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Recreational Fisheries in Biscayne National Park, Florida, 1976-1991.

Introduction

Biscayne National Park (BNP) is located in southeastern Florida just south of Miami (Fig. 1). It has a variety of subtropical marine habitats, including the most northerly coral reefs of the continental United States (Hoffmeister, 1974; Jaap, 1984). Since 1976, recreational creel surveys of anglers were conducted for BNP and surrounding waters. Survey objectives were to establish and maintain baseline recreational fisheries information for long-term resource monitoring, provide estimates of recreational harvest and fishing effort, and detect changes in harvest composition and fishery trends.

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In previous studies, Tilmant et al. (1979) did not detect significant ecological impacts from anchoring or fishing activities while conducting fishery-independent underwater monitoring of the resources at selected coral patch reefs in BNP. Tilmant (1981) found no evidence of long-term declines in catch rates of frequently harvested species between 1976 and 1979, but he noted that catches of groupers (Epinephelus and Mycteroperca spp.) had declined during 1979. Tilmant (1981) concluded that size classes of harvested fishes had remained stable and that the levels of recreational consumption between 1976 and 1979 were not depleting BNP resources. Tilmant and Stone(1) estimated average annual recreational landings between 1979 and 1983 at 145,300 finfishes, 2,350 lobsters, and 450 conchs. They concluded that the percentage of sportfishing trips with landings had remained fairly stable at about 88% between 1976 and 1983.

This paper reviews available BNP recreational creel census data collected before 1992 when hurricane Andrew disrupted data collection and caused extensive damage to local natural and human resources (Pimm et al., 1994; Tilmant et al., 1994). Our objectives are to: 1) summarize and identify significant changes in recreational landings, 2) compare spearfishing to other recreational fishing modes in terms of selectivity and quantity of landings, and 3) compare recreational landings with fishery-independent, visual abundance estimates made by National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) divers.

Materials and Methods

Creel census interviews were conducted by BNP personnel and volunteers using standardized data collection procedures (Davis and Thue, 1979). Data collection included a fishing party trip interview and biological sampling of landings conducted at the conclusion of a recreational fishing trip. Anglers were asked to indicate where they fished based on a map showing areas or zones used to partition Biscayne National Park and surrounding waters (Fig. 1). Statistical fishing areas 20 through 24 were added after 1983 as the result of a park boundary extension. Interview data collected included: date of trip, trip hours, number of anglers, hours fished, number, species, and lengths of fish caught, number and species of fish released, preferred species, area fished, angler residence, origin of trip, and fishing party composition. Biological sampling consisted of taking fork or total length measurements of selected organisms in landings. Some length measurements taken during the first two years (1976 and 1977) were specified only at the family level.

Fishing party composition was classified by the interviewer into one of seven possible fishing categories: skilled, family, novice, sustenance (food), spearfishing, lobster diving, and other. Skilled anglers demonstrated expertise in several ways, such as knowledge of park waters, fishing experience, fishing rods rigged with appropriate artificial lures, or fishing in a specialized manner for particular fish. Novice fishermen had little experience fishing or had little experience in the BNP. The family designation applied to groups of adults and children or to groups of adults whose primary interest was other than fishing. Sustenance fishermen were those primarily fishing for food and tended to keep everything caught. Diving parties were classified according to whether the primary purpose was spearfishing or catching spiny lobster, Panulirus argus. Divers were not classified in terms of experience (novice or skilled) or purpose (recreation or food).

Data from January 1976 through August 1991 were entered, stored, and analyzed using a Wang(2) computer database at the Everglades National Park (ENP) approximately 30 miles from BNP headquarters. This computer system became obsolete and inoperative before its scheduled replacement. In November 1993, a backup copy (MS DOS format(2)) of all computerized records in the BNP Recreational Creel Census Database was provided to NMFS. The backup consisted of twelve 3.5" high density diskettes with two ASCII data files of recreational interviews (7.1Mb) and fish lengths (5.7Mb). The Fish Length file contained length measurement records of individual fish and spiny lobster as well as data fields for date, species, and interview number. The Recreational Interviews dataset contained all other information provided during each interview. Interview number was the relational field that linked the two datasets.

The data were reformatted and edited by converting the two ASCII files into two SAS files (version 6.04)(2). Data were verified and edited for obvious minor data entry errors using the exploratory data analysis and summarization procedures of the SAS System. These error corrections included: reconciliation of duplicate interview numbers and interviews, unrealistic or out of bounds dates and fish sizes, duplicate species kept and released data within a given interview, and some errors in record formatting. Although most data entry errors were intuitively corrected, some ([is less than] 1% of total) questionable or unidentifiable data elements remained unresolved. These involved coded variables for area fished, angler residence, interview location, trip origin, and species which could not be verified. For the purposes of this report, unidentifiable species codes were recoded to miscellaneous fish while all other unresolvable data elements were set to missing variables.

Annual mean landings-per-unit-of-effort (LPUE) and catch-per-unit-of-effort (CPUE) were calculated for selected species. In this report "catch" refers to all organisms caught by recreational fishing while "landings" refers only to organisms caught and brought to shore. "Catch" comprises landings plus organisms reported caught but not brought back to shore, including organisms released (if alive), discarded (if dead), used for bait, or consumed at sea. Fishing effort was measured by angler-hour or trip. Annual rates (fish-per-angler-hour) were obtained using a mean of ratios estimator approach (Malvestuto, 1983) by averaging calculated rates of individual trips successful for the given species during a calendar quarter and then averaging the four quarters. This method was used in previous studies of recreational fisheries in southern Florida (Rutherford et al., 1989a,b; Tilmant et al. 1989).

Scientific and common names of fishes used in this report are according to Robins et al. (1991). Weights were estimated for individual fish by convening measured length to weight according to species specific conversion formulae (Bohnsack and Harper, 1988). Zone usage was analyzed by number of trips and landings. For analytical purposes, trip and landings data were divided equally between relevant zones for interviews indicating use of more than one zone.

A comparison of angling and spearfishing was made for the six most commonly speared species based on mean annual landed fish weight and mean annual total landings per trip. Because data for some species were only collected at the family level from 1976 thru 1978, these years were dropped from some analyses.

Results

The BNP Recreational Creel Census Database contained 28,923 interviews completed between January 1976 and July 1991. The mean number of interviews conducted per year was 1,807 with a maximum of 3,587 in 1982 and a minimum of 511 in 1991 (through July only) (Fig. 2). The number of annual interviews dropped significantly after 1983, the second half of the survey period.

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Interviews were weighted toward weekends (26,252 or 90.8%), followed by weekdays (2,035 or 7.0%) and holidays (611 or 2.1%). Most interviews (24,768 or 85.7%) were completed during the afternoon between 1:00 and 5:00 when most fishermen were returning to the dock. Over 98% of the interviews were conducted from two locations: Convoy Point (26,037 or 90.0%), the location of BNP headquarters, and Homestead Bayfront Park (2,448 or 8.5%) (Fig. 1). Only 28 interviews reported Black Point Marina as the trip origination site, and those were primarily lobster trips. The high probability of being sampled or encountering a ranger at Convoy Point may have biased the data toward anlers who were particularly conscious of fisheries regulations.

Fishing Party Composition and Species Preferences

Fishing party composition by percentage of total interviews in decreasing order were: skilled, family, novice, spearfishing, lobstering, food, and other (Table 1). During the survey period, the percentage of party types in the food category increased, while the novice category decreased (Fig. 3). The spearfishing component tended to remain fairly stable throughout the survey period, averaging 12% (from 7 to 16%) of the interviewed trips. Composition among fishing groups may have some bias, however, particularly with regard to inflated sampling of lobster fishermen because of concerted sampling effort during the beginning of lobster season and during the annual 2 day spiny lobster recreational mini-season. Also, large changes in party classification for novice and skilled categories observed from 1987 through 1990 may reflect changes in personnel conducting interviews.

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Table 1.--Total landings and reported releases in numbers by species
or higher taxa by fishing party type in the Biscayne National Park
sportfishing creel census (n = 28,923 recreational fishing trips
sampled from January 1976 through July 1991).

Family Scientific name Common name

Orectolobidae, Carpet sharks
 1 Ginglymostoma cirratum Nurse shark
Carcharhinidae, Requiem sharks
 2 Carcharhinus falciformis Silky shark
 3 Carcharhinus limbatus Blacktip shark
 4 Carcharhinus spp. Unidentified shark
 5 Negaprion brevirostris Lemon shark
Sphyrnidae, Hammerhead sharks
 6 Sphyrna mokarran Great hammerhead
 7 Sphyrna tiburo Bonnethead
Dasyatidae, Stingrays
 8 Dasyatis spp. Unidentified stingray
Elopidae, Tarpons
 9 Elops saurus Ladyfish
 10 Megalops atlanticus Tarpon
Albulidae, Bonefishes
 11 Albula vulpes Bonefish
Muraenidae, Morays
 12 Gymnothorax moringa Spotted moray
 13 Gymnothorax spp. Unidentified moray
Clupeidae, Herrings
 14 N.A. Unidentified herring
Synodontidae, Lizardfishes
 15 Synodus spp. Unidentified lizardfish
Ictaluridae, Bullhead
 catfishes
 16 N.A. Unidentified catfish
Ariidee, Sea catfishes
 17 Arius felis Hardhead catfish
Exocoetidae, Flyingfishes/
 halfbeaks
 18 Hemiramphus brasiliensis Ballyhoo
Belonidae, Needlefishes
 19 Strongylura spp. Unidentified needlefish
 20 Tylosurus crocodilus Houndfish
Holocentridae, Squirrelfishes
 21 Holocentrus adscensionis Squirrelfish
 22 Holocentrus spp. Unidentified squirrelfish
Aulostomidae, Trumpetfishes
 23 Aulostomus maculatus Trumpetfish
Centropomidae, Snooks
 24 Centropomus ensiferus Swordspine snook
 25 Centropomus undecimalis Common snook
Serranidae, Sea basses
 26 Diplectrum formosum Sand perch
 27 Epinephelus adscensionis Rock hind
 28 Epinephelus cruentatus Graysby
 29 Epinephelus drummondhayi Speckled hind
 30 Epinephelus flavolimbatus Yellowedge grouper
 31 Epinephelus fulvus Coney
 32 Epinephelus guttatus Red hind
 33 Epinephelus inermis Marbled grouper
 34 Epinephelus itajara Jewfish
 35 Epinephelus morio Red grouper
 36 Epinephelus striatus Nassau grouper
 37 Mycteroperca bonaci Black grouper
 Mycteroperca
 interstitialis Yellowmouth grouper
 39 Mycteroperca microlepis Gag
 40 Mycteroperca phenax Scamp
 41 Mycteroperca venenosa Yellowfin grouper
 42 Paranthias furcifer Creole-fish
 43 N.A. Unidentified grouper
Grammistidae, Soapfishes
 44 Rypticus saponaceus Greater soapfish
Priacanthidae, Bigeyes
 45 Priacanthus arenatus Bigeye
 46 N.A. Unidentified bigeye
Malacanthidae, Tilefishes
 47 Malacanthus plumieri Sand tilefish
 48 N.A. Unidentified tilefish
Pomatomidae, Bluefishes
 49 Pomatomus saltatrix Bluefish
Rachycentridae, Cobias
 50 Rachycentron canadum Cobia
Echeneidae, Remoras
 51 Echeneis naucrates Sharksucker
Carangidae, Jacks
 52 Alectis ciliaris African pompano
 53 Caranx bartholomaei Yellow jack
 54 Caranx crysos Blue runner
 55 Caranx hippos Crevalle jack
 56 Caranx latus Horae-eye jack
 57 Caranx ruber Bar jack
 58 Caranx spp. Unidentified jack
 59 Decapterus macarellus Mackerel scad
 60 Elagatis bipinnulata Rainbow runner
 61 Oligoplites saurus Leatherjacket
 62 Selene vomer Lookdown
 63 Seriola dumerili Greater amberjack
 64 Seriola rivoliana Almaco jack
 65 Trachinotus carolinus Florida pompano
 66 Trachinotus falcatus Permit
Coryphaenidae, Dolphins
 67 Coryphaena equisetis Pompano dolphin
 68 Coryphaena hippurus Dolphin
Lutjanidae, Snappers
 69 Etelis oculatus Queen snapper
 70 Lutjanus analis Mutton snapper
 71 Lutjanus apodus Schoolmaster
 72 Lutjanus buccanella Blackfin snapper
 73 Lutjanus campechanus Red snapper
 74 Lutjanus cyanopterus Cubera snapper
 75 Lutjanus griseus Gray snapper
 76 Lutjanus jocu Dog snapper
 77 Lutjanus mahogoni Mahogany snapper
 78 Lutjanus spp. Unidentifed snapper
 79 Lutjanus synagris Lane snapper
 80 Lutjanus vivanus Silk snapper
 81 Ocyurus chrysurus Yellowtail snapper
 82 Rhomboplites aurorubens Vermilion snapper
Lobotidae, Tripletails
 83 Lobotes surinamensis Tripletail
Gerreidae, Mojarras
 84 Gerres cinereus Yellowfin mojarra
Haemulidae, Grunts
 85 Anisotremus surinamensis Black margate
 86 Anisotremus virginicus Porkfish
 87 Haemulon album Margate
 88 Haemulon aurolineatum Tomtate
 89 Haemulon carbonarium Caesar grunt
 90 Haemulon chrysargyreum Smallmouth grunt
 91 Haemulon flavolineatum French grunt
 92 Haemulon macrostomum Spanish grunt
 93 Haemulon parrai Sailor's choice
 94 Haemulon plumieri White grunt
 95 Haemulon sciurus Bluestriped grunt
 96 Haemulon spp. Unidentified grunt
 97 Haemulon striatum Striped grunt
 98 Orthopristis chrysoptera Pigfish
Sparidae, Porgies
 99 Archosargus
 probatocephalus Sheepshead
100 Archosargus rhomboidalis Sea bream
101 Calamus arctifrons Grass porgy
102 Calamus bajonado Jolthead porgy
103 Calamus calamus Saucereye porgy
104 Calamus nodosus Knobbed porgy
105 Calamus proridens Littlehead porgy
106 Calamus spp. Unidentifed porgy
107 Lagodon rhomboides Pinfish
Sciaenidae, Drums
108 Cynoscion nebulosus Spotted seatrout
Mullidae, Goatfishes
109 Mulloidichthys martinicus Yellow goatfish
110 Pseudupeneus maculatus Spotted goatfish
Kyphosidae, Sea chubs
111 Kyphosus incisor Yellow chub
112 Kyphosus sectatrix Bermuda chub
113 Kyphosus spp. Unidentified chub
Ephippidae, Spadefishes
114 Chaetodiperus faber Atlantic spadefish
Pomacanthidae, Angelfishes
115 Holacanthus ciliaris Queen angelfish
116 Pomacanthus arcuatus Gray angelfish
117 Pomacanthus paru French angelfish
118 N.A. Unidentified anglefish
Pomacentridae, Damselfishes
119 Abudefduf saxatilis Sergeant major
Labridae, Wrasses
120 Bodianus rufus Spanish hogfish
121 Halichoeres bivittatus Slippery dick
122 Halichoeres radiatus Puddingwife
123 Halichoeres spp. Unidentified wrasse
124 Lachnolaimus maximus Hogfish
Scaridae, Parrotfishes
125 Scarus guacamaia Rainbow parrotfish
126 N.A. Unidentified parrotfish
Mugilidae, Mullets
127 Mugil spp. Unidentified mullet
Sphyraenidae, Barracudas
128 Sphyraena barracuda Great barracuda
129 Sphyraena picudilla Southern sennet
Acanthuridae, Surgeonfishes
130 Acanthurus bahianus Ocean surgeon
131 Acanthurus chirurgus Doctorfish
132 Acanthurus coeruleus Blue tang
Scombridae, Mackerels/Tunas
133 Acanthocybium solandri Wahoo
134 Euthynnus alletteratus Little tunny
135 Katsuwonus pelamis Skipjack tuna
136 Sarda sarda Atlantic bonito
137 Scomberomorus cavalla King mackerel
138 Scomberomorus maculatus Spanish mackerel
139 Scomberomorus regalis Cero mackerel
140 Thunnus albacares Yellowfin tuna
141 Thunnus atlanticus Blackfin tuna
142 Thunnus obesus Bigeye tuna
143 Thunnus spp. Unidentified tuna
Xiphiidae, Swordfishes
144 Xiphias gladius Swordfish
Istiophoridae, Billfishes
145 Istiophorus platypterus Sailfish
146 Makaira nigricans Blue marlin
147 N.A. Unidentified billfish
Scorpaenidae, Scorpionfishes
148 Scorpaena spp. Unidentified scorpionfish
Triglidae, Searobins
149 Prionotus spp. Unidentified searobin
Bothidae, Lefteye flounders
150 Bothus lunatus Peacock flounder
151 N.A. Unidentified lefteye flounder
Balistidae, Leatherjackets
152 Aluterus scriptus Scrawled filefish
153 Balistes capriscus Gray triggerfish
154 Balistes vetula Queen triggerfish
155 Cantherhines pullus Orangespotted filefish
156 Canthidermis sufflamen Ocean triggerfish
157 N.A. Unidentifed filefish
Ostraciidae, Boxfishes
158 Lactophrys spp. Unidentified boxfish
159 Lactophrys trigonius Trunkfish
Tetraodontidae, Puffers
160 Diodon hystrix Porcupinefish
161 Sphoeroides spp. Unidentified puffer
162 N.A. Unidentified fishes
Invertebrates
163 Calinectes sapidus Bluecrab
164 Menippe mercenaria Stone crab
165 Mithrax spp. Unidentified spidercrab
166 Panulirus argus Caribbean spiny lobster
167 Panulirus guttatus Spotted lobster
168 Pennaeus duorarum Pink shrimp
169 Scyllarides aequinoctialis Shovel-nosed lobster
170 Strombus gigas Queen conch

