam mien ntwikalischen Wissenschaften oder Universal, Lexikon der Tonkunst, upplement-Band (Stuttgart: Verlag von Franz Ileinrich Miller, 1842). 91-94. I have been unable to locate a copy of Decker's opus 6 songs, but their texts, which are our central concern here, can be traced from various bibliographic sources. Decker's setting of another of Uhland's Wanderlieder, "Nachtreise," from his Sieben Lieder. fur eine Bariton-oder Alistimme, op. 2 (Berlin, 1835), is reproduced in Carmen Debryn, Vow Lied zum Kunship& Elm Studie zu Variation and Komposition in Lied des kiihen 19. Jahrhunderts (Goppingen: Kfimmerle Verlag, 1983), 316-18.
(20.) In the complete edition of Kopisch's poems these two lyrics appear together in a section termed "Erotisch." See Angus! Kopisch Gesammelie Werke, ed. Carl Botticher. 5 vols. (Berlin: Wiedermannsche Buchhancllung, 1853), 1:382-84.
(21.) Brahms first met Carl Georg Peter Gradener in 1853. He was relatively close to Gradener during the middle and later 1850s: the two were on tin terms, and there are many references to Gradener in Brahms's correspondence with his musical intimates from about this time. Gradener was Brahms's senior by twenty-one years. Orphaned at a young age, he had been raised by relatives in Altona, near Hamburg; where .he studied the .cello, and later in Lubeck, where he passed through the Gymnasium 1833, the year of Brahms's birth, found Gradener studying law at GOttingen, but he thereafter concentrated entirely on music. In 1838 he moved to Kiel. where he organized the musical curriculum of the university, directed a choral society, and composed his first choral works. Owing to his support of independence for Schleswig-Holstein during the revolutionary year of 1848, he lost his university position and turned to private teaching in Hamburg, where he aligned himself firmly with the conservative camp in the widening rift between musical progressives and traditionalists. Like Brahms, Gradener was a Bach enthusiast; for a long time the two men were the only subscribers in Hamburg to the Bach Gesellschaft Edition. He was the hest-known composer in Hamburg before his reputation was eclipsed by that of Brahms. Both men moved to Vienna at about the same time, where Brahms found success, but Gradener did not, and he eventually returned to Hamburg. See Carl G. P. Gradener, Ac/it vierstimmige Lieder fur gemischten Chan op. 8,2 vols. (Leipzig: Breitkopf & .Hartel, Pl. nos. 8614 and. 8615). Gradener's son, Hermann, reported that the fifth piece from this set "created a furor" in performance. See Iffermanni Gradenert "Karl Georg Peter Gradener," in Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, 56 vols. (Leipzig: Dunker und Humblot, 1895-1912), 49:500-501. Brahms mentioned hearing a different choral piece by Gradener in a letter to Joseph Joachim in March 1858: "To me Gradener's Elf Chorus does not rank equally with his other things." Seephannes Brahms im Briefwechsel mitjosephjoachim, ed. Andreas Moser, 2 vols. (Berlin: Deutsche Brahms-Gesellschaft, 1905i. 1:205: "Gradeners-Elfenchor stein mir seinen andern Sachen nicht eben-burdig da." From this we know that Brahms was familiar with some of Gradener's choral music, and it is reasonable to believe that the opus 8 pieces that had created such a stir in performance were probably among the "other things" he knew.
(22.) See Wilhelm Viktor Christian Pfeiffer. Jugendkange (Gottingen: Kftbler, 1835). Gradener and Pfeiffer were apparently well acquainted. There are thirty pieces of correspondence from Pfeiffer to Gradener, and one piece from Graciener to Pfeiffer, in the .Sanimlung Hermann and Carl Gmedener, Wien Bibliothek im Rathaus Handschriftensammlung. Aufstellungsnummer 73.
(23.) I have not been able to locate a source for this text, but I doubt it is "Nordisch," as Gradener represents in the score. The poem is a rather transparent gloss .on Goethe's famous "Kennst du das Land" from the beginning of book three of Wilhelm Meisters Lehijahre Because it turns the warmth and allure of Goethe's original on its head in somewhat the same wav that the whole opus 8 collection reverses the fundamental optimism of .Uhland's Wandedieder, I would not be surprised if Griidener composed the poem himself. I am grateful to Helma Kaldewey for pointing out to me the relationship between "Heimweh" and Goethe's poem.
(24.) Gradener evidently took a special interest in Wanderheder. He also published Zehn keise-land Wanderlieder von Wilhelm. Muller (Leipzig: Rieter-Biedermann, 1860-67).
(25.) The cyclic spell seems to be broken right at the beginning of book 2. with an "Irrwischang" that differs profoundly in character and expression from any of the songs in the first book. This that caused a "furor" in performance according to Gradener's son Hermann, was one of the few In iral works by Gradener that attracted attention outside of Hamburg. It was sung in Vienna by die Singverein der Gesellschaft der Musikfretincle under Johann Ritter von Herbeck on 8 December 1860. Some of die opus 8 songs lingered in the repertoire in Hamburg. "Irrwischsang" and "Schwert" were performed by the Hamburg Cacilien-Verein under Julius Spend in the spring of 1881. (See notice in Allgemente musikalische Zeitung of 13 April 1881, p. 239.)