 Total

 No. interviews

 Avg. trip landings

 % Total landings

 Avg. Trip Releases

 % Total Releases

 Skilled
 recreational Family

Family Scientific name Landed Released Landed Released

Orectolobidae, Carpet sharks
 1 Ginglymostoma cirratum 18 58 11 29
Carcharhinidae, Requiem sharks
 2 Carcharhinus falciformis 1 1
 3 Carcharhinus limbatus 9 31 3 1
 4 Carcharhinus spp. 45 133 11 33
 5 Negaprion brevirostris 10 7 1
Sphyrnidae, Hammerhead sharks
 6 Sphyrna mokarran 3 9 1 7
 7 Sphyrna tiburo 14 24 7 9
Dasyatidae, Stingrays
 8 Dasyatis spp. 27 25
Elopidae, Tarpons
 9 Elops saurus 15 188 8 38
 10 Megalops atlanticus 4 30 1 6
Albulidae, Bonefishes
 11 Albula vulpes 40 233 8 8
Muraenidae, Morays
 12 Gymnothorax moringa 1 22 5
 13 Gymnothorax spp. 8 201 67
Clupeidae, Herrings
 14 N.A. 3
Synodontidae, Lizardfishes
 15 Synodus spp. 6 107 9 61
Ictaluridae, Bullhead
 catfishes
 16 N.A. 3
Ariidee, Sea catfishes
 17 Arius felis 4 12 5
Exocoetidae, Flyingfishes/
 halfbeaks
 18 Hemiramphus brasiliensis 1,980 43 345 15
Belonidae, Needlefishes
 19 Strongylura spp. 30 92 10 101
 20 Tylosurus crocodilus 10 50 12 34
Holocentridae, Squirrelfishes
 21 Holocentrus adscensionis 13 9 7 12
 22 Holocentrus spp. 3
Aulostomidae, Trumpetfishes
 23 Aulostomus maculatus 1 6 1 1
Centropomidae, Snooks
 24 Centropomus ensiferus 6 22
 25 Centropomus undecimalis 48 110 1 2
Serranidae, Sea basses
 26 Diplectrum formosum 266 354 491 390
 27 Epinephelus adscensionis 103 36 42 23
 28 Epinephelus cruentatus 164 108 154 120
 29 Epinephelus drummondhayi 2
 30 Epinephelus flavolimbatus 5 4
 31 Epinephelus fulvus 13 14 6 4
 32 Epinephelus guttatus 253 154 123 90
 33 Epinephelus inermis
 34 Epinephelus itajara 1 1
 35 Epinephelus morio 1,017 283 403 131
 36 Epinephelus striatus 369 72 132 41
 37 Mycteroperca bonaci 351 59 122 48
 Mycteroperca
 interstitialis 30 8
 39 Mycteroperca microlepis 295 81 94 34
 40 Mycteroperca phenax 12
 41 Mycteroperca venenosa 27 2 5
 42 Paranthias furcifer 3
 43 N.A. 2,198 1,230 693 897
Grammistidae, Soapfishes
 44 Rypticus saponaceus 1 1
Priacanthidae, Bigeyes
 45 Priacanthus arenatus 277 43 115 60
 46 N.A. 4 15
Malacanthidae, Tilefishes
 47 Malacanthus plumieri 65 186 54 99
 48 N.A. 5 1
Pomatomidae, Bluefishes
 49 Pomatomus saltatrix 72 17 10
Rachycentridae, Cobias
 50 Rachycentron canadum 12 3 1
Echeneidae, Remoras
 51 Echeneis naucrates 1 10 3 2
Carangidae, Jacks
 52 Alectis ciliaris 22 2 8
 53 Caranx bartholomaei 123 67 65 4
 54 Caranx crysos 1,071 892 1,019 715
 55 Caranx hippos 92 201 83 101
 56 Caranx latus 8 9 8 2
 57 Caranx ruber 42 65 15 11
 58 Caranx spp. 283 676 176 393
 59 Decapterus macarellus 36 7 3
 60 Elagatis bipinnulata 11 10 7 1
 61 Oligoplites saurus 6 3 10 2
 62 Selene vomer 76 7 29 1
 63 Seriola dumerili 168 46 26 27
 64 Seriola rivoliana 4 9
 65 Trachinotus carolinus 3 1
 66 Trachinotus falcatus 10 7 3
Coryphaenidae, Dolphins
 67 Coryphaena equisetis 1
 68 Coryphaena hippurus 13,283 408 1,525 47
Lutjanidae, Snappers
 69 Etelis oculatus 7
 70 Lutjanus analis 1,326 127 463 97
 71 Lutjanus apodus 205 25 129 29
 72 Lutjanus buccanella 3 2
 73 Lutjanus campechanus 14 1 1 7
 74 Lutjanus cyanopterus 2 3 1

 75 Lutjanus griseus 9,976 4,889 5,279 2,839
 76 Lutjanus jocu 9 1 13 2
 77 Lutjanus mahogoni 13 1 2
 78 Lutjanus spp. 5,959 1,340 2,642 1,041
 79 Lutjanus synagris 609 79 239 71
 80 Lutjanus vivanus 9 2
 81 Ocyurus chrysurus 7,217 4,461 2,074 2,395
 82 Rhomboplites aurorubens 26 10 11
Lobotidae, Tripletails
 83 Lobotes surinamensis 42 6 2
Gerreidae, Mojarras
 84 Gerres cinereus 2 2 5 5
Haemulidae, Grunts
 85 Anisotremus surinamensis 27 2 23 1
 86 Anisotremus virginicus 51 6 40 28
 87 Haemulon album 173 35 108 8
 88 Haemulon aurolineatum 35 37 2
 89 Haemulon carbonarium 22 1 14
 90 Haemulon chrysargyreum 3
 91 Haemulon flavolineatum 104 64 62 21
 92 Haemulon macrostomum 6 10 17
 93 Haemulon parrai 210 172 208 95
 94 Haemulon plumieri 12,509 6,911 8,850 3,722
 95 Haemulon sciurus 3,442 1,762 2,427 1,332
 96 Haemulon spp. 5,761 8,711 3,448 5,846
 97 Haemulon striatum 4 7
 98 Orthopristis chrysoptera 17 4 19 14
Sparidae, Porgies
 99 Archosargus
 probatocephalus 68 1 20 5
100 Archosargus rhomboidalis 71 32 55 46
101 Calamus arctifrons 6 35
102 Calamus bajonado 4,708 571 1,584 213
103 Calamus calamus 500 15 232 36
104 Calamus nodosus 2 3
105 Calamus proridens 3 2
106 Calamus spp. 30 15 37 47
107 Lagodon rhomboides 1,354 2,091 627 1,070
Sciaenidae, Drums
108 Cynoscion nebulosus 1,036 477 164 96
Mullidae, Goatfishes
109 Mulloidichthys martinicus 1 4 1
110 Pseudupeneus maculatus 2 3 1
Kyphosidae, Sea chubs
111 Kyphosus incisor 11 25 9
112 Kyphosus sectatrix 118 62 98 29
113 Kyphosus spp. 15 15 24 7
Ephippidae, Spadefishes
114 Chaetodiperus faber 1 1 5 4
Pomacanthidae, Angelfishes
115 Holacanthus ciliaris 2 2 1
116 Pomacanthus arcuatus
117 Pomacanthus paru 1
118 N.A. 5 46 10 28
Pomacentridae, Damselfishes
119 Abudefduf saxatilis 4 11
Labridae, Wrasses
120 Bodianus rufus 8 4 9
121 Halichoeres bivittatus 5 2 6
122 Halichoeres radiatus 12 4 11 43
123 Halichoeres spp. 7 38 28 35
124 Lachnolaimus maximus 1,046 145 318 73
Scaridae, Parrotfishes
125 Scarus guacamaia 3 5 1 6
126 N.A. 36 343 70 200
Mugilidae, Mullets
127 Mugil spp. 88 7 8 1
Sphyraenidae, Barracudas
128 Sphyraena barracuda 2,890 2,205 911 515
129 Sphyraena picudilla 1
Acanthuridae, Surgeonfishes
130 Acanthurus bahianus 2 7 3 2
131 Acanthurus chirurgus 11 6 10 3
132 Acanthurus coeruleus 1 1 11 1
Scombridae, Mackerels/Tunas
133 Acanthocybium solandri 123 2 17
134 Euthynnus alletteratus 70 17 10 8
135 Katsuwonus pelamis 23 2 5
136 Sarda sarda 287 177 45 36
137 Scomberomorus cavalla 165 10 18 9
138 Scomberomorus maculatus 182 7 32 1
139 Scomberomorus regalis 618 16 150 13
140 Thunnus albacares 1
141 Thunnus atlanticus 37 3 7 2
142 Thunnus obesus 2
143 Thunnus spp. 278 41 50 17
Xiphiidae, Swordfishes
144 Xiphias gladius
Istiophoridae, Billfishes
145 Istiophorus platypterus 65 17 4 2
146 Makaira nigricans 1
147 N.A. 353
Scorpaenidae, Scorpionfishes
148 Scorpaena spp. 21 1 12
Triglidae, Searobins
149 Prionotus spp. 3 3
Bothidae, Lefteye flounders
150 Bothus lunatus
151 N.A. 1 1 4 2
Balistidae, Leatherjackets
152 Aluterus scriptus 1 3 3
153 Balistes capriscus 70 65 91 42
154 Balistes vetula 29 32 14 14
155 Cantherhines pullus 0 24 5 7
156 Canthidermis sufflamen 220 126 130 55
157 N.A. 6 34 4 13
Ostraciidae, Boxfishes
158 Lactophrys spp. 11 24 23 61
159 Lactophrys trigonius 7 10 2 6
Tetraodontidae, Puffers
160 Diodon hystrix 15
161 Sphoeroides spp. 7 84 11 108
162 N.A. 1,088 1,036 304 625
Invertebrates
163 Calinectes sapidus 221 4 82 13
164 Menippe mercenaria
165 Mithrax spp.
166 Panulirus argus 1,902 1,882 286 141
167 Panulirus guttatus 4 4
168 Pennaeus duorarum 30
169 Scyllarides aequinoctialis 1
170 Strombus gigas 136 50