(26.) See Alfred Orel. "Ein eigenhandiges Werkverzeichnis von Johannes. Brahms," Die Musik 29 (1937) 529-41. Peter Jost provides an extensive exploration of "Heimkehr" in "Brahms und das deutsche Lied des 19. Jahrhunderts," in Brahms als Liedkomponist, ed. Peter Jost, 9-37 (Stuttgart: Franz Steiner 1992).
(27.) Ludwig Finscher. "Brahms's Early Songs: Poetry Versus Music," in Brahms Studies: Analytical and Historical Perspectives, ed. George S. Bozardi, 331-44 (Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1990). Imogene Fellinger notes that the first five poems of opus 7 "speak of young women separated from their beloveds," and that all the songs are in minor keys. See Imogene Fellinger "Cyclic Tendencies in Brahms's Song Collections," ibid., 379-88. See also Van Rij, 105-6 and 117-1,
(28.) The succession of keys in opus 7 is: F-sharp minor--E minor/C major/A major/E minor/E major/E minor/A minor--E minor--A minor--B.minor. For a discussion of the tonal organization of opus 7, see Van Rij, 117-18.
(29.) DAS [Adolf Sehtibring], "Schumannia Nr, 8. Die Schumannsche Schule IV. Johannes Brahms," Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik 29 (1862): 109: "Das dritte Liederheft Op. 7 ist ein getreuer Spiegel der truben Stimmung, in welche er gegen Ende 1854 verlallen. 'Seiner werden Wunden warten bei seinem Gange durch die Welt' hatte ihm ja Robert Schumann prophezeihet. Die gewahlten Texte und die dazu gesetzte Musik wetteifern mit einander in Trubheit und Trauer. '1 sitz to in Traurigkeit, es isch a bose, schwere Zeit.' Konnt i no fort durch d' Welt, weil mir's hie gar net g'fallt'. Selbst wo die Texte, wie Nr. 2 und namentlich im letzten Verse, eine heiterer Auffassung verlangten, hat Brahms seiner dustern Stimmung nicht Herr werden konnen. Die beiden liedartig gehaltenen Balladen Nr. 1 und 2 stehen noch auf der Hohe der fruheren Hefte (man lasse sich das schone Wellenspiel Site 4 nicht entgehen!); die letzten vier Nummern aber sind blose Stimmungsgemalde, grau in grau gemalt, oder vielmehr einfache Skizzen, wie sie ein genialer Kunstler ein Mal hinwirft-um se dann unausgefuhrt in der Mappe liegen zu lassen. In der letzten Nummer, die fur sich die Verstimmung bis zum Ingrimme und findet in diesem ihre Heilung." By the "earlier volumes." Schubring meant Brahms's lieder collections, opp. 3 and 6. The "beautiful play of the waves on page 4" refers to the piano accompaniment for the third stanza of "Treue Liebe."
(30.) Ibid., 95: "Robert Schumann, als er den Brahms' schen Empfehlungsbrief schrieb, scheint--aus Grunden, die hier aufzuzahlen zu weit fuhren wurde--von den oben aufgezahlten Werken nur Op. 1-6 und vielleicht Einzelnes aus Op. 7 und 10 gekannt zu baben."
(31.) Finscher, 342.
(32.) See Van Rij, 105-6 and 117-18.Van Rij emphasizes the narrative problem posed by the death of the Beloved in the first poem of opus 7. but it is worth noting that Uhland's Wanderlieder contained exactly the same conundrum.
(33.) Brahms may have been thinking about putting together the opus 7 collection when he showed Clara a group of songs on 28 April 1854, She wrote in her diary: "Balms brought me Heeler by him. Several oh them very singular! But all that he showed me ate things already composed earlier." See Berthold Litzmann, Clara Schumann: Ein Kunstlerleben nach Tagebuchern und Briefen, 3 vols. (Leipzig: Breitkopf & Hartel, 1920), 2:311: "Brahms brachte mir Lieder von sich. Einiger darunter sehr eigentumlich! Abert alles, das er mir zeigt, sind schon fruher komponierte Sachen."
(34.) For a convenient summary of Robert's illness and Clara's responses to it, see Nancy B. Reich, Clara Schumann: The Artist and the Woman (Ithaca NY: Cornell University Press, 1985), 142-51.
(35.) Litzmann, 2:309: "Nachrichten von Dr. Peters (Assistant des Dr. Richartz), daB Roberts Befinden im ganzen wohl besser set Is in Anfang, daB aber die Beangstigungen noch oft wiederkehren, wo er dann unruhig im Zimmer auf und ab gehe und zuweilen auch niederkniee und die Hande ringe. ... Ich weinte den ganzen Tag heute! manchmal hale ich gar keine Trane mehr, dann wieder unaufhaltsam."
(36.) Ibid., 2:310-11: "Brahams und Grimm waren in Endenich gewesen und hatten sich selbst bei Dr. nach Robert erkundigt. Er war bedeutend ruhiger und verlangte wohl nach Blumen, die er in Dusseldorf immer gehabt habe. Ach, ich war wieder so aufgeregt dadurch, denn ich dachte, sollte er. wenn er der Mimeo. die er bier bane, gedenkt, nicht auch meiner gedenken? Und warum fragte er denn niemals nach mir? Warum verlangte er nie nach Nachrichten von mir? Oder verschloB er die Sehnsucht in sich? Wie schrecklich dann? Was litt er dann? Ach, wenn mir die Gedanken alle so kornmen. dann ist's schrecklich. April. Ein neuer Monat Wie viele werden noch anbrechen, bevor ich ihn wieclersehe? Ach, Gott, erbarme dich meiner, ich furchte, ich gehe unter im Schmerz."
(37.) Ibid., 2:312: "Ich fuhle mich recht unwohl, kann gar nicht schlafen die. Nachte, schlafe ich, so traume ich so unaufhorlich vom Robert. ... Diese Nacht horte ich ihn mehrmals seufzen, so naturlich, da[deta] nach seinem Bette hinsehen muBte, mich zu uberzeugen, da[deta] er es nicht war."
(38.) Ibid., 2:311: "Der gute Brahms zeigt sich immer recht als ein tieffuhlender Freund. Er spricht es nicht viel aus, aber man sieht es an seinem Gesichtszugen, seinem sprechendem Auge, wie er mit mir urn den Geliebten, den er ja so hoch verehrt, trauert."
(39.) Artur Holde, "Suppressed Passages in the Brahms-Joachim Correspondence Published for the First Time, Musical Quarterly 45, no. 3 (July 1959): 312-24. The English translation is by Willis Wager: "Ich glaube, ich achte und verchre sie doch nicht hoher als ich sie liebe u. in sie verliebt bin. Ich muss mich oft mit Gewalt halten. dass inch sie nicht ganz ruhig umfasse gar--: ich weiss nicht es kommt mich so naturlich vor, als oh sie es gar nicht ubel nehmen konnte./Ich meine, ein Madchen kann ich gar nicht mehr lieben, ich habe sie wenigstens ganz vergessen: die veisprechen nur doch den Himmel, den Clara uns geoffnet zeigt."
(40.) See Johannes Brahms im Briefwechsel mit Breikopf & Hartel, Bartolff Senff J. Rieter-Biedermann, C. F. Peters, E. W. Fritzsch und Robert Lienau (Berlin: Deutsche Btahams-Gesellschaft, 1920), 9-10.
(41.) Finscher, 341-44.
(42.) The three poems Eichendorff collectively entitled "Anklange" are: 1. "Liebe, wunderschones Leben;" 2. "Hoch uber stillen Hohen;" and 3. "Durch schwankende Wipfel," which also carries the separate title, "Jagdlied" See Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff, Gedichte: Zweite vermehrte und veranderte Auflage (Berlin: W. Simion, 1843). Brahms's copy of this edition is now found in the archive of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Vienna. Van Rij perceives a narrative thread in this group of three Eichendorff poems. See Van Rij, 117.
(43.) For a sensitive reading of "Anklange," see Heather Platt, "'Anklange' as Brahms's Lied Manifesto," American Brahms Society Newsletter 28, no. 1 (2010): 6-9.
(44.) Deutsche Volkslieder: Gesaimmelt von Georg Scherer (Leipzig: Verlag von Gustav Mayer, 1851). "Volkslied" and "Die Trauernde" fall on pages 188 and 185 respectively. "Volkslied" is a tide assigned by Brahms; in Scherer's anthology, the .poem is headed by its first line, "Die Schwalble ziehet fort." Brahms altered the title of "Die Trauernde," which, in Scherer's collection, is headed "Der Trauernde." Brahms thus changed the gender of the mourner from male to female, creating a closer relationship to the other opus 7 poems, all of which, with the exception of "Heimkehr" at the end, focus on a woman's point of view. "Der Trauernde" appears in another source in Brahms's library: Friedrich Karl Freiherr von Erlach. Die VoThslieder der Deutschen: Eine vollstandige Sammdung der vorzuglichen deutschen Volkslieder von der Mitte des funfzehnten bis in die erste Halfte des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts. Vierter Band (Mannheim: Heinrich Hoff, 1835), 332. The first edition of Brahms's song appears to conflate the orthography of these two sources, but there are several variants that belong to neither of them.. Since the title page of Erlach's anthology carries the stamp "Th. Ave Lallemant," it is likely that Brahms owned this book in the 1850s: we know that during that time he sometimes used the personal library of his Hamburg friend, Theodor Ave Lallemant, and also came to own some of Ave Lallemant's books.
(45.) Regarding Voss's rewriting of HOlty's "Der Miss," see Max Friedlander. Brahms's better, trans, C. Leonard Leese (London: Oxford University Press. 1928). 22-24.
(46.) The substitution is all the more striking because there is evidence that Brahms t'as attracted to "Lebewohl" as a potential text for compositional setting. It appears at the bottom of fol. 6v in one of several notebooks in which Brahms wrote down lied texts he was interested in composing. (The notebook in question is found in the Wien Bibliothek im Rathaus, Sig. H.I.N. 55734; I am grateful to the library for providing me with a copy of this source.) Apparently Brahms never set "Lebewohl" to music. since in the notebooks he ordinarily struck du ough texts when he composed music for them, and " Lewohl" remains uncanceled. However, three diet texts appear in this notebook: "Die Nonne" (fol. 5r). "Das Reh" (fol. 6v), and "Jagerlied" (fol. 6r). None are cancelled, but Brahms did compose a setting of "The Nonne" (op. 44. no. 6). In Brahms's tine. "Lebewohl" was a very famous intern, (the most composed of Uhland's lyrics. Ellis Challisted forty--nine published settings in 1885. aiming them one by Brahms's friend Georg Henschel. See Ernst Challier's, Ernst Challier's grosser Lieder-Katalog (Berlin: Ernst Challier's Selbstverlag, 1885). 497.