 Total 88,765 44,843 37,718 24,967

 No. interviews 9,244 9,244 5,199 5,199

 Avg. trip landings 9.60 7.25

 % Total landings 34.0% 14.4%

 Avg. Trip Releases 4.85 4.80

 % Total Releases 35.3% 19.7%

 Novice Spearfishing

Family Scientific name Landed Released Landed Released

Orectolobidae, Carpet sharks
 1 Ginglymostoma cirratum 5 26 8
Carcharhinidae, Requiem sharks
 2 Carcharhinus falciformis
 3 Carcharhinus limbatus 2 1
 4 Carcharhinus spp. 12 45 8 1
 5 Negaprion brevirostris 1
Sphyrnidae, Hammerhead sharks
 6 Sphyrna mokarran 2 13
 7 Sphyrna tiburo 2 3 1
Dasyatidae, Stingrays
 8 Dasyatis spp. 19 2
Elopidae, Tarpons
 9 Elops saurus 9 14
 10 Megalops atlanticus 5 4
Albulidae, Bonefishes
 11 Albula vulpes 6 4 1
Muraenidae, Morays
 12 Gymnothorax moringa 11
 13 Gymnothorax spp. 3 57 5
Clupeidae, Herrings
 14 N.A.
Synodontidae, Lizardfishes
 15 Synodus spp. 4 40
Ictaluridae, Bullhead
 catfishes
 16 N.A. 1
Ariidee, Sea catfishes
 17 Arius felis
Exocoetidae, Flyingfishes/
 halfbeaks
 18 Hemiramphus brasiliensis 211 19
Belonidae, Needlefishes
 19 Strongylura spp. 7 73
 20 Tylosurus crocodilus 9 19 5
Holocentridae, Squirrelfishes
 21 Holocentrus adscensionis 4 37 1
 22 Holocentrus spp.
Aulostomidae, Trumpetfishes
 23 Aulostomus maculatus 2 2
Centropomidae, Snooks
 24 Centropomus ensiferus 1
 25 Centropomus undecimalis 1
Serranidae, Sea basses
 26 Diplectrum formosum 512 524 2
 27 Epinephelus adscensionis 23 18 23
 28 Epinephelus cruentatus 73 8 42
 29 Epinephelus drummondhayi
 30 Epinephelus flavolimbatus 1 8
 31 Epinephelus fulvus 5 1 3
 32 Epinephelus guttatus 74 95 69
 33 Epinephelus inermis 1
 34 Epinephelus itajara 3 6
 35 Epinephelus morio 275 26 851 1
 36 Epinephelus striatus 141 31 809
 37 Mycteroperca bonaci 88 10 765 1
 Mycteroperca
 interstitialis 5 14
 39 Mycteroperca microlepis 54 15 77
 40 Mycteroperca phenax 3 6
 41 Mycteroperca venenosa 2 1 30
 42 Paranthias furcifer 2
 43 N.A. 709 552 1,812 16
Grammistidae, Soapfishes
 44 Rypticus saponaceus
Priacanthidae, Bigeyes
 45 Priacanthus arenatus 103 16 41
 46 N.A. 1
Malacanthidae, Tilefishes
 47 Malacanthus plumieri 49 135 2
 48 N.A. 5
Pomatomidae, Bluefishes
 49 Pomatomus saltatrix 18 13
Rachycentridae, Cobias
 50 Rachycentron canadum
Echeneidae, Remoras
 51 Echeneis naucrates 5
Carangidae, Jacks
 52 Alectis ciliaris 8 1 3
 53 Caranx bartholomaei 18 14 175
 54 Caranx crysos 532 432 67 43
 55 Caranx hippos 104 62 20
 56 Caranx latus 8 2
 57 Caranx ruber 35 7 34 1
 58 Caranx spp. 196 356 120 1
 59 Decapterus macarellus
 60 Elagatis bipinnulata 1 12 4
 61 Oligoplites saurus 20 1
 62 Selene vomer 1 1
 63 Seriola dumerili 15 9 59 1
 64 Seriola rivoliana
 65 Trachinotus carolinus 2 1
 66 Trachinotus falcatus 5 16
Coryphaenidae, Dolphins
 67 Coryphaena equisetis
 68 Coryphaena hippurus 639 15 30 4
Lutjanidae, Snappers
 69 Etelis oculatus
 70 Lutjanus analis 202 23 364
 71 Lutjanus apodus 42 20 252
 72 Lutjanus buccanella 1 1
 73 Lutjanus campechanus 2 1
 74 Lutjanus cyanopterus 16
 75 Lutjanus griseus 3,792 1,725 1,432 16
 76 Lutjanus jocu 15 63
 77 Lutjanus mahogoni 10
 78 Lutjanus spp. 2,348 878 718 11
 79 Lutjanus synagris 258 51 21
 80 Lutjanus vivanus 3
 81 Ocyurus chrysurus 1,831 1,212 178 7
 82 Rhomboplites aurorubens 11
Lobotidae, Tripletails
 83 Lobotes surinamensis 4
Gerreidae, Mojarras
 84 Gerres cinereus 28 11 1
Haemulidae, Grunts
 85 Anisotremus surinamensis 10 7 147
 86 Anisotremus virginicus 43 32 18
 87 Haemulon album 32 12 75
 88 Haemulon aurolineatum 25 34
 89 Haemulon carbonarium 3 3 8
 90 Haemulon chrysargyreum 4
 91 Haemulon flavolineatum 48 7 5
 92 Haemulon macrostomum 4 20
 93 Haemulon parrai 103 74 5
 94 Haemulon plumieri 6,323 3,463 309 92
 95 Haemulon sciurus 1,723 893 202 4
 96 Haemulon spp. 3,606 5,707 277 125
 97 Haemulon striatum 3 9 1
 98 Orthopristis chrysoptera 10 12
Sparidae, Porgies
 99 Archosargus
 probatocephalus 21 2 16
100 Archosargus rhomboidalis 30 20 4
101 Calamus arctifrons 9 6 1
102 Calamus bajonado 1,676 340 95
103 Calamus calamus 206 12 12
104 Calamus nodosus
105 Calamus proridens 1
106 Calamus spp. 11 17
107 Lagodon rhomboides 569 1,040 3
Sciaenidae, Drums
108 Cynoscion nebulosus 182 96
Mullidae, Goatfishes
109 Mulloidichthys martinicus 4
110 Pseudupeneus maculatus 2
Kyphosidae, Sea chubs
111 Kyphosus incisor 8 1 3
112 Kyphosus sectatrix 122 34 30
113 Kyphosus spp. 11 3
Ephippidae, Spadefishes
114 Chaetodiperus faber 1 37
Pomacanthidae, Angelfishes
115 Holacanthus ciliaris 2
116 Pomacanthus arcuatus 2
117 Pomacanthus paru
118 N.A. 6 24 33
Pomacentridae, Damselfishes
119 Abudefduf saxatilis 1
Labridae, Wrasses
120 Bodianus rufus 2 15
121 Halichoeres bivittatus 11
122 Halichoeres radiatus 18 18 1
123 Halichoeres spp. 16 32 1
124 Lachnolaimus maximus 260 15 13,286 15
Scaridae, Parrotfishes
125 Scarus guacamaia 4 3 5
126 N.A. 39 114 71 1
Mugilidae, Mullets
127 Mugil spp.
Sphyraenidae, Barracudas
128 Sphyraena barracuda 761 523 161 16
129 Sphyraena picudilla
Acanthuridae, Surgeonfishes
130 Acanthurus bahianus 3 1 2
131 Acanthurus chirurgus 5 1
132 Acanthurus coeruleus 3 1
Scombridae, Mackerels/Tunas
133 Acanthocybium solandri 3 1
134 Euthynnus alletteratus 1 4
135 Katsuwonus pelamis 3
136 Sarda sarda 50 32 2
137 Scomberomorus cavalla 16 2
138 Scomberomorus maculatus 42 9 21 1
139 Scomberomorus regalis 109 4 53
140 Thunnus albacares
141 Thunnus atlanticus 3
142 Thunnus obesus
143 Thunnus spp. 90 19 14
Xiphiidae, Swordfishes
144 Xiphias gladius
Istiophoridae, Billfishes
145 Istiophorus platypterus 4
146 Makaira nigricans
147 N.A.
Scorpaenidae, Scorpionfishes
148 Scorpaena spp. 1 7
Triglidae, Searobins
149 Prionotus spp.
Bothidae, Lefteye flounders
150 Bothus lunatus
151 N.A. 8 4
Balistidae, Leatherjackets
152 Aluterus scriptus 2 1
153 Balistes capriscus 57 12 6
154 Balistes vetula 16 10 4
155 Cantherhines pullus 1 3 2
156 Canthidermis sufflamen 109 51 32 2
157 N.A. 2 10 1
Ostraciidae, Boxfishes
158 Lactophrys spp. 14 19 4
159 Lactophrys trigonius 2 5
Tetraodontidae, Puffers
160 Diodon hystrix 1
161 Sphoeroides spp. 8 130 1
162 N.A. 393 733 139 4
Invertebrates
163 Calinectes sapidus 34 3
164 Menippe mercenaria
165 Mithrax spp.
166 Panulirus argus 548 635 2,623 2,014
167 Panulirus guttatus 10
168 Pennaeus duorarum
169 Scyllarides aequinoctialis 13
170 Strombus gigas 86 1,018 50

 Total 30,022 20,927 27,015 2,427

 No. interviews 5,071 5,071 3,473 3,473

 Avg. trip landings 5.92 7.78

 % Total landings 11.5% 10.3%

 Avg. Trip Releases 4.13 0.70

 % Total Releases 16.5% 1.9%

 Diving lobster Food

Family Scientific name Landed Released Landed Released

Orectolobidae, Carpet sharks
 1 Ginglymostoma cirratum 12 12
Carcharhinidae, Requiem sharks
 2 Carcharhinus falciformis
 3 Carcharhinus limbatus 2 5
 4 Carcharhinus spp. 17 25
 5 Negaprion brevirostris 1
Sphyrnidae, Hammerhead sharks
 6 Sphyrna mokarran 10 1
 7 Sphyrna tiburo 11 11
Dasyatidae, Stingrays
 8 Dasyatis spp. 1 7
Elopidae, Tarpons
 9 Elops saurus 18 32
 10 Megalops atlanticus 2 5
Albulidae, Bonefishes
 11 Albula vulpes 20 1 1
Muraenidae, Morays
 12 Gymnothorax moringa 1 10
 13 Gymnothorax spp. 5 36
Clupeidae, Herrings
 14 N.A. 524
Synodontidae, Lizardfishes
 15 Synodus spp. 4 18
Ictaluridae, Bullhead
 catfishes
 16 N.A.
Ariidee, Sea catfishes
 17 Arius felis
Exocoetidae, Flyingfishes/
 halfbeaks
 18 Hemiramphus brasiliensis 130 4
Belonidae, Needlefishes
 19 Strongylura spp. 6 11
 20 Tylosurus crocodilus 26 34
Holocentridae, Squirrelfishes
 21 Holocentrus adscensionis 27 7
 22 Holocentrus spp. 1
Aulostomidae, Trumpetfishes
 23 Aulostomus maculatus
Centropomidae, Snooks
 24 Centropomus ensiferus
 25 Centropomus undecimalis 1 1 3
Serranidae, Sea basses
 26 Diplectrum formosum 2 397 100
 27 Epinephelus adscensionis 27 32
 28 Epinephelus cruentatus 222 151
 29 Epinephelus drummondhayi 1
 30 Epinephelus flavolimbatus
 31 Epinephelus fulvus 3 4
 32 Epinephelus guttatus 2 105 54
 33 Epinephelus inermis
 34 Epinephelus itajara 1
 35 Epinephelus morio 26 422 177
 36 Epinephelus striatus 22 1 133 48
 37 Mycteroperca bonaci 9 92 34
 Mycteroperca
 interstitialis 1 6
 39 Mycteroperca microlepis 1 63 34
 40 Mycteroperca phenax
 41 Mycteroperca venenosa 1 1
 42 Paranthias furcifer
 43 N.A. 102 1 719 529
Grammistidae, Soapfishes
 44 Rypticus saponaceus
Priacanthidae, Bigeyes
 45 Priacanthus arenatus 3 227 24
 46 N.A. 2
Malacanthidae, Tilefishes
 47 Malacanthus plumieri 43 50
 48 N.A.
Pomatomidae, Bluefishes
 49 Pomatomus saltatrix 9 1
Rachycentridae, Cobias
 50 Rachycentron canadum 3
Echeneidae, Remoras
 51 Echeneis naucrates 3 8
Carangidae, Jacks
 52 Alectis ciliaris 3
 53 Caranx bartholomaei 3 126 3
 54 Caranx crysos 6 1,173 501
 55 Caranx hippos 83 70
 56 Caranx latus 4 4
 57 Caranx ruber 27 4
 58 Caranx spp. 11 215 75
 59 Decapterus macarellus 12 4
 60 Elagatis bipinnulata 1
 61 Oligoplites saurus 16 13
 62 Selene vomer 34 1
 63 Seriola dumerili 12 3
 64 Seriola rivoliana 5 11
 65 Trachinotus carolinus 2 1
 66 Trachinotus falcatus 2 1
Coryphaenidae, Dolphins
 67 Coryphaena equisetis 1
 68 Coryphaena hippurus 1,845 71
Lutjanidae, Snappers
 69 Etelis oculatus 3
 70 Lutjanus analis 12 434 99
 71 Lutjanus apodus 5 132 32
 72 Lutjanus buccanella
 73 Lutjanus campechanus
 74 Lutjanus cyanopterus
 75 Lutjanus griseus 120 35 7,016 2,215
 76 Lutjanus jocu 1 7
 77 Lutjanus mahogoni 6 2
 78 Lutjanus spp. 46 15 3,087 230
 79 Lutjanus synagris 435 159
 80 Lutjanus vivanus 4
 81 Ocyurus chrysurus 18 3,107 2,077
 82 Rhomboplites aurorubens
Lobotidae, Tripletails
 83 Lobotes surinamensis 6
Gerreidae, Mojarras
 84 Gerres cinereus 29 1
Haemulidae, Grunts
 85 Anisotremus surinamensis 6 42 13
 86 Anisotremus virginicus 95 25
 87 Haemulon album 5 134 18
 88 Haemulon aurolineatum 99 5
 89 Haemulon carbonarium 24 2
 90 Haemulon chrysargyreum 1
 91 Haemulon flavolineatum 43
 92 Haemulon macrostomum 28 13
 93 Haemulon parrai 160 45
 94 Haemulon plumieri 26 15 13,262 3,409
 95 Haemulon sciurus 6 1 2,841 538
 96 Haemulon spp. 25 27 5,706 2,216
 97 Haemulon striatum 24 2
 98 Orthopristis chrysoptera 30
Sparidae, Porgies
 99 Archosargus
 probatocephalus 26 5
100 Archosargus rhomboidalis 56 13
101 Calamus arctifrons 9 1
102 Calamus bajonado 11 2,576 74
103 Calamus calamus 3 258 24
104 Calamus nodosus 5
105 Calamus proridens 41 2
106 Calamus spp. 8 9
107 Lagodon rhomboides 762 400
Sciaenidae, Drums
108 Cynoscion nebulosus 122 97
Mullidae, Goatfishes
109 Mulloidichthys martinicus 1
110 Pseudupeneus maculatus 1 2 1
Kyphosidae, Sea chubs
111 Kyphosus incisor 4
112 Kyphosus sectatrix 3 86 34
113 Kyphosus spp. 39 8
Ephippidae, Spadefishes
114 Chaetodiperus faber 4 3 1
Pomacanthidae, Angelfishes
115 Holacanthus ciliaris 1
116 Pomacanthus arcuatus
117 Pomacanthus paru
118 N.A. 8 21
Pomacentridae, Damselfishes
119 Abudefduf saxatilis
Labridae, Wrasses
120 Bodianus rufus 1 5
121 Halichoeres bivittatus 5
122 Halichoeres radiatus 33 47
123 Halichoeres spp. 11 16
124 Lachnolaimus maximus 380 429 97
Scaridae, Parrotfishes
125 Scarus guacamaia 4
126 N.A. 1 1 71 95
Mugilidae, Mullets
127 Mugil spp. 136
Sphyraenidae, Barracudas
128 Sphyraena barracuda 19 8 1,173 296
129 Sphyraena picudilla
Acanthuridae, Surgeonfishes
130 Acanthurus bahianus 1 1
131 Acanthurus chirurgus 17 12
132 Acanthurus coeruleus 1 1
Scombridae, Mackerels/Tunas
133 Acanthocybium solandri 17 1
134 Euthynnus alletteratus 29 18
135 Katsuwonus pelamis 10 1
136 Sarda sarda 12 17
137 Scomberomorus cavalla 28
138 Scomberomorus maculatus 20 4
139 Scomberomorus regalis 2 142 7
140 Thunnus albacares
141 Thunnus atlanticus 2 2
142 Thunnus obesus 3
143 Thunnus spp. 2 23 2
Xiphiidae, Swordfishes
144 Xiphias gladius 6
Istiophoridae, Billfishes
145 Istiophorus platypterus 2 2
146 Makaira nigricans
147 N.A.
Scorpaenidae, Scorpionfishes
148 Scorpaena spp. 1 6
Triglidae, Searobins
149 Prionotus spp. 1
Bothidae, Lefteye flounders
150 Bothus lunatus 1
151 N.A. 2
Balistidae, Leatherjackets
152 Aluterus scriptus 3 3
153 Balistes capriscus 95 28
154 Balistes vetula 38 16
155 Cantherhines pullus 1
156 Canthidermis sufflamen 4 168 51
157 N.A. 8 2
Ostraciidae, Boxfishes
158 Lactophrys spp. 1 23 16
159 Lactophrys trigonius 4 3
Tetraodontidae, Puffers
160 Diodon hystrix
161 Sphoeroides spp. 7 57
162 N.A. 19 2 1,100 130
Invertebrates
163 Calinectes sapidus 48 90 8
164 Menippe mercenaria 3 1
165 Mithrax spp. 1
166 Panulirus argus 21,938 17,813 386 580
167 Panulirus guttatus 21
168 Pennaeus duorarum
169 Scyllarides aequinoctialis 25
170 Strombus gigas 2,227 77