(47.) The complexity of Holty's language contrasts sharply with Uhland's straightforward, folk-song-like stanzas in "LebewoId," a model of propriety in construction as well as in content. However, Uhlrich Mahlert notes that Brahms's musical setting of Hay's sophisticated asclepiadic ode is remarkably folk-song-like. This decomplicating of the ode by musical means helps the listener make a more convincing narrative connection to the flike (Aland poems that follow it in opus 19. See Ulrich Mahlert. "Die Holty-Vertonungen von Brahms in Kontext der jeweiligen LiediTherte," in Brahms als Liedkompanist, Peter Jost, 6542 (Stuttgart: Franz steiner, 1992).
(48.) The other song pairs are "Liebe und Fruhling I" and "Liebe und Fruhling II" (Hoffmann von Fallerslehen) from opus "Regenlied" and "Nachklang" (Daimler) from opus 59; and "Sommerabend" and "Mondenschein" (Heine) from opus 85.
(49.) Daniel Stevens mites that "to my knowledge no other song composer has published two sequential songs that begin with nearly identical openings." See Daniel Stevens, "Brahms's Song Collections: Rethinking a Genre" (Ph.D. diss.. University of Michigan, 2008), 4. But Clara Schumann took the prolure in stride when she critiqued the songs in a letter to Prahms of 20 December 1858: "Of the songs, 'Scheiden und Meiden' pleases mite the most--I had to look al the title over and over again became I al ways thought it must be a lolksong; I love folk melodies. How ingeniously the 'In der Ferne' follow on it!" Clara Schuma,, Johannes B 1:235: "Von den Lirdern gerallt mir am schonsten 'Scheldel' und Meiden'--ich maBte mir hr L'bersehrift burner wiedel ansehen, weil ich immer dachte, es miittte ein Volkslied sein, ich meinc Volksmelodie. Wie sinnig reiht sich die 'In der Ferne' an!" Stevens also notes that this compositiiinal technique is remarkabb different from the way thematic recalls of work in the song cycle. In song cycle such as Beethoven's.In Geliebte and Schumann's Dichterliehe and Franenliehr Wirt, thematic recalls span multiple. In these cases the final song revisits it theme from the first or an intermediary song, thereby producing the sense of cyclic return. ..." See Stevens. 5; and Van Rij. 54.
(50.) For a recent discussion see Peter H. Smith, "New Perspectives on Brahms's Linkage Technique," Integral: The journal of Applied Musical Thought 21 (2007): 109-54.
(51.) This manuscript is part ot the collection Of music autographs and letters assembled by the Viennese tenor Amon Dermota. I was able to examine it in 1988 while it was on loan to the Osterreichische Nationalbibiothek in Vienna. For a description of the manuscript, see Margit Margit Margit McCorkle, Johannes Johannes. Brahms: Thematisch-bibliographisches Werkverzeichnis (Munich: G. Henle verlag, 1984), 68; and Katalog der Sammlung Anton Dermota: Musikhandschriften und Musikerbriefe, ed. Thomas Leibnitz and Agnes Ziffer (Tutzing: Hans Schneider, 1988), 15-17. I am grateful to the staff of the Ostcrtrichische National-bibliothek for providing me with an opportunity to study the manuscript.
(52.) For a description of this manuscript, sec McCorkle, 67; and Zdenek Nouza. "Beobachtungen zu Brahms'Stelltung im tzchechischen Musikleben seiner Zeit," in Brahm-Kongress Wien 1983: KongreAsbericht, ed. Susanne Ankinicek and Otto Biba, 405-25 (Ttuzing: Hans Schneider. 1988). In the Moravian Museum it carries the signal in e Nis. Mus. A.31.900. I am grateful to Ondrej Pivoda of the Department of the History of the Moravian Museum in Brno for providing me with a digital scan of this source.
(53.) See and N1cCorkle, 67-68, "Anmerkungen."
(54.) The Abschrift of An eine Aeolsharfe" came to light only in the 1990s, and is 'housed at the Brahms-Institut an der Musikhoschule Lubeck. See Renate Hofmann, "Katalog der Stichvorlagen," in 32 Stichvorlagen von Werken Johannes Brahms. Patrimonia. 107 (Kiel: Kulturstiftung der Lander. 1995), 23-58, esp. 26-27. Only Abschrift pages 4.5. and 6 are paginated.
(55.) In at least one other instance, Brahms is known to have transposed a song from its original key to fit into the key sequence of an opus collection: Holty's "Veilchen," which originally stood in E-flat major, but appears in E major Hi opus 49. (See Van Rij. 76.)
(56.) Stephens argues that "Scheiden und Meiden" is structurally broken off and needs "In der Ferne". for its completion, leading him to suggest that Brahms may have intended the two lieder to form a "multi-song." See Stevens, 7-10. This perspective is supported by the shift from D minor to D major after m. 12 of "In der Feme." The short duration of the minor mode in "In der Feme" proper seems incongruous, but when the duration of "Scheiden und Meiden" is added to the minor-mode area, the minor/major duality of the two songs as a whole seems well balanced.
(57.) Van Rij also observes (p. 52) that the thematic recall in "In der Ferne" does not seem to be textually motivated: "Significantly, the repeated theme is abandoned after just a few bars, for the narrator is now 'in der Ferne' (in a distant place)."
(58.) Despite Brahms's fondness for melodies based on leaps within the tonic triad, only one other song emphasizes the 1-5-8 ascent found at the beginning of "Scheiden und Meiden" and "In der Ferne": "Der Jager," op. 95, no. 4. In this case the reference to the open notes of the hunting horn are obviously relevant to the text.
(59.) See the accounts in Emil Michelmann, Agathe von Siebold: Johannes Brahms' Jugendliebe (Stuttgart; Berlin: J. G. Cotuesche Buchliandlting Nachfolge, 1930); and Hans Kuntzel, 'Aber Fesseln tragen kann ich nicht': Johannes Brahms und Agathe von Siebold (Gottingen: Steidl Verlag, 2003), 126-36.
(60.) Joachim and Agathe saw each other frequently that summer. She sang a variety of his and her own favorite lieder, and he compared her high, clear soprano voice to the sound of an Amati violin. Besides almost daily music making, she recalled that "The joint excursions were also wonderfully glorious, full of beauty and poetry. Often we lay in the woods or on the edge of the woods in the shadows and read beautiful things aloud to each other. ..." (Kunezel, 134: "Wunderherrlich, voll Schonheit und Poesie, waren auch die gemeinsamen Ausfluge. Oft lagen wir in Wald oder am Waldrand im Schatten und lasen uns schone Sachen vor." For more extended information about Agathe's summer with Joachim, see Michelmann, 113-34.) Agathe was captivated by Joachim and he showed her much more attention than he customarily bestowed on amateur singers. It was at about this time that Joachim's hopes of romantic acceptance by Gisella von Arnim were fading, and by the end of 1857 they were completely extinguished. During that fall and winter Joachim asked to be remembered to Agathe in several letters to Grimm, and when he later became engaged to Amalie Schneeweiss, she observed in a letter to him that Agathe was still very fond of him. For Joachim's greetings to Agathe in his correspondence with Grimm, see Briefe von. und an Joseph Joachim, ed. Johannes Joachim and Andreas Moser, 3 vols. (Berlin: Julius Bard, 1911), 1:436, in a letter of [2 August 1857]; 1:460, in a letter of 12 and 13 November 1857; 1:469, in a letter of [1 December 1857]; and 2:15, in a letter of [17 April 1858]. Regarding Amalie Schneeweiss's observations about Agathe, see Bcatrix Borchard, Stimme und Geige: Amalie und Joseph Joachim, 2d cd. (Vienna: Milan, 2007), 137 and 244.
(61.) John Daverio has provided the most thorough critique of the use of such musical ciphers by Robert Schumann, joachim, and Brahms. See John Daverio, Crossing Paths: Schubert, Schumann, and Brahms (Oxford: New Vint.: Oxford University Press, 2062), 65-124.
(62.) Daverio developed .5 set of "rules" that describe how Brahms typically used ciphers in the relatively few cases in which his doing .o can be corroborated from sonic form of documentary evidence outside the music itself: "1. One min encipher a proper name or the acronym for a brief expression. 2. Replace every musical letter in the plaintext with its precise pitch equivalent. 3. The enciphered plaintext. in its basic form, should occur at the beginning of the piece or should articulate an important sectional division. 4. The basis form may be associated with any rhythm, articulation, or dynamic. but repetitions of individual pitt Si groups of pitches are to be avoided. 5. Generally, the bask from should appear first in an upper part, less often in the bass. 6. Generally. the basis from should dominate in the piece or section. 7. The hash It in should be treated as a self-sufficient motive. 8. The Should basis can be developed in a variety of ways: it may be transposed. Heated in sequence, or melodically altered or transformed; it initiate lunge! melodically with filter melodic ideas; individual pitches from the cell may altered or displaced lw alternate pitches to generate new the matter ideas, but the basic initiate should be presented first. It generates all subsequent forms" (ibid.. 108-9). An unavoidable limiting feature of Daverio's tides is that the are based on only five installs in Brahms's musical work: 1. The "F. A. E." Sonata, Woo) 2, Sherzo: Piano Sonata, op. 5, last movement; Fugue in A-Flat Into. WoO 8: "Und gehst fiber den Kirchhof," op. 44. no. 10; and the String Sextet, op. 36, first movement. The rules, in other words, are not really generalizations. They simply codify what happens in a small number of specific instances. One must presume that Daverio might have expanded the rules if he had been aware of the cipher discussed here and convinced of its validity. In order to accommodate the E-H-E cipher, rule I would have to be expanded to include words other than proper names or acronyms; rule 4 would have to be expanded to allow for the anacrusis that begins both "Scheiden und Meiden" and "In der Ferne," an allowance that should probably be made owing to the meter of the poetry. All the other rules would hold as Daverio proposed them.
(63.) Daverio noted that, "On the basis of a comment in a letter from [Robert] Schumann to Clara of April 1838, where he observes that 'Ehe,' the German word for marriage,' is a 'musical word.' and even writes out its pitch equivalent (E-B-E), we might also want to add 'Mondnacht; the filth ss mg from the Eichendorff Liederkrieis (Op. 39), to the list [of Schumann's authenticated ciphers). Composed in Max' 1840, when, marriage was very much on Schumann's mind, this song makes prominent use of the pitch cell E-B-E" (ibid., 75).