 Total 25,196 18,000 51,700 15,546

 No. interviews 3,142 3,142 2,647 2,647

 Avg. trip landings 8.02 19.53

 % Total landings 9.6% 19.8%

 Avg. Trip Releases 5.73 5.87

 % Total Releases 14.2% 12.2%

 Other All types

Family Scientific name Landed Released Landed Released

Orectolobidae, Carpet sharks
 1 Ginglymostoma cirratum 54 125
Carcharhinidae, Requiem sharks
 2 Carcharhinus falciformis 1 1
 3 Carcharhinus limbatus 16 38
 4 Carcharhinus spp. 1 1 94 238
 5 Negaprion brevirostris 11 9
Sphyrnidae, Hammerhead sharks
 6 Sphyrna mokarran 2 18 30
 7 Sphyrna tiburo 35 47
Dasyatidae, Stingrays
 8 Dasyatis spp. 3 78
Elopidae, Tarpons
 9 Elops saurus 50 272
 10 Megalops atlanticus 12 45
Albulidae, Bonefishes
 11 Albula vulpes 76 246
Muraenidae, Morays
 12 Gymnothorax moringa 2 48
 13 Gymnothorax spp. 21 361
Clupeidae, Herrings
 14 N.A. 527
Synodontidae, Lizardfishes
 15 Synodus spp. 23 226
Ictaluridae, Bullhead
 catfishes
 16 N.A. 1 3
Ariidee, Sea catfishes
 17 Arius felis 4 17
Exocoetidae, Flyingfishes/
 halfbeaks
 18 Hemiramphus brasiliensis 12 2,678 81
Belonidae, Needlefishes
 19 Strongylura spp. 53 277
 20 Tylosurus crocodilus 62 137
Holocentridae, Squirrelfishes
 21 Holocentrus adscensionis 52 65
 22 Holocentrus spp. 4
Aulostomidae, Trumpetfishes
 23 Aulostomus maculatus 4 9
Centropomidae, Snooks
 24 Centropomus ensiferus 7 22
 25 Centropomus undecimalis 52 115
Serranidae, Sea basses
 26 Diplectrum formosum 1,668 1,370
 27 Epinephelus adscensionis 218 109
 28 Epinephelus cruentatus 7 662 387
 29 Epinephelus drummondhayi 3
 30 Epinephelus flavolimbatus 12 6
 31 Epinephelus fulvus 30 23
 32 Epinephelus guttatus 1 627 393
 33 Epinephelus inermis 1
 34 Epinephelus itajara 8 4
 35 Epinephelus morio 10 25 3,004 643
 36 Epinephelus striatus 4 1,610 193
 37 Mycteroperca bonaci 2 1,429 152
 Mycteroperca
 interstitialis 64
 39 Mycteroperca microlepis 584 164
 40 Mycteroperca phenax 21
 41 Mycteroperca venenosa 65 4
 42 Paranthias furcifer 5
 43 N.A. 43 19 6,276 3,244
Grammistidae, Soapfishes
 44 Rypticus saponaceus 1 1
Priacanthidae, Bigeyes
 45 Priacanthus arenatus 1 767 143
 46 N.A. 7 15
Malacanthidae, Tilefishes
 47 Malacanthus plumieri 213 470
 48 N.A. 10 1
Pomatomidae, Bluefishes
 49 Pomatomus saltatrix 15 109 46
Rachycentridae, Cobias
 50 Rachycentron canadum 16 3
Echeneidae, Remoras
 51 Echeneis naucrates 7 25
Carangidae, Jacks
 52 Alectis ciliaris 44 3
 53 Caranx bartholomaei 7 1 517 89
 54 Caranx crysos 5 3,873 2,583
 55 Caranx hippos 382 434
 56 Caranx latus 30 15
 57 Caranx ruber 153 88
 58 Caranx spp. 5 1,006 1,501
 59 Decapterus macarellus 51 11
 60 Elagatis bipinnulata 24 23
 61 Oligoplites saurus 52 19
 62 Selene vomer 140 10
 63 Seriola dumerili 280 86
 64 Seriola rivoliana 18 11
 65 Trachinotus carolinus 7 3
 66 Trachinotus falcatus 37 7
Coryphaenidae, Dolphins
 67 Coryphaena equisetis 2
 68 Coryphaena hippurus 12 3 17,334 548
Lutjanidae, Snappers
 69 Etelis oculatus 7 3
 70 Lutjanus analis 6 10 2,807 356
 71 Lutjanus apodus 3 768 106
 72 Lutjanus buccanella 7
 73 Lutjanus campechanus 17 9
 74 Lutjanus cyanopterus 21 1
 75 Lutjanus griseus 73 27 27,688 11,746
 76 Lutjanus jocu 108 3
 77 Lutjanus mahogoni 31 3
 78 Lutjanus spp. 95 3 14,895 3,518
 79 Lutjanus synagris 1,562 360
 80 Lutjanus vivanus 16 2
 81 Ocyurus chrysurus 5 10 14,430 10,162
 82 Rhomboplites aurorubens 48 10
Lobotidae, Tripletails
 83 Lobotes surinamensis 54 6
Gerreidae, Mojarras
 84 Gerres cinereus 65 19
Haemulidae, Grunts
 85 Anisotremus surinamensis 255 23
 86 Anisotremus virginicus 247 91
 87 Haemulon album 527 73
 88 Haemulon aurolineatum 196 41
 89 Haemulon carbonarium 71 6
 90 Haemulon chrysargyreum 8
 91 Haemulon flavolineatum 262 92
 92 Haemulon macrostomum 75 23
 93 Haemulon parrai 686 386
 94 Haemulon plumieri 89 48 41,388 17,660
 95 Haemulon sciurus 51 16 10,692 4,546
 96 Haemulon spp. 223 60 19,046 22,692
 97 Haemulon striatum 39 11
 98 Orthopristis chrysoptera 76 30
Sparidae, Porgies
 99 Archosargus
 probatocephalus 151 13
100 Archosargus rhomboidalis 216 111
101 Calamus arctifrons 60 7
102 Calamus bajonado 24 10,674 1,198
103 Calamus calamus 5 1,216 87
104 Calamus nodosus 10
105 Calamus proridens 47 2
106 Calamus spp. 8 86 96
107 Lagodon rhomboides 3,315 4,601
Sciaenidae, Drums
108 Cynoscion nebulosus 1,504 766
Mullidae, Goatfishes
109 Mulloidichthys martinicus 6 5
110 Pseudupeneus maculatus 8 4
Kyphosidae, Sea chubs
111 Kyphosus incisor 51 10
112 Kyphosus sectatrix 457 159
113 Kyphosus spp. 81 41
Ephippidae, Spadefishes
114 Chaetodiperus faber 51 6
Pomacanthidae, Angelfishes
115 Holacanthus ciliaris 4 4
116 Pomacanthus arcuatus 2
117 Pomacanthus paru 1
118 N.A. 62 119
Pomacentridae, Damselfishes
119 Abudefduf saxatilis 1 15
Labridae, Wrasses
120 Bodianus rufus 40 4
121 Halichoeres bivittatus 27 2
122 Halichoeres radiatus 1 75 113
123 Halichoeres spp. 63 121
124 Lachnolaimus maximus 43 4 15,762 349
Scaridae, Parrotfishes
125 Scarus guacamaia 17 14
126 N.A. 2 288 756
Mugilidae, Mullets
127 Mugil spp. 232 8
Sphyraenidae, Barracudas
128 Sphyraena barracuda 41 2 5,956 3,565
129 Sphyraena picudilla 1
Acanthuridae, Surgeonfishes
130 Acanthurus bahianus 11 11
131 Acanthurus chirurgus 43 22
132 Acanthurus coeruleus 14 6
Scombridae, Mackerels/Tunas
133 Acanthocybium solandri 1 1 162 4
134 Euthynnus alletteratus 110 47
135 Katsuwonus pelamis 41 3
136 Sarda sarda 1 396 263
137 Scomberomorus cavalla 229 19
138 Scomberomorus maculatus 297 22
139 Scomberomorus regalis 1,074 40
140 Thunnus albacares 1
141 Thunnus atlanticus 49 7
142 Thunnus obesus 3 2
143 Thunnus spp. 1 456 81
Xiphiidae, Swordfishes
144 Xiphias gladius 6
Istiophoridae, Billfishes
145 Istiophorus platypterus 75 21
146 Makaira nigricans 1
147 N.A. 353
Scorpaenidae, Scorpionfishes
148 Scorpaena spp. 3 46
Triglidae, Searobins
149 Prionotus spp. 1 7
Bothidae, Lefteye flounders
150 Bothus lunatus 1
151 N.A. 19 3
Balistidae, Leatherjackets
152 Aluterus scriptus 9 7
153 Balistes capriscus 3 323 147
154 Balistes vetula 1 102 72
155 Cantherhines pullus 9 34
156 Canthidermis sufflamen 10 673 285
157 N.A. 21 59
Ostraciidae, Boxfishes
158 Lactophrys spp. 76 120
159 Lactophrys trigonius 15 24
Tetraodontidae, Puffers
160 Diodon hystrix 1 15
161 Sphoeroides spp. 34 379
162 N.A. 21 6 3,064 2,536
Invertebrates
163 Calinectes sapidus 475 28
164 Menippe mercenaria 1 4 1
165 Mithrax spp. 1
166 Panulirus argus 35 4 27,718 23,069
167 Panulirus guttatus 39
168 Pennaeus duorarum 30
169 Scyllarides aequinoctialis 39
170 Strombus gigas 10 3,527 127

 Total 852 268 261,268 126,978

 No. interviews 147 147 28,923 28,923

 Avg. trip landings 5.80 9.03

 % Total landings 0.3%

 Avg. Trip Releases 1.82 4.39

 % Total Releases 0.2%


Recreational anglers indicated a preference for 66 taxa (Table 2). Excluding the miscellaneous category, the favorite fishing targets by party type or composition were: dolphin, Coryphaena hippurus, for skilled recreational, food, family, and novice anglers; unidentified snappers, Lutjanus spp., for fishermen classified as "other"; hogfish, Lachnolaimus maximus, for. spearfishermen; and spiny lobster for divers. For all party types combined, almost half of the interviews (13,847 or 47.9%) indicated no preference for particular species. The next most preferred target categories along with number and percentage of total interviews were: dolphin (4,315 or 14.9%), spiny lobster (3,381 or 11.7%), unidentified snappers (1,501 or 5.2%), unidentified groupers (1,375 or 4.8%), and hogfish (880 or 3.0%).
Table 2.--Species preferences as a percent of interviews (n = 28,923)
by recreational fishing party type. Species listed in less than 1% of
interviews by party type are shown by (**). Scientific names are shown
in Table 1.

 Skilled Spear
Common name recreational Family Novice fishing

Atlantic bonito (**) (**)
Atlantic spadefish (**)
Ballyhoo (**)
Bigeye (**)
Black grouper (**)
Blue runner (**) (**) (**)
Bluecrab (**) (**)
Bluefish (**) (**)
Bluestriped grunt (**)
Bonefish 5.7% (**) (**)
Caribbean spiny lobster 2.0% (**) 1.8% 5.9%
Cero mackerel (**) (**) (**)
Cobia (**)
Common snook (**) (**) (**) (**)
Creole wrasse
Crevalle jack (**)
Cubera snapper (**)
Dolphin 30.4% 11.7% 9.3% (**)
French grunt (**)
Gag (**)
Gray snapper 2.6% 2.5% 1.9% (**)
Gray triggerfish
Great barracuda 2.5% 2.3% 1.6% (**)
Greater amberjack (**) (**) (**)
Hogfish (**) (**) (**) 23.1%
Jolthead porgy (**) (**) (**)
King mackerel (**) (**) (**)
Longnose sucker (**)
Lookdown (**)
Mutton snapper 1.7% (**) (**) (**)
Nassau grouper (**)
Nurse shark (**)
Painted wrasse (**) (**)
Permit (**) (**)
Pinfish (**)
Queen conch (**) (**)
Red grouper (**) (**) (**)
Red snapper (**) (**) (**)
Sailfish 1.7% (**) (**) (**)
Sand perch (**) (**) (**)
Schoolmaster (**)
Sheepshead (**)
Shovel-nosed lobster (**) (**)
Skipjack tuna (**)
Spanish mackerel (**) (**) (**)
Spottail pinfish (**)
Spotted seatrout 2.3% 1.4% 2.0%
Stony crab
Swordspine snook (**)
Tarpon (**) (**) (**)
Unidentified porgy (**) (**) (**)
Unidentified snapper 5.5% 6.1% 6.2% 3.0%
Unidentified billfishes (**) (**) (**)
Unidentified dolphin (**)
Unidentified fishes 35.5% 67.6% 69.3% 52.7%
Unidentified groupers 4.6% 3.1% 3.8% 13.2%
Unidentified grunt (**) (**) (**) (**)
Unidentified jack (**) (**) (**) (**)
Unidentified shark (**) (**) (**) (**)
Unidentified snook (**)
Unidentified tuna 1.1% (**) (**)
Unidentified wrasse (**)
Wahoo (**) (**)
White grant (**) (**) (**)
Yellow jack (**)
Yellowtail snapper (**) (**) (**) (**)

 Diving All
Common name lobster Food Other types

Atlantic bonito (**)
Atlantic spadefish (**)
Ballyhoo (**)
Bigeye (**)
Black grouper (**)
Blue runner (**)
Bluecrab (**) (**) (**)
Bluefish (**)
Bluestriped grunt (**)
Bonefish (**) (**) 2.1%
Caribbean spiny lobster 88.9% 2.6% 4.8% 11.7%
Cero mackerel (**)
Cobia (**)
Common snook (**) (**)
Creole wrasse (**) (**)
Crevalle jack (**)
Cubera snapper (**) (**)
Dolphin (**) 15.2% 8.2% 14.9%
French grunt (**)
Gag (**)
Gray snapper 3.9% (**) 2.0%
Gray triggerfish (**)
Great barracuda 3.0% 5.4% 1.8%
Greater amberjack (**) (**)
Hogfish (**) (**) (**) 3.0%
Jolthead porgy (**) (**)
King mackerel (**) (**) (**)
Longnose sucker (**)
Lookdown (**)
Mutton snapper 1.1% (**) (**)
Nassau grouper (**)
Nurse shark (**)
Painted wrasse (**)
Permit (**)
Pinfish (**)
Queen conch 3.6% (**) (**)
Red grouper (**)
Red snapper (**)
Sailfish (**) (**) 1.4% (**)
Sand perch (**) (**)
Schoolmaster (**)
Sheepshead (**) (**)
Shovel-nosed lobster (**) (**)
Skipjack tuna (**)
Spanish mackerel (**) (**)
Spottail pinfish (**)
Spotted seatrout 1.2% 1.4% 1.4%
Stony crab (**) (**)
Swordspine snook (**)
Tarpon (**) (**)
Unidentified porgy (**) (**) (**)
Unidentified snapper (**) 8.7% 15.0% 5.2%
Unidentified billfishes (**)
Unidentified dolphin (**)
Unidentified fishes 6.2% 54.9% 49.7% 47.9%
Unidentified groupers (**) 4.3% 8.8% 4.8%
Unidentified grunt 1.1% (**) (**)
Unidentified jack (**) (**) (**)
Unidentified shark (**) (**)
Unidentified snook (**)
Unidentified tuna (**) (**) (**)
Unidentified wrasse (**)
Wahoo (**) (**)
White grant (**) (**)
Yellow jack (**)
Yellowtail snapper (**) 1.2% (**)


Landings

A total of 261,268 fish and shellfish representing 170 species or higher taxa were recorded in recreational creel samples (Table 1). Five species or higher taxa accounted for more than 50% of total number of organisms landed: white grunt, Haemulon plumieri (15.8%); spiny lobster (10.6%); gray snapper, Lutjanus griseus (10.6%); Unidentified grunts, Haemulon spp. (7.3%); and dolphin (6.6%).

Average annual LPUE for all 28,923 interviews was 4.77 fish/angler/trip (from 3.80 in 1991 to 5.83 in 1981) (Fig. 4). Mean LPUE increased from 1976 through 1981 and then declined with large fluctuations between 1984 and 1991. The 95% confidence intervals suggest that observed significant drops in landings per angler-trip during 1985 and 1986 were unlikely to be anomalies caused by smaller sample sizes. We conclude that this drop was most likely the temporary result of several new recreational fishery regulations. During the study period, several landings regulations were implemented that may have influenced landings. In September 1983 minimum size limits of 12 inches (30.5 cm) were established for black grouper, Mycteroperca bonaci; and yellowtail snapper, Ocyurus crysurus; for Federal waters ([is greater than] 3 n.mi. from land), areas mostly outside the study area. On 29 July 1985, Florida established minimum size limits much more likely to influence BNP landings since they applied to state waters ([is less than] 3 n.mi. from land). These new minimum size limits applicable to state waters were 12 inches (30.5 cm) for yellowtail snapper, and mutton snapper, Lutjanus analis; and 18 inches (45.7 cm) for black grouper; yellowfin grouper, Mycteroperca venenosa; gag, M. microlepis; red grouper, Epinephelus morio; and Nassau grouper, E. striatus. In December 1986, bag limits were established of 10 snappers and 5 groupers per angler per day. In February 1990, Florida added or increased minimum size limits to 8 inches (20.3 cm) for vermilion snapper, Rhomboplites aurorubens; and lane snapper, L. synagris; 10 inches (25.4 cm) for gray snapper, L. griseus; and schoolmaster, L. apodus; 20 inches (50.8 cm) for scamp, M. phenax; yellowmouth grouper, M. interstitalis; black, gag, red, yellowfin, and Nassau groupers; and 28 inches (71.1 cm) for greater amberjack, Seriola dumerili. Again, the reported average annual landings per angler-trip declined significantly in 1990 and 1991, the years during and following the application of new minimum size limits (Fig. 4).

[GRAPH OMITTED]

Tilmant (1981) reported an inverse relationship between average landings and total trips. Years with more trips had lower average LPUE values while years with fewer trips had higher LPUE values. Thus, the decline in LPUE between 1982 and 1991 also may reflect an increased total number of fishing trips, although data were not available to estimate total annual number of trips. Previous studies used trailer counts to estimate total fishing trips based upon a correlation between trailers and aerial counts of fishing vessels, but these data were unavailable after 1985. Boat trailer counts and total fishing trips are known to be highly affected by weather, day of the week, holiday occurrence, and special events, such as the opening of spiny lobster season. In general, more fishing trips are made during special marine-related events or on the weekends with good boating conditions, while fewer fishing trips occur during major local sporting events or inclement weather conditions. Also, without information on the total number of trips, we were not able to estimate total annual catch or landings in BNP.

An average of 9.03 finfish or shellfish were landed per trip for all interviews (Table 1). Parties classified in the "food" category had the highest average trip landings of 19.53, followed by skilled recreational (9.60), lobster diving (8.02), and spearfishing (7.78). Fishing parties classified as "other" had the lowest average landings of 5.80 per trip. The relative contribution by each party type to total numerical landings sampled was: skilled recreational (34.0%), food (19.8%), family (14.5%), novice (11.5%), spearfishing (10.3%), lobster diving (9.6%), and other (0.3%) (Table 1). The four angling party types showed broad overlap in landings composition (Table 1). Lobster diving and "other" categories were distinctive by landing very few species. Spearfishermen showed intermediate selectivity by concentrating on hogfish, groupers, jacks, snappers, and grunts (Table 1).

Releases

Recreational fishermen reported releasing 126,978 fish and shellfish in trip interviews, representing 147 species or higher taxa (Table 1). Five taxa accounted for approximately 67% of total organisms released: spiny lobster (18.2%), unidentified grunts (17.9%), white grunt (13.9%), gray snapper (9.3%), and yellowtail snapper (8.0%). The average trip release rate for all interviews was 4.39 fishes or shellfish per trip. Lobster divers reported more releases per trip (5.73) than any other fishing party type, probably because minimum size limits existed on spiny lobster throughout the study period. A total of 17,600 organisms released by lobster divers were mostly spiny lobster (97.8%). Spearfishing parties reported the fewest average releases per trip (0.70) reflecting the selectivity of their fishing gear and methods that target individual fishes. This number does not include organisms that may have escaped capture after being speared.

A comparison was made of landings and releases for the ten most commonly landed taxa (Table 3). The four most commonly landed taxa (white grunt, spiny lobster, gray snapper, and unidentified grunts) also ranked within the top ten released taxa. Only three of the top ten landed species failed to rank within the top ten releases: dolphin (rank 19); hogfish (rank 29); and jolthead porgy, Calamus bajonado (rank 15). The release to landings ratio for all taxa was 0.49:1. The ratio was lowest for dolphin (0.03:1) and highest for unidentified grunts (1.19:1).
Table 3.--Comparison of landings and releases for the 10 most commonly
landed taxa.

 Landings

Common name Number % Total Rank

White grunt 41,368 15.83 1
Caribbean spiny lobster 27,718 10.61 2
G ray snapper 27,688 10.60 3
Unidentified grunts 19,046 7.29 4
Dolphin 17,334 6.63 5
Hogfish 15,762 6.03 6
Unidentified snappers 14,895 5.70 7
Yellowtail snapper 14,430 5.52 8
Bluestriped grunt 10,692 4.09 9
Jolthead porgy 10,674 4.09 10

 Releases Release to
 landings
Common name Number % Total Rank ratio

White grunt 17,660 13.91 3 0.43:1
Caribbean spiny lobster 23,069 18.17 1 0.83:1
G ray snapper 11,746 9.25 4 0.42:1
Unidentified grunts 22,692 17.87 2 1.19:1
Dolphin 548 0.43 19 0.03:1
Hogfish 349 0.27 29 0.02:1
Unidentified snappers 3,518 2.77 9 0.24:1
Yellowtail snapper 10,162 8.00 5 0.70:1
Bluestriped grunt 4.546 3.58 7 0.43:1
Jolthead porgy 1,198 0.94 15 0.11:1


Length Measurements

A total of 70,687 length measurements were recorded, representing 149 taxa and 27.1% of all landings. The average annual number of organisms measured was 4,418 (range: 1,417 in 1991 to 7,049 in 1985). The percentage of total individuals measured was highly variable between species, ranging from 1.29% for unidentified grunts to 100% for 17 species or higher taxa. The 10 species with the most measured individuals were: spiny lobster (16,527), white grunt (10,125), gray snapper (8,756), hogfish (5,077), dolphin (4,911), yellowtail snapper (3,891), bluestriped grunt, Haemulon sciurus (3,348), red grouper (1,941), mutton snapper, (1,516), and great barracuda, Sphyraena barracuda (1,398).

Areas Fished

Trip interviews reported fishing activity in various spatial combinations of 13 zones used by the Park Service in southern Florida (Fig. 1, Table 4). The distribution of total trips and total landings among zones is shown in Figure 5. Spearfishing trips showed the most restrictive use patterns by concentrating 84% of their trips in areas 5 and 6. The remaining party types had similar patterns of area usage mostly concentrating in zones 2, 4, 5, and 6. Zones 5 and 6 accounted for most trips (57.5%) and landings (54.0%). Only 9.9% of trips and 11.0% of landings were reported from trips that visited multiple zones.

[GRAPH OMITTED]
Table 4.--Patterns of zone usage based on percentage of trips and catch
numbers (landings + releases) reported in trip interviews by fishing
party type from January 1976 through July 1991.

 Fishing party type

 Experienced Family Novice

 % % % % % %
Fishing zones Trips Catch Trips Catch Trips Catch

Area 1 2.6 3.3 4.3 3.8 59.0 5.4
Area 2 5.4 5.4 8.7 8.4 8.0 7.6
Area 3 1.7 1.6 5.3 3.3 4.5 3.5
Area 4 10.0 11.7 20.2 20.2 18.9 18.6
Area 5 24.0 32.9 26.4 34.2 26.3 32.3
Area 6 38.0 23.8 16.7 11.0 18.3 11.9
Areas 1,2 0.6 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.9 0.9
Areas 1,3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.3
Areas 2,4 0.9 0.8 1.3 1.4 1.0 0.7
Areas 3,4 0.5 0.5 1.3 1.0 1.1 0.6
Areas 1,2,3,4 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.7 0.5
Areas 3,5 0.3 0.3 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.4
Areas 4,5 2.3 2.4 2.7 3.0 2.3 2.5
Areas 3,4,5 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4
Areas 5,6 5.7 6.8 3.6 3.6 3.5 4.1
Area 16(N. of BNP) 0.3 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.3
Area 17(S. of BNP) 4.6 6.4 4.8 5.4 4.2 6.8
Other 1.7 1.9 1.2 1.6 2.4 2.5
Area 20 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.5
Area 21 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.0
Area 22 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1
Area 23 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0
Area 24 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total Trips 9,244 5,199 5,071
Total Catch (no.) 133,608 60,685 50,949

 Fishing party type

 Spearfishing Lobster diving Food

 % % % % % %
Fishing zones Trips Catch Trips Catch Trips Catch

Area 1 0.2 0.1 1.2 2.2 3.6 3.1
Area 2 0.4 0.4 1.7 3.0 9.3 8.6
Area 3 0.6 0.4 1.3 0.8 2.1 2.7
Area 4 4.1 3.0 16.5 23.3 14.0 13.7
Area 5 64.3 65.4 53.1 43.8 32.9 38.0
Area 6 21.5 21.3 8.5 6.5 20.7 14.3
Areas 1,2 0.1 0.0 0.3 0.4 0.9 0.9
Areas 1,3 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.4
Areas 2,4 0.1 0.0 0.4 0.7 0.8 2.1
Areas 3,4 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.4
Areas 1,2,3,4 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1
Areas 3,5 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.5 6.0
Areas 4,5 1.1 0.8 2.7 3.0 2.6 3.2
Areas 3,4,5 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.5 0.5
Areas 5,6 4.1 4.4 1.1 1.2 5.4 5.3
Area 16(N. of BNP) 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.2 0.1
Area 17(S. of BNP) 2.0 2.2 9.1 10.3 3.8 4.2
Other 0.5 1.0 1.6 2.6 1.0 1.3
Area 20 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.3
Area 21 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.1
Area 22 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1
Area 23 0.2 0.1 1.1 0.7 0.2 0.1
Area 24 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0
Total Trips 3,473 3,142 2,647
Total Catch (no.) 29,442 43,196 67,246

 Fishing party type

 Other Total

 % % % %
Fishing zones Trips Catch Trips Catch

Area 1 9.5 0.7 3.2 3.3
Area 2 8.2 4.8 5.8 6.1
Area 3 2.7 2.4 2.7 2.2
Area 4 17.7 16.4 13.8 15.0
Area 5 32.0 39.3 33.7 37.6
Area 6 13.6 12.8 23.8 16.4
Areas 1,2 2.0 9.2 0.6 8.0
Areas 1,3 0.7 0.2 0.3 0.3
Areas 2,4 0.0 0.0 0.8 1.0
Areas 3,4 0.7 0.4 0.7 0.5
Areas 1,2,3,4 7.5 5.1 0.4 0.2
Areas 3,5 0.0 0.0 3.0 0.4
Areas 4,5 0.0 0.0 2.3 2.6
Areas 3,4,5 0.7 1.0 0.3 0.4
Areas 5,6 1.4 0.3 4.2 4.8
Area 16(N. of BNP) 0.7 1.8 0.3 0.3
Area 17(S. of BNP) 2.0 2.0 4.7 6.0
Other 0.0 0.0 1.5 1.8
Area 20 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.2
Area 21 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1
Area 22 0.7 3.6 0.0 0.1
Area 23 0.0 0.0 2.0 0.1
Area 24 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0
Total Trips 147 28,923
Total Catch (no.) 1,120 388,246


The areas with the highest mean total catch per trip were: Statistical Area 20--Biscayne Bay, northeastern corner of BNP (17.6 fish or shellfish per trip, SE = 4.7); Area 17--south of BNP (17.5 fish or shellfish per trip, SE = 0.8); Areas 2 and 4--Biscayne Bay, southern portion within BNP (17.0 fish or shellfish per trip, SE = 2.9). Although Area 20 had the highest catch compared with other areas, the sample size was small (n = 47) and the variability (SE = 4.7) was the largest computed for all areas. Statistical fishing areas 20 through 26 were added after 1983 as the result of a boundary extension for BNP (Table 5). In July 1984 southern Biscayne Bay (regions 1-4 and 20-22) were closed to spiny lobster fishing.
Table 5.--Percentage of recreational fishing trips (n = 28,923)
reported using BNP statistical fishing areas by year. Annual sample
sizes are shown in Figure 1. Areas 20-24 were added after BNP boundary
expansion in 1993.