(64.) Johannes Brahms in Briefwechsel mit J. 0. Grimm, ed. Richard Barth (Berlin: Deutsche Brahms-Gesellschaft, 1912). 68: "Ich schreibe in ein paar Wochen nicht. Ihr seid mir Antwort schuldig und dies (die Noten auch) sind wieder ein Brief./GruBet Agathe von in it. Ich lege em paar Lieder fur sic ein, die--einer--na,--kurz, recht hoflich fur mich." I have used the translation in Johannes Brahms: Life and Letter, ed.. Styra Avins, trans. Styra Avins and Joseph Eislinger (Oxford: New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 178. Another transcript Intl of the text of this letter exists in the J. A. Stargardt Autographenhandlung, Lot 757. Besides recooling abbreviations and punctuational Yuri-ants not found in Barth's edited text, there is a notable variate "lege ein paar Leder fik sie cin. die in einer na, und ich wunschte dabei, na kurt, redet hoflich lur mich." In view of the importance of this letter to the argument herr. I have incorporated the variants in the Stargardt transcription into the Avins/Eisinger translation parenthetically. Brahms's implication in this letter that the manuscript of "Scheiden und Meiden" and in der Ferne" carried an important message for Agathe may well provide the kind of independent documentary corroboration of a cipher that Daverio required.
(65.) Johannes Brahms int Briefwechsel mit J. O. Grimm, 76: "Aber die Uhlandischen beiden Lieder haben so stark gewirkt und mein Herz erfullt, daB in diesem Augenblick furs Brautlied nicht mehr viel Matz ist; sowohl Wort wie Weise ist in den Liedern zu ergreifend. um einen in gleichmutiger Stimmung ins gebenedeite Haus eintreten zu lassen." Avins proposed a reordering of the Grimm/Brahms letters in which Barth's letter no. 40, cited in the preceding note, immediately precedes no. 44, cited here. (Avins 748.) This reordering is confirmed in Sandberger and Wiesnfelds-Briefwechsel-Verzeichnis.
(66.) See Johannes Brahms in Briefwechsel miff. 0. Grimm 76 n.2.
(67.) See Uhland, Gedichte, Neuesle, Auflage (1839), 29. Brahms's Brautgesang was originally scored for soprano solo, women's chorus, and orchestra. Some choral parts I rum a version in E major that Brahms rehearsed with his Hamburg frauenchor have survived (see McCorkle. Anhang III, Nr. 12, p. 679). It Is .111 intriguing question whether the original version Brahms sent to his Gottingen friends was also E major. The work opens with a soprano solo, undoubtedly conceived for Agitate. Brahms used this material later in the Ziemlich langsam section of his Famous song, "Von ewiger Liebe." pp. 43. no. 1 (mm. 79-121, but transposed to the key. of B major). None of the intrumental accompaniment for the original Brautgesang survives, but it may be significant that the .accompaniment to the Brautgesang material in "Von fiche," if transposed back to F. major, begins with a gently rocking piano figure replete with the musical letters E--H--E. The key of E major, besides facilitating the "marriage" cipher, was associated with the character of Agathe in Carl Maria von Weber's Der Freischutz. In the opera, Agathe is the personification ii virtuous German womanhood. For a partial reconstruction of Brahms's Brautgesang and a discussion of its relationship to "Von ewiger Liebe." see Paul Buettner Berry. "Memory, Inspiration, and Compositional Process in the Solo Songs of Johannes Brahms" (Ph D diss., Vale University, 2007), 116-24.
(68.) At this time. Brahms generally allowed Grimm to make copies of his unpublished works and send the original manuscripts back to him. This apparently kippened with the 1.7hland song pair. Grimm appended a note at the end of the same letter quoted above: "I am sending your lieder to you soon. The copyists here are true bloc klieads: they can't read." (Johannn Bruhn') tm Briefwerhsel mit J. 0. Grimm, 77: "Deiner Lieder schick' ich Dir nachstens. Die Abschreiber sind hier wahre Teekessel, sic konnen nit lit lesen." Grimm was probably referring teasingly to Agathe Philipine as the dithering copyists.) Assuming that Grimm did eventually return Brahms's manuscript, it is not impossible, given its date, that the Dermota manuscript could be that very document. It is interesting, then, that the manuscript carries a dedication to Bertha Porubszky. it could not have been added before 1859, when Brahms first met Bertha through her Hamburg teacher, Carl Gradener. Brahms Was attracted to Bertha. His letters it her, which were also addressed to her aunt, Auguste Brandt. as haiterone, are extraordinarily high-spirited. to the point of being flirtatious. (See Avins. 187 and 202-7.) One wonders whether Brahms otitem-plated putting the manuscript to use a second time to luint at serious intentions. Leibnitz and Ziffer note that the previous owner of the Dermota manuscript was Bertha Porubszky (See Katalog der Sammlung Anton Dermota. 16). and Max Kalbeck indicates that it was in the possession of Frau Bertha Faller (nee Porubszky) at the time of writing of his Brahms biography. See Max Kalbeck, Johannes Brahms, 4 vols. (Berlin: Deutsche Brahms-Gesellschaft, 1904-14, in various editions), 1:335 in the 2d edition of 1908. I am not aware of the whereabouts of the manuscript between Fr. Faber's death in 1910 and its acquisition by Anton Dermont.