Fishing zones 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981

Area 1 2.0 2.9 6.8 3.2 1.6 2.7
Area 2 5.2 4.7 3.4 6.5 8.3 3.6
Area 3 5.9 2.7 2.1 3.0 3.0 1.9
Area 4 14.8 14.3 11.9 17.2 20.8 10.1
Area 5 33.0 26.0 18.0 20.7 34.3 35.9
Area 6 24.5 34.4 37.9 29.1 14.5 24.5
Areas 1,2 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.6
Areas 1,3 3.0 0.1 0.3 0.1 1.0 0.6
Areas 2,4 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.9 0.6
Areas 3,4 1.4 6.0 1.2 0.7 0.7 0.7
Areas 1,2,3,4 1.3 0.8 0.2 0.6 0.2 0.3
Areas 3,5 0.7 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.4
Areas 4,5 2.0 1.7 1.4 2.1 3.1 2.2
Areas 3,4,5 1.0 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.5
Areas 5,6 4.8 3.6 4.4 7.9 3.9 5.6
Area 16(N. of BNP) 0.1 0.7 0.6 6.0 0.0 0.8
Area 17(S. of BNP) 1.1 4.2 6.5 4.8 4.8 5.2
Other 0.9 1.5 3.9 2.1 2.9 3.8
Area 20
Area 21
Area 22
Area 23
Area 24

Fishing zones 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987

Area 1 4.5 4.0 4.0 2.2 2.1 1.5
Area 2 4.6 9.2 9.5 6.7 7.7 6.3
Area 3 2.3 3.5 2.4 2.7 2.5 2.6
Area 4 12.9 16.1 15.5 12.4 14.8 13.5
Area 5 45.4 36.2 47.4 37.2 41.1 36.0
Area 6 13.3 15.2 8.8 24.1 24.2 22.3
Areas 1,2 1.2 0.7 0.3 0.1 0.3 1.1
Areas 1,3 0.9 0.3 0.0 0.1 0.3 0.1
Areas 2,4 1.2 1.8 1.2 6.0 0.2 1.1
Areas 3,4 0.7 0.8 5.0 0.2 0.2 4.0
Areas 1,2,3,4 0.4 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.3
Areas 3,5 0.7 0.3 1.0 4.0 0.0 0.5
Areas 4,5 4.0 2.9 0.9 1.5 0.2 2.9
Areas 3,4,5 0.9 2.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.2
Areas 5,6 3.8 3.7 0.5 1.3 0.2 3.5
Area 16(N. of BNP) 0.3 0.0 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.3
Area 17(S. of BNP) 2.0 4.1 6.6 7.7 4.3 4.6
Other 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Area 20 0.4 0.2 0.5 0.6 1.5
Area 21 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.6 0.3
Area 22 0.2 0.0 1.0 0.2 0.1
Area 23 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.3 1.1
Area 24 0.0 2.0 0.7 0.2 0.0

Fishing zones 1988 1989 1990 1991

Area 1 0.7 1.1 2.0 2.0
Area 2 5.1 4.5 3.6 4.3
Area 3 2.8 2.0 0.7 1.0
Area 4 5.9 7.4 7.3 3.5
Area 5 43.4 43.8 45.8 46.0
Area 6 22.8 25.1 24.3 34.4
Areas 1,2 0.3 0.0 1.0 0.4
Areas 1,3 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0
Areas 2,4 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.6
Areas 3,4 0.4 0.3 0.1 0.4
Areas 1,2,3,4 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0
Areas 3,5 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0
Areas 4,5 2.3 2.1 2.7 1.2
Areas 3,4,5 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.4
Areas 5,6 4.5 5.0 4.8 2.5
Area 16(N. of BNP) 0.1 1.0 0.2 0.2
Area 17(S. of BNP) 8.9 6.1 7.0 3.1
Other 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Area 20 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.0
Area 21 0.1 0.6 0.1 0.0
Area 22 0.1 0.3 0.0 0.0
Area 23 0.6 0.4 2.0 1.6
Area 24 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2


Spearfishing

A total of 3,473 recreational spearfishing trips were sampled between January 1976 and July 1991 (mean 217 trips per year, range 37 for partial 1991 to 491 in 1982). Annual composition of sampled landings was determined for the 110 species or higher taxa recorded from spearfishing trips (Table 6). An average 7.78 organisms were landed per spearfishing trip (range 5.23 in 1986 to 9.71 in 1983) (Fig. 6). Spearfishing accounted for about 12.0% of the total fishing trips sampled but only 10.3% of the total number of organisms landed and 7.6% of all organisms caught (n = 388,246).

[GRAPH OMITTED]
Table 6.--Species landings composition by year for 3,473 recreational
spearfishing fishing trips in BNP. Several taxa were reported only at
the family level in 1976 end 1977.

Scientific name Common name

 1 Acanthocybium solandri Wahoo
 2 Acanthurus bahianus Ocean surgeon
 3 Acanthurus coeruleus Blue tang
 4 Albula vulpes Bonefish
 5 Alectis ciliaris African pompano
 6 Anisotremus surinamensis Black margate
 7 Anisotremus virginicus Porkfish
 8 Archosargus probatocephalus Sheepshead
 9 Archosargus rhomboidalis Sea bream
 10 Aulostomus maculatus Trumpetfish
 11 Balistes capriscus Gray triggerfish
 12 Balistes vetula Queen triggerfish
 13 Bodianus rufus Spanish hogfish
 14 Calamus arctifrons Grass porgy
 15 Calamus bajonado Jolthead porgy
 16 Calamus calamus Saucereye porgy
 17 Cantherhines pullus Orangespotted filefish
 18 Canthidermis sufflamen Ocean triggerfish
 19 Caranx bartholomaei Yellow jack
 20 Caranx crysos Blue runner
 21 Caranx hippos Crevalle jack
 22 Caranx latus Horse-eye jack
 23 Caranx ruber Bar jack
 24 Caranx spp. Unidentified jack
 25 Carcharhinus spp. Unidentified shark
 26 Centropomus ensiferus Swordspine snook
 27 Centropomus undecimalis Common snook
 28 Chaetodiperus faber Atlantic spadefish
 29 Coryphaena hippurus Dolphin
 30 Dasyatis spp. Unidentified stingray
 31 Diplectrum formosum Sand perch
 32 Elagatis bipinnulata Rainbow runner
 33 Epinephelus adscensionis Rock hind
 34 Epinephelus cruentatus Graysby
 35 Epinephelus flavolimbatus Yellowedge grouper
 36 Epinephelus fulvus Coney
 37 Epinephelus guttatus Red hind
 38 Epinephelus inermis Marbled grouper
 39 Epinephelus itajara Jewfish
 40 Epinephelus morio Red grouper
 41 Epinephelus striatus Nassau grouper
 42 Gerres cinereus Yellowfin mojarra
 43 Ginglymostoma cirratum Nurse shark
 44 Gymnothorax spp. Unidentified moray
 45 Haemulon album Margate
 46 Haemulon carbonarium Caesar grunt
 47 Haemulon flavolineatum French grunt
 48 Haemulon macrostomum Spanish grunt
 49 Haemulon parrai Sailor's choice
 50 Haemulon plumieri White grunt
 51 Haemulon sciurus Bluestriped grunt
 52 Haemulon spp. Unidentified grunt
 53 Haemulon striatum Striped grunt
 54 Halichoeres bivittatus Slippery dick
 55 Halichoeres radiatus Puddingwife
 56 Halichoeres spp. Unidentified wrasse
 57 Holacanthus ciliaris Queen angelfish
 58 Holocentrus adscensionis Squirrelfish
 59 Kyphosus incisor Yellow chub
 60 Kyphosus sectatrix Bermuda chub
 61 Kyphosus spp. Unidentified chub
 62 Lachnolaimus maximus Hogfish
 63 Lactophrys spp. Unidentified boxfish
 64 Lagodon rhomboides Pinfish
 65 Lutjanus analis Mutton snapper
 66 Lutjanus apodus Schoolmaster
 67 Lutjanus buccanella Blackfin snapper
 68 Lutjanus cyanopterus Cubera snapper
 69 Lutjanus griseus Gray snapper
 70 Lutjanus jocu Dog snapper
 71 Lutjanus mahogoni Mahogany snapper
 72 Lutjanus spp. Unidentifed snapper
 73 Lutjanus synagris Lane snapper
 74 Lutjanus vivanus Silk snapper
 75 Malacanthus plumieri Sand tilefish
 76 Mulloidichthys martinicus Yellow goatfish
 77 Mycteroperca bonaci Black grouper
 78 Mycteroperca interstitialis Yellowmouth grouper
 79 Mycteroperca microlepis Gag
 80 Mycteroperca phenax Scamp
 81 Mycteroperca venenosa Yellowfin grouper
 82 Ocyurus chrysurus Yellowtail snapper
 83 Panulirus argus Caribbean spiny lobster
 84 Panulirus guttatus Spotted lobster
 85 Pomacanthus arcuatus Gray angelfish
 86 Priacanthus arenatus Bigeye
 87 Prionotus spp. Unidentified searobin
 88 Rhomboplites aurorubens Vermilion snapper
 89 Sarda sarda Atlantic bonito
 90 Scarus guacamaia Rainbow parrotfish
 91 Scomberomorus cavalla King mackerel
 92 Scomberomorus maculatus Spanish mackerel
 93 Scomberomorus regalis Cero mackerel
 94 Scyllarides aequinoctialis Shovel-nosed lobster
 95 Seriola dumerili Greater amberjack
 96 Sphoeroides spp. Unidentified puffer
 97 Sphyraena barracuda Great barracuda
 98 Sphyrna tiburo Bonnethead
 99 Strombus gigas Queen conch
100 Thunnus spp. Unidentified tuna
101 Trachinotus falcatus Permit
102 Tylosurus crocodilus Houndfish
103 N.A. Unidentified bigeye
104 N.A. Unidentifed filefish
105 N.A. Unidentifed catfish
106 N.A. Unidentified grouper
107 N.A. Unidentified anglefish
108 N.A. Unidentified lefteye flounder
109 N.A. Unidentified fishes
110 N.A. Unidentified parrotfish
Totals
No. of interviews
Avg. landed/trip

Scientific name 1976 1977 1978 1979

 1 Acanthocybium solandri 1
 2 Acanthurus bahianus
 3 Acanthurus coeruleus
 4 Albula vulpes 1
 5 Alectis ciliaris
 6 Anisotremus surinamensis 2 10
 7 Anisotremus virginicus 1
 8 Archosargus probatocephalus 11 5
 9 Archosargus rhomboidalis
 10 Aulostomus maculatus
 11 Balistes capriscus
 12 Balistes vetula
 13 Bodianus rufus 1 2
 14 Calamus arctifrons
 15 Calamus bajonado 2 18 33 15
 16 Calamus calamus
 17 Cantherhines pullus
 18 Canthidermis sufflamen 6
 19 Caranx bartholomaei 3
 20 Caranx crysos 9 2 4 12
 21 Caranx hippos 2
 22 Caranx latus
 23 Caranx ruber 1 4
 24 Caranx spp. 7 53 45
 25 Carcharhinus spp. 2 1 1
 26 Centropomus ensiferus
 27 Centropomus undecimalis
 28 Chaetodiperus faber 2
 29 Coryphaena hippurus 1 1 8 1
 30 Dasyatis spp. 1
 31 Diplectrum formosum
 32 Elagatis bipinnulata
 33 Epinephelus adscensionis 2 3
 34 Epinephelus cruentatus 5
 35 Epinephelus flavolimbatus
 36 Epinephelus fulvus 1
 37 Epinephelus guttatus 1 21
 38 Epinephelus inermis
 39 Epinephelus itajara 2
 40 Epinephelus morio 7 135
 41 Epinephelus striatus 14 310
 42 Gerres cinereus
 43 Ginglymostoma cirratum 2
 44 Gymnothorax spp. 2
 45 Haemulon album 7 14
 46 Haemulon carbonarium
 47 Haemulon flavolineatum 2
 48 Haemulon macrostomum 1
 49 Haemulon parrai
 50 Haemulon plumieri 1 7 47
 51 Haemulon sciurus 1 14 34
 52 Haemulon spp. 69 108 41 1
 53 Haemulon striatum
 54 Halichoeres bivittatus
 55 Halichoeres radiatus
 56 Halichoeres spp.
 57 Holacanthus ciliaris
 58 Holocentrus adscensionis
 59 Kyphosus incisor
 60 Kyphosus sectatrix 2
 61 Kyphosus spp.
 62 Lachnolaimus maximus 452 1,562 1,704 1,334
 63 Lactophrys spp.
 64 Lagodon rhomboides
 65 Lutjanus analis 1 69
 66 Lutjanus apodus 26
 67 Lutjanus buccanella
 68 Lutjanus cyanopterus 11
 69 Lutjanus griseus 3 26 206
 70 Lutjanus jocu 8
 71 Lutjanus mahogoni
 72 Lutjanus spp. 128 306 251
 73 Lutjanus synagris 4
 74 Lutjanus vivanus
 75 Malacanthus plumieri
 76 Mulloidichthys martinicus
 77 Mycteroperca bonaci 10 219
 78 Mycteroperca interstitialis 1 2
 79 Mycteroperca microlepis 8 8
 80 Mycteroperca phenax 2
 81 Mycteroperca venenosa 4 7
 82 Ocyurus chrysurus 12
 83 Panulirus argus 24 354 411 432
 84 Panulirus guttatus 1 3
 85 Pomacanthus arcuatus
 86 Priacanthus arenatus 9 29
 87 Prionotus spp.
 88 Rhomboplites aurorubens
 89 Sarda sarda 1 1
 90 Scarus guacamaia
 91 Scomberomorus cavalla
 92 Scomberomorus maculatus 1 3
 93 Scomberomorus regalis 10
 94 Scyllarides aequinoctialis
 95 Seriola dumerili 1 31
 96 Sphoeroides spp.
 97 Sphyraena barracuda 9 17 10 11
 98 Sphyrna tiburo
 99 Strombus gigas 5 127 137 203
100 Thunnus spp. 1 3 8
101 Trachinotus falcatus
102 Tylosurus crocodilus
103 N.A.
104 N.A.
105 N.A. 1
106 N.A. 201 665 738 0
107 N.A. 4
108 N.A.
109 N.A. 16 76 34
110 N.A. 2 1
Totals 931 3,316 3,573 3,246
No. of interviews 127 385 463 409
Avg. landed/trip 7.33 8.61 7.72 7.94

Scientific name 1980 1981 1982 1983

 1 Acanthocybium solandri
 2 Acanthurus bahianus 1 1
 3 Acanthurus coeruleus
 4 Albula vulpes
 5 Alectis ciliaris 1 1
 6 Anisotremus surinamensis 6 28 23 29
 7 Anisotremus virginicus 2 4 6 1
 8 Archosargus probatocephalus
 9 Archosargus rhomboidalis 4
 10 Aulostomus maculatus 2
 11 Balistes capriscus 2 1 2
 12 Balistes vetula 1 2 1
 13 Bodianus rufus 1 3 3
 14 Calamus arctifrons 1
 15 Calamus bajonado 1 1 8 13
 16 Calamus calamus 4 1
 17 Cantherhines pullus 1 1
 18 Canthidermis sufflamen 1 7 1 4
 19 Caranx bartholomaei 10 39 42 18
 20 Caranx crysos 6 9 2 8
 21 Caranx hippos 3 2 9 4
 22 Caranx latus 1 1
 23 Caranx ruber 2 8 5 1
 24 Caranx spp. 12
 25 Carcharhinus spp. 2
 26 Centropomus ensiferus 1
 27 Centropomus undecimalis 1
 28 Chaetodiperus faber 14 4 3 4
 29 Coryphaena hippurus 6 7
 30 Dasyatis spp. 1
 31 Diplectrum formosum 2
 32 Elagatis bipinnulata 2 1 1
 33 Epinephelus adscensionis 3 2 4 3
 34 Epinephelus cruentatus 9 9 9 7
 35 Epinephelus flavolimbatus 8
 36 Epinephelus fulvus 2
 37 Epinephelus guttatus 6 11 15 9
 38 Epinephelus inermis 1
 39 Epinephelus itajara 2 1 1
 40 Epinephelus morio 76 181 128 200
 41 Epinephelus striatus 187 158 82 29
 42 Gerres cinereus 1
 43 Ginglymostoma cirratum 2 1 3
 44 Gymnothorax spp. 2 1
 45 Haemulon album 16 5 14 6
 46 Haemulon carbonarium 1
 47 Haemulon flavolineatum 3
 48 Haemulon macrostomum 1 1 5 4
 49 Haemulon parrai 3
 50 Haemulon plumieri 22 24 32 86
 51 Haemulon sciurus 47 32 25 26
 52 Haemulon spp. 20 1 36
 53 Haemulon striatum 1
 54 Halichoeres bivittatus
 55 Halichoeres radiatus 1
 56 Halichoeres spp. 1
 57 Holacanthus ciliaris 2
 58 Holocentrus adscensionis
 59 Kyphosus incisor 1
 60 Kyphosus sectatrix 5 9 3 4
 61 Kyphosus spp.
 62 Lachnolaimus maximus 1,068 1,660 1,661 2,022
 63 Lactophrys spp. 1 1 2
 64 Lagodon rhomboides 3
 65 Lutjanus analis 57 63 58 52
 66 Lutjanus apodus 13 45 70 50
 67 Lutjanus buccanella 1
 68 Lutjanus cyanopterus 3 1
 69 Lutjanus griseus 182 309 248 201
 70 Lutjanus jocu 14 24 7 4
 71 Lutjanus mahogoni 1 1 1 1
 72 Lutjanus spp. 5 2 14 1
 73 Lutjanus synagris 2 2 5 6
 74 Lutjanus vivanus 3
 75 Malacanthus plumieri 1 1
 76 Mulloidichthys martinicus 2
 77 Mycteroperca bonaci 80 223 97 69
 78 Mycteroperca interstitialis 1 6 2
 79 Mycteroperca microlepis 3 15 24 8
 80 Mycteroperca phenax 1 3
 81 Mycteroperca venenosa 4 1 14
 82 Ocyurus chrysurus 35 7 34 16
 83 Panulirus argus 25 190 803 182
 84 Panulirus guttatus 1 5
 85 Pomacanthus arcuatus 2
 86 Priacanthus arenatus 1 1
 87 Prionotus spp. 1
 88 Rhomboplites aurorubens 11
 89 Sarda sarda
 90 Scarus guacamaia 1 1
 91 Scomberomorus cavalla 1
 92 Scomberomorus maculatus 1 7 6 2
 93 Scomberomorus regalis 8 4 16 7
 94 Scyllarides aequinoctialis 1
 95 Seriola dumerili 9 3 4 3
 96 Sphoeroides spp. 1
 97 Sphyraena barracuda 9 16 27 31
 98 Sphyrna tiburo 1
 99 Strombus gigas 61 105 204 129
100 Thunnus spp. 1
101 Trachinotus falcatus 3 3 2
102 Tylosurus crocodilus
103 N.A. 1
104 N.A. 1
105 N.A.
106 N.A. 3 24 5 161
107 N.A. 7 2 16
108 N.A. 3
109 N.A. 1 4 2 6
110 N.A. 10 26 10 8
Totals 2,060 3,307 3,797 3,516
No. of interviews 336 381 491 362
Avg. landed/trip 6.13 8.68 7.73 9.71

Scientific name 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988

 1 Acanthocybium solandri
 2 Acanthurus bahianus
 3 Acanthurus coeruleus 1
 4 Albula vulpes
 5 Alectis ciliaris 1
 6 Anisotremus surinamensis 3 8 8 9 6
 7 Anisotremus virginicus 3
 8 Archosargus probatocephalus
 9 Archosargus rhomboidalis
 10 Aulostomus maculatus
 11 Balistes capriscus 1
 12 Balistes vetula
 13 Bodianus rufus 2 3
 14 Calamus arctifrons
 15 Calamus bajonado 1 1
 16 Calamus calamus 5 1
 17 Cantherhines pullus
 18 Canthidermis sufflamen 3 3 2
 19 Caranx bartholomaei 2 6 7 11 6
 20 Caranx crysos 1 2 4 2 3
 21 Caranx hippos
 22 Caranx latus
 23 Caranx ruber 2 1 4 4
 24 Caranx spp. 1 1
 25 Carcharhinus spp. 1 1
 26 Centropomus ensiferus
 27 Centropomus undecimalis
 28 Chaetodiperus faber 1 2 4 3
 29 Coryphaena hippurus 1 5
 30 Dasyatis spp.
 31 Diplectrum formosum
 32 Elagatis bipinnulata
 33 Epinephelus adscensionis 4
 34 Epinephelus cruentatus 1 1 1
 35 Epinephelus flavolimbatus
 36 Epinephelus fulvus
 37 Epinephelus guttatus 2 3 1
 38 Epinephelus inermis
 39 Epinephelus itajara
 40 Epinephelus morio 15 38 12 11 22
 41 Epinephelus striatus 3 10 5 2 2
 42 Gerres cinereus
 43 Ginglymostoma cirratum
 44 Gymnothorax spp.
 45 Haemulon album 5 2
 46 Haemulon carbonarium 1 1 2
 47 Haemulon flavolineatum
 48 Haemulon macrostomum 1 1 2
 49 Haemulon parrai 1
 50 Haemulon plumieri 13 16 10 19
 51 Haemulon sciurus 2 9 5
 52 Haemulon spp. 1
 53 Haemulon striatum
 54 Halichoeres bivittatus 11
 55 Halichoeres radiatus
 56 Halichoeres spp.
 57 Holacanthus ciliaris
 58 Holocentrus adscensionis 1
 59 Kyphosus incisor 1
 60 Kyphosus sectatrix 2 2 1
 61 Kyphosus spp. 1
 62 Lachnolaimus maximus 127 353 284 237 199
 63 Lactophrys spp.
 64 Lagodon rhomboides
 65 Lutjanus analis 3 11 7 3 5
 66 Lutjanus apodus 2 2 9 11 7
 67 Lutjanus buccanella
 68 Lutjanus cyanopterus
 69 Lutjanus griseus 15 74 43 13 34
 70 Lutjanus jocu 1 2 1
 71 Lutjanus mahogoni 1 3
 72 Lutjanus spp. 2
 73 Lutjanus synagris 1 1
 74 Lutjanus vivanus
 75 Malacanthus plumieri
 76 Mulloidichthys martinicus
 77 Mycteroperca bonaci 12 14 5 6 7
 78 Mycteroperca interstitialis 2
 79 Mycteroperca microlepis 1 4 1 3 1
 80 Mycteroperca phenax
 81 Mycteroperca venenosa
 82 Ocyurus chrysurus 22 3 5 29
 83 Panulirus argus 35 132 27 7
 84 Panulirus guttatus
 85 Pomacanthus arcuatus
 86 Priacanthus arenatus 1
 87 Prionotus spp.
 88 Rhomboplites aurorubens
 89 Sarda sarda
 90 Scarus guacamaia
 91 Scomberomorus cavalla
 92 Scomberomorus maculatus 1
 93 Scomberomorus regalis 1 1 2
 94 Scyllarides aequinoctialis
 95 Seriola dumerili 1 1 5 1
 96 Sphoeroides spp.
 97 Sphyraena barracuda 1 4 1 6 3
 98 Sphyrna tiburo
 99 Strombus gigas 27 20
100 Thunnus spp. 1
101 Trachinotus falcatus 1 1 3
102 Tylosurus crocodilus
103 N.A.
104 N.A.
105 N.A.
106 N.A. 3 10 1 1
107 N.A. 4
108 N.A. 1
109 N.A.
110 N.A. 2 1 2 2
Totals 266 751 492 366 380
No. of interviews 38 106 94 68 61
Avg. landed/trip 7.00 7.08 5.23 5.38 6.23

 All
Scientific name 1989 1990 1991 years

 1 Acanthocybium solandri 1
 2 Acanthurus bahianus 2
 3 Acanthurus coeruleus 1
 4 Albula vulpes 1
 5 Alectis ciliaris 3
 6 Anisotremus surinamensis 3 7 5 147
 7 Anisotremus virginicus 1 18
 8 Archosargus probatocephalus 16
 9 Archosargus rhomboidalis 4
 10 Aulostomus maculatus 2
 11 Balistes capriscus 6
 12 Balistes vetula 4
 13 Bodianus rufus 15
 14 Calamus arctifrons 1
 15 Calamus bajonado 1 1 95
 16 Calamus calamus 1 12
 17 Cantherhines pullus 2
 18 Canthidermis sufflamen 1 4 32
 19 Caranx bartholomaei 3 17 11 175
 20 Caranx crysos 1 1 1 67
 21 Caranx hippos 20
 22 Caranx latus 2
 23 Caranx ruber 1 1 34
 24 Caranx spp. 1 120
 25 Carcharhinus spp. 8
 26 Centropomus ensiferus 1
 27 Centropomus undecimalis 1
 28 Chaetodiperus faber 37
 29 Coryphaena hippurus 30
 30 Dasyatis spp. 2
 31 Diplectrum formosum 2
 32 Elagatis bipinnulata 4
 33 Epinephelus adscensionis 2 23
 34 Epinephelus cruentatus 42
 35 Epinephelus flavolimbatus 8
 36 Epinephelus fulvus 3
 37 Epinephelus guttatus 69
 38 Epinephelus inermis 1
 39 Epinephelus itajara 6
 40 Epinephelus morio 14 7 5 851
 41 Epinephelus striatus 3 3 1 809
 42 Gerres cinereus 1
 43 Ginglymostoma cirratum 8
 44 Gymnothorax spp. 5
 45 Haemulon album 1 3 2 75
 46 Haemulon carbonarium 1 2 8
 47 Haemulon flavolineatum 5
 48 Haemulon macrostomum 1 2 1 20
 49 Haemulon parrai 1 5
 50 Haemulon plumieri 1 2 29 309
 51 Haemulon sciurus 6 1 202
 52 Haemulon spp. 0 277
 53 Haemulon striatum 1
 54 Halichoeres bivittatus 11
 55 Halichoeres radiatus 1
 56 Halichoeres spp. 1
 57 Holacanthus ciliaris 2
 58 Holocentrus adscensionis 1
 59 Kyphosus incisor 1 3
 60 Kyphosus sectatrix 2 30
 61 Kyphosus spp. 2 3
 62 Lachnolaimus maximus 216 304 103 13,286
 63 Lactophrys spp. 4
 64 Lagodon rhomboides 3
 65 Lutjanus analis 15 12 8 364
 66 Lutjanus apodus 3 8 6 252
 67 Lutjanus buccanella 1
 68 Lutjanus cyanopterus 1 16
 69 Lutjanus griseus 11 52 15 1,432
 70 Lutjanus jocu 1 1 63
 71 Lutjanus mahogoni 1 1 10
 72 Lutjanus spp. 2 7 718
 73 Lutjanus synagris 21
 74 Lutjanus vivanus 3
 75 Malacanthus plumieri 2
 76 Mulloidichthys martinicus 1 1 4
 77 Mycteroperca bonaci 10 8 5 765
 78 Mycteroperca interstitialis 14
 79 Mycteroperca microlepis 1 77
 80 Mycteroperca phenax 6
 81 Mycteroperca venenosa 30
 82 Ocyurus chrysurus 10 5 178
 83 Panulirus argus 1 2,623
 84 Panulirus guttatus 10
 85 Pomacanthus arcuatus 2
 86 Priacanthus arenatus 41
 87 Prionotus spp. 1
 88 Rhomboplites aurorubens 11
 89 Sarda sarda 2
 90 Scarus guacamaia 1 2 5
 91 Scomberomorus cavalla 1 2
 92 Scomberomorus maculatus 21
 93 Scomberomorus regalis 1 1 2 53
 94 Scyllarides aequinoctialis 12 13
 95 Seriola dumerili 59
 96 Sphoeroides spp. 1
 97 Sphyraena barracuda 14 2 161
 98 Sphyrna tiburo 1
 99 Strombus gigas 1,018
100 Thunnus spp. 14
101 Trachinotus falcatus 3 16
102 Tylosurus crocodilus 5 5
103 N.A. 1
104 N.A. 1
105 N.A. 1
106 N.A. 0 1,812
107 N.A. 33
108 N.A. 4
109 N.A. 139
110 N.A. 7 71
Totals 327 476 211 27,015
No. of interviews 54 61 37 3,473
Avg. landed/trip 6.06 7.80 5.70 7.78


Spearfishing was more selective than angling. Hogfish accounted for almost half (49%) of the organisms speared (13,286 of 27,015) and 84.3% of the 15,762 hogfish landed. Speared hogfish averaged 35.06 cm FL (SD = 9.05 cm, Fig. 7). In 1994, after the study period, Florida enacted a 12 inch (30.5 cm) FL minimum size limit along with a daily bag limit of five hogfish per person. The median annual hogfish fork length over the study period was 33 cm (from 29 cm in 1976 to 36 cm in 1986, Fig. 8). A total of 34.8% of the measured hogfish were below 12 inches (30.5 cm) FL, the minimum size limit established after the study period.