(69.) Peter Jost notes that "Der Kuss" and "Der Schmied" share not only the key of B flat but also a similar handling of the bass, with an emphasis on the scale degrees I and 5, See Peter Jost, "Lieder und Gesange," in Brahms Handbuch, ed. Wolfgang Sandberger, 208-67 esp. 233 (Kassel: Barenreiter, 2009).
(70.) Daniel Stevens suggests that "An eine Aeolsharfe" constitutes a "dramatic. wholesale shift in expressive genre" in relation to the first four songs of opus 19 (Stevens, 12). The notion of a "la eal," between these songs and the final one is even reflected I in the manuscript history of the collection, iii which the Stichvorlage of the first lour songs are find in a unified manuscript and the final one is in the hand of a copyist.
(71.) Brahms's handwritten title page for the hi ii manuscript emphasizes this symmetry, with the Holty title inscribed on the first line, the three Uhland titles combined on the second line, and the Morike title on die third line. (This title page is reproduced in Nouza, 424.) The printed title page for the first edition of opus 19 has a very similar. not completely identical organization, and one wonders whether Brahms indicated to Simrock in some way that he meant his manuscript title page to be a rough model for the printed one. Urich Malden notes that the texts of the first and last songs of opus 19 share the imagery of spring. He also observes: "That the Flaky setting stands at the beginning of the volume of songs and the Morike song at the end has a double meaning: in the first place, the love relationship to which the memories of the last song refer 'begins' in the opening song; in the second place, Morike's (contemporary) poetry has its origins in that of the older Holty and even presupposes it. In reality, Morike's poem is closely related to Holty's in these ways: the lyrical tenderness, the linguistic, and not least rhythmic and metrical artifice, the integration of the forms and motives ot ancient poetry encountered here and there. ... The ingenious arrangement of' the two geneticallv related settings of Holty and Morike as a frame for Op. 19 demonstrates Brahms's literary education and sensibility, and shows that this volume of lieder is more than an unrelated combining of individual songs." See Mahlert, 73-74: "DaB die Holty-Vertonungen am Anfang und der Marike-Gesang am SchluB des Liederliefts stein, hat dither em n doppelten Sinn: Zuni einen 'beginnt' die Liebe, auf die sich das Erinnern des Schltifigesangs beziehen 15.14, im Erianungslied; nun andern 'wurzele Morike's (zeitgenossisi Poesie in der 5Iteren Holtys, setzt diese also vtirous. In der Tat ist Morike's Dichtung derieiligen riberaus Ain: Die lyrische Zartheii, die sprachlichr. nicht zuletzt metrisch-rhythmist he the Integration von Formen und Motiven antiker Dichtung etwas begegnen bier wie dort. ... Die sinnreiche Cruppierung der beiden entstehungsgeschichtlich benachbarten Vertonungen von Holty and Morike ifs Rahmen des Op. 19 demonstriert Brahms' literarische Bildung und Sensibilitat und erweist daB theses liederheft mehr ist als eine bezuglose Zusammenstellung von Einzelliedern." Mahlert's position contrasts noticeably with that of Kalbeck, who also, tbserved the "framing" function of the first and last songs in opus 19, but who took the position that Brahms was not aware of the classical underpinnings of their texts: "Brahms, who first studied Latin two years later with Dr. Emil Hallier in Hamburg, stood at that time completely naive in relation to the German imitation of ancient strophes, as his composition of the Holly poem proves. He did not know that it had to do with aesclepiadic verses, and took the measured falling of the poem's syllables for free rhythm." See Kalbeck, 1:332: "Brahms, der erst zwei fahre darauf bei Dr. Emil Hallier Latein studierte, stand damals der .deutschen Nachbildung antiker Strophen noch vollig naiv gegenilber, wie seine Komposition des Haltyschen Gedichtes beweist. Er wuBte nicht, daB er es mit asklepiadschen Strophen to tun hatte, Lind nahm den gemessenen Silbenfall des 'Kusses' fur freie Rhythmen."
(72.) Morike wrote the poem during a time when he was also translating classical texts for his anthology. Classische Blumenlese, and several lines of "An eine Acolsharfe" reproduce Horace's ancient meters. See Classische Blumenlese: Eine Auswahl von Hymen, Oden, Liedern, Elegies, Idyllen. Gunmen und Einparrimen der Griechen mud Romer, nach der bestm Verdrittsch theilweise neu gearbeitel. mit Erklurungen gebildete Leser, ed. Eduard Morike (Stuttgart: E. Si hweit/erbart'sche Verlagshandlung, 1840). The collection contains nineteen odes by Horace.