[GRAPHS OMITTED]

Average annual fish size and total trip landings were compared for common species landed by both angling and spearfishing. Mean annual fish weight was significantly greater from spearfishing trips for black grouper, red grouper, and gray snapper (p [is less than] 0.01, t-test), but not significantly different for hogfish, Nassau grouper, and mutton snapper (p [is greater than] 0.05, Table 7). Mean annual landing per trip were significantly greater for spearfishing trips than for hook and line trips for black grouper, Nassau grouper, and red grouper (p [is less than] 0.01, t-test), while no significant differences were found for hogfish, gray snapper, or mutton snapper (p [is greater than] 0.05, Table 7). Thus, although average gray snapper size was larger for spearfishing trips, there was no significant difference in weight per trip because anglers landed more fish per trip. In contrast, spearfishing landed significantly more Nassau grouper per trip than angling (p [is greater than] 0.01). In summary, although spearfishing targeted some of the same species as anglers, the total landings from spearfishing was only a small portion of the total landings from hook and line fishing.
Table 7.--Comparison of mean annual fish weight and
mean total trip landings for six species from spearfishing
and hook & line trips from 1978-1991 ((*) = p < 0.05,
(**) = p < 0.01, t-test, n = 14).

 Spearfishing Hook and line
 trips trips

Species Mean (range) Mean (range)

Hogfish
 Kg/fish 0.83 (0.57-1.10) 0.77 (0.60-1.00)
 Kg/trip 3.04 (1.77-4.58) 0.08 (0.02-0.14)
Black grouper
 Kg/fish(**) 3.83 (1.95-5.94) 2.15 (1.10-4.88)
 Kg/trip(**) 0.71 (0.13-1.78) 0.05 (0.02-0.12)
Nassau grouper
 Kg/fish 1.85 (0.07-4.65) 1.37 (0.74-2.60)
 Kg/trip 0.28 (0.00-1.23) 0.08 (0.00-0.11)
Red grouper
 Kg/fish(**) 1.38 (0.91-2.31) 1.00 (0.88-1.21)
 Kg/trip(**) 0.35 (0.02-0.61) 0.08 (0.02-0.19)
Mutton snapper
 K/fish 1.32 (0.76-1.99) 1.09 (0.58-1.85)
 Kg/trip 0.18 (0.00-0.31) 0.12 (0.02-0.19)
Gray snapper
 Kg/fish(**) 0.64 (0.43-1.06) 0.27 (0.23-0.40)
 Kg/trip 0.31 (0.03-0.57) 0.28 (0.02-0.49)


Comparison of Fishery-Dependent and Independent Trends

The SEFSC has conducted fishery-independent, visual sampling of fishes on inshore patch reefs and offshore bank reefs in BNP statistical Areas 5 and 23 (Fig. 1) since July 1988. Ault et al. (1998) showed that underwater visual size estimates of fishes corresponded well to sizes in headboat landings in the Florida Keys. Abundance indexes for the 10 most commonly landed fishes were compared between BNP creel census data (mean landings per trip) and SEFSC visual census data (mean abundance per sample) for combined statistical Areas 5 and 23 for July 1988--July 1991 (Fig. 9). Trends in the two indexes were highly similar for white grunt and great barracuda and somewhat similar for seven of the remaining fishes. The blue runner, Caranx crysos, exhibited the greatest difference, most likely because it was caught in many habitats while visual data were restricted to reefs. Despite having only 4 years of corresponding data (July 1988--July 1991), the two indices showed good correspondence between fishery-independent visual sample abundance and fishery-dependent creel sample abundance for reef fishes. A longer data time-series is needed, however, to identify meaningful trends in the relationship between recreational harvest and visual sample abundances.

[GRAPH OMITTED]

Annual Mean Landings Rates

Annual mean catch (CPUE) and landings (LPUE) rates for eight commonly landed fishes were calculated in terms of fish per angler-hour for anglers (Fig. 10). Although variable, the annual rate trends for these eight species indicated a slight decreasing trend. The difference between CPUE and LPUE is the estimated bycatch. Dolphin and jolthead porgy had low release rates while grunts had the highest release rates. The divergence between CPUE and LPUE beginning in 1985 and 1990 for gray snapper, yellowtail snapper, and other snappers is most likely the result of increased releases as the result of new minimum size requirements discussed earlier.

[GRAPH OMITTED]

Landings trends were further analyzed for species having 12 or more years of reported data on the basis of total number of fish landed per 100 trips (Table 8, Fig. 11). Trend curves were fitted to the data using linear, logarithmic, or exponential curves, as appropriate. Data from 1976 to 1978 were dropped from plotted trends for some species (Fig. 11) because it was clear that these data had been combined at the family level. Overall, the number of fish landed per trip declined (Fig. 11), although landings declined more rapidly for some species than others. Landings declines for jolthead porgy and Nassau grouper were especially sharp. Size limits for gray snapper and yellowtail snapper established in 1985, probably accounted for reduced landings for those species.

[GRAPH OMITTED]
Table 8.--Annual CPUE index (no. landed/100 interviews) by species
with 12 or more years of data. Underline shows data for species
after minimum size limits were implemented. Data for some
species were available only at the family level in 1976 and 1977.

Species 1976 1977 1978 1979

African pompano 0.031 0.198
Atlantic bonito 5.000 2.651 2.265 1.256
Ballyhoo 0.789 1.363 0.944 3.802
Bar jack 0.197 0.076 0.220 0.264
Bermuda chub 0.157 1.620
Bigeye 3.421 9.353 6.889 0.529
Black grouper 0.132 1.101 11.901
Black margate 0.063 0.694
Bluerunner 8.616 4.354 3.555 7.537
Bluestriped grunt 29.276 3.900 24.190 50.182
Cero mackerel 0.252 6.512
Crevalle jack 3.537
Dolphin 113.224 53.692 57.314 54.612
Gag 0.132 0.692 4.066
Gray snapper 2.566 7.644 145.025
Gray triggerfish 0.264
Graysby 0.283 1.587
Great barracuda 30.921 19.614 15.697 25.587
Greater amberjack 0.063 2.162
Grouper spp. 73.684 88.792 64.360 1.785
Grunt spp. 257.105 254.714 139.352 2.876
Hogfish 44.145 67.134 62.535 48.661
Jack spp. 8.618 14.464 10.506 0.298
Jolthead porgy 13.616 50.322 77.477 62.744
King mackerel 0.157 1.421
Lane snapper 1.919 5.653
Margate 0.535 2.017
Mutton snapper 1.258 16.331
Nassau grouper 0.461 0.912 17.719
Nurse shark 0.063 0.231
Ocean triggerfsh 0.283 4.595
Parrotfish spp. 0.377 0.694
Pinfish 0.132 3.209 17.157
Porkfish 0.463
Queen triggerfsh 0.031 0.364
Red grouper 0.461 1.730 18.876
Red hind 0.440 4.826
Rock hind 0.252 1.554
Sailfish 0.526 0.227 0.472 0.231
Sailors choice 0.975 2.215
Sand perch 5.658 3.218 15.351 9.289
Sand tilefish 0.031 1.124
Saucereye porgy 0.033
Schoolmaster 0.755 2.380
Seatrout 0.658 4.354 9.059 4.132
Shark spp. 1.579 0.492 0.535 0.198
Snapper spp. 195.000 242.030 157.156 1.223
Spadefish 0.066
Spanish grunt 0.099
Spanish mackerel 0.315 0.992
Spiny lobster 79.737 111.056 80.466 73.190
Wahoo 263.000 530.000 0.252 0.793
White grunt 36.842 2.272 71.186 221.521
Yellow jack 0.031 0.298
Yellowtail snapper 0.329 10.727 71.273

Species 1980 1981 1982 1983

African pompano 0.038 0.042 0.195 0.133
Atlantic bonito 0.798 2.020 0.781 0.433
Ballyhoo 13.835 15.320 31.809 14.481
Bar jack 0.342 1.641 0.753 0.666
Bermuda chub 4.257 2.315 2.565 2.130
Bigeye 1.862 3.367 0.753 0.233
Black grouper 6.727 12.668 6.189 4.028
Black margate 0.456 1.599 0.976 1.032
Bluerunner 11.631 17.340 18.233 22.204
Bluestriped grunt 47.777 35.269 67.076 38.349
Cero mackerel 6.613 6.987 5.074 3.628
Crevalle jack 0.988 0.463 3.541 2.297
Dolphin 26.416 76.010 68.637 57.490
Gag 1.710 1.978 4.572 3.129
Gray snapper 151.957 150.589 114.943 169.740
Gray triggerfish 1.064 0.421 3.318 2.397
Graysby 2.889 4.251 2.816 2.830
Great barracuda 27.708 14.731 22.693 17.144
Greater amberjack 1.596 2.146 1.394 0.566
Grouper spp. 0.304 2.399 1.589 15.413
Grunt spp. 6.575 12.710 15.054 73.136
Hogfish 48.727 84.596 49.596 76.498
Jack spp. 0.076 1.641 0.502 1.764
Jolthead porgy 46.636 38.805 22.693 20.406
King mackerel 1.026 1.178 0.836 1.032
Lane snapper 14.785 9.428 6.802 6.059
Margate 1.900 1.641 5.018 1.431
Mutton snapper 16.268 14.689 9.256 13.316
Nassau grouper 15.317 9.470 6.050 2.130
Nurse shark 0.152 0.210 0.195 0.566
Ocean triggerfsh 5.549 4.503 0.335 2.430
Parrotfish spp. 0.988 1.473 1.645 2.097
Pinfish 18.092 12.037 19.849 30.260
Porkfish 1.862 1.726 0.613 2.097
Queen triggerfsh 0.532 0.758 0.251 0.399
Red grouper 10.718 19.192 9.060 22.437
Red hind 2.433 3.030 5.185 1.132
Rock hind 0.608 0.631 2.147 0.699
Sailfish 0.076 0.210 0.167 0.300
Sailors choice 2.565 1.768 1.756 3.262
Sand perch 8.894 6.818 2.844 2.264
Sand tilefish 1.558 1.305 1.728 0.599
Saucereye porgy 7.678 23.106 2.063 2.430
Schoolmaster 3.801 4.293 3.513 3.296
Seatrout 4.485 1.473 13.633 7.956
Shark spp. 0.190 0.295 0.223 0.033
Snapper spp. 1.558 1.726 2.648 4.860
Spadefish 0.532 0.210 0.139 0.233
Spanish grunt 0.076 0.800 0.446 0.533
Spanish mackerel 0.760 1.263 3.122 0.466
Spiny lobster 114.253 76.389 97.909 44.041
Wahoo 0.532 0.547 0.502 0.566
White grunt 205.853 224.747 208.754 129.561
Yellow jack 0.950 4.798 2.258 2.264
Yellowtail snapper 94.033 80.724 83.301 77.164

Species 1984 1985 1986 1987

African pompano 0.345 0.594 0.403
Atlantic bonito 0.297 1.610
Ballyhoo 7.759 4.900 3.382 1.644
Bar jack 0.172 0.520 0.644 0.774
Bermuda chub 2.241 1.633 1.369 1.547
Bigeye 0.445 0.725 4.642
Black grouper 6.207 4.677 1.591 2.418
Black margate 0.690 1.782 1.127 1.257
Bluerunner 7.931 12.027 23.752 27.369
Bluestriped grunt 53.276 30.809 20.290 37.814
Cero mackerel 2.931 2.153 4.167 6.867
Crevalle jack 0.172 0.223 0.403 1.354
Dolphin 7.241 63.697 55.153 30.754
Gag 2.414 1.039 0.644 2.031
Gray snapper 196.034 138.976 61.514 88.878
Gray triggerfish 1.207 1.114 0.242 1.547
Graysby 1.379 3.489 1.369 2.805
Great barracuda 11.724 14.180 19.726 23.694
Greater amberjack 0.172 0.520 0.966 1.547
Grouper spp. 3.448 5.419 0.483 0.967
Grunt spp. 6.724 21.381 3.623 8.801
Hogfish 36.897 38.827 31.723 29.691
Jack spp. 0.517 1.707 0.242 0.774
Jolthead porgy 36.724 30.586 4.911 7.544
King mackerel 0.517 0.891 0.403 1.257
Lane snapper 1.034 6.013 2.174 5.513
Margate 0.517 1.633 3.623 2.998
Mutton snapper 14.138 5.568 6.924 23.114
Nassau grouper 2.759 3.935 1.208 1.161
Nurse shark 0.345 0.074 0.387
Ocean triggerfsh 0.517 2.821 2.738 2.031
Parrotfish spp. 0.690 0.520 0.966 1.644
Pinfish 8.448 2.598 7.407 6.963
Porkfish 0.345 0.520 0.644 1.354
Queen triggerfsh 0.668 0.081 0.677
Red grouper 15.172 16.110 4.348 8.414
Red hind 2.414 1.188 0.644 1.161
Rock hind 0.891 0.403 0.097
Sailfish 0.371 0.242 0.193
Sailors choice 1.552 1.188 1.771 4.836
Sand perch 11.897 0.520 2.335 2.418
Sand tilefish 0.371 0.081 0.774
Saucereye porgy 0.517 11.359 4.911 1.934
Schoolmaster 0.862 2.004 2.254 5.513
Seatrout 6.897 1.633 0.644 0.580
Shark spp. 0.297 0.387
Snapper spp. 10.000 4.974 0.483 3.095
Spadefish 0.172 0.148 0.322 0.097
Spanish grunt 0.172 0.148 0.242 0.290
Spanish mackerel 0.172 0.297 4.267 1.257
Spiny lobster 131.552 37.416 113.768 113.636
Wahoo 0.517 0.223 0.886 0.580
White grunt 137.241 171.641 106.522 137.524
Yellow jack 1.034 1.707 1.530 4.642
Yellowtail snapper 62.586 58.203 14.010 17.118

Species 1988 1989 1990 1991

African pompano 0.141 0.241 1.174
Atlantic bonito 0.425 0.587
Ballyhoo 1.558
Bar jack 0.986 0.142 0.602 0.196
Bermuda chub 0.602 1.370
Bigeye 0.282 0.142 0.361 0.196
Black grouper 2.394 4.108 1.566 1.370
Black margate 2.958 1.133 2.530 2.153
Bluerunner 25.211 16.997 14.337 8.415
Bluestriped grunt 37.183 27.620 29.398 26.223
Cero mackerel 3.662 1.558 3.133 1.174
Crevalle jack 1.690 0.425 0.482
Dolphin 43.803 128.187 55.060 89.041
Gag 1.831 0.425 0.361 2.153
Gray