(73.) "Tu semper urges flebilibus modis/Mysten ademptum: nec tibi Vespero/Surgente decedent amores,/Nec rapidum fugiente Solent." (The punctuation and capitalizations are Morike's and differ from the Latin original.) Brahms may have recived some instruction in Latin as a youth). The private school of Johann Friedrich Hoffmann that Brahms attended from age eleven to tom teen employed a Latin teacher, Adloph Ferdinand Edict. See Meisner; and Friedricke A. Klose and K. Fr. (hr. Piper, Privatschule von Johann Friedrich Hoffmann in Hamburg 1828-1883, typescript, 19. However, the fact that Brahms undertook the private study of Latin in the winter of 1860-61 with Dr. Emil 1-1 let suggests that his early training in that language, if he recived any, scented insufficient to hint. See Walter Hubbe, Brahms in Hamburg (Hamburg: Lutcke und Wulff. 1902), 34-35. So Brahms probably used a translation to decipher the epigram, perhaps the one by Ch. Wilhelm] Binder included in Horaz' samtliche Werke: In metrischen Uebersetzungen. A usgeweihll von Dr. Th[eodor] Obbarito (Berlin: Carl] Klemann 1857), a volume still found today in Brahms's library (Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, Vienna lation of the epigram is based on Binder's text: "Nur du verfolgst mit ewigem Klagerou Des/sees Abschied; weder, wann Hesperus/Aufgeht, verlaBt dich deine Sehnsucht,/Noch wann er fleucht vor der Sonne Allmacht."
(74.) See the discussion of "An eine Aeolsharfe" by Ulrich Kiustein in Morike Handbuch: Lbern--Werk--Wirkung, ed. Inge and Reiner Wild (Stuttgart; Weimar: A. B. Metzler. 2004). 129-31.
(75.) I refer to the meaning of the epigram in the broad sense that it represents the need to lay aside a long-lasting sorrow. Scholars today connect the epigram to Morike's long-standing grief over the loss of his brother, August, but it is impossible to know whether Brahms was aware of this information.
(76.) Johannes Brahms im Briefwedisel mit J. 0 Grimm, 111: "... tauche alsogleich eine Feder chi und laB mir wissen, wie es aussieht in all den Hausern in die man so gern ging. Auch von .jenem Haus land Careen am Tor schreib mir." Grimm had In The meantime moved to Minister, but was then visiting &Antigen, and Brahms took the oppprtunity inquire about acquaintances there.
(77.) See Florence May, The Lift of Johannes Brahms, 2 vols. (London: Arnold, 1905; reprint, Neptune City, NJ: Paganiniana, 1981), 2:354-56; and Kalbeck, 1:330-31, and 2:157; as well as Johannes Brahms im Briefieechsel mit Joseph Joachim, 2:290-92. Several years earlier, most likely between the summer of 1859 and the beginning of 1860. Brahms had also memorialized Agathe's name in the ostinato-like opening bass line of his part-song for womens' voices, "Und gehst du fiber den Kirchhol," op. 44, no. 10. See McCorkle, 162; and Daverio, 103-5. so of Brahms's five musical text-ciphers identified by Daverio, two were connected with Agathe. The cipher proposed here would constitute a third one. Paul Berry noies that it. was also in 1864 that Brahms completed "Von ewiger Liebe," which incorporates material from the Braulgesang he had sent to Agathe in the fall of 1858. See Berry, 121-24.
(78.) Such a shift in perspective is embedded even in the manuscript history of "An eine Aeolsharfe." The title page of the Stichvoriage, an Abschrift with refinements in Brahms's hand (Brahms-Institut an der Musikhochschule Ltibeck, Sign. Bra: A2: 4; Inv. Nr.: 1995.0032) reads "An eine Aeolsharfe (Moricke)/Fantasie," in the copyist's hand, with the subtitle "Fantasie" .cancelled in lead pencil by Brahms. A Fantasie in Brahms's time was rewarded as a musical composition "without any particular form"; to fantasize in the musical sense was "to play according to one's own feeling, and power of invention," i.e., in a self-reflexive way. See Julius Schuberth, Kleine.s .musikalisches Conversations-Lexikon (Lepizig; New York: Schuberth, 1865), 99. So the subtitle suggests that Brahms regarded the song as especially free in form and expressive in content.
(79.) Van Rij arrives at a similar conclusion working from the standpoint of the stylistic traits of the songs themselves (p. 122): "When considered in light of the hyper-modern final song, the folk style of Brahms's setting of the first song seems to speak from a simpler time that, by the end of the collection, is the subject of nostalgic reflection."
(80.) See especially Fellinger, Van Rij, and Stevens. I cannot broach the subject of "cyclic tendencies" without saying that I think we need to be very cautious .about connecting the word "cyclic" to Brahms's opus collections in general. The hints at narrative coherence that come from Brahms's use of texts from Uhland's Wanderlieder are exceptional. More commonly, there is a discernible, yet elusive sense of coherence in a number of Brahms's opus collections that seems related to the general organizational practices of poets, who sometimes presented lyrics related in subject or mood close to each other in their published works, and literary an who often organized their collections by topic. BY drawing poems--and sometimes pairs or small clusters id pi wins--front sources in which the coherence of subject matter or imagery was a priority for the poet or anthologist, Brahms gave himselfl ample opportunities to create a similar sort of coherence within sonw of his song collections. So it is possible that the end of his compositional process for a song opus--the selection and arrangement of the songs comprising it--was sometimes facilitated 115 the beginning of the compositional process, with the selection of texts from sources in which multipoem coherence was a significant factor in the presentation of texts.
William Home is professor of musk theory and composition at Loyola University New Orleans, and coeditor of die American Brahms Society Newsletter.
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|Title Annotation:||Ludwig Uhland and Johannes Brahms|
|Article Type:||Critical essay|
|Date:||Dec 1, 2012|
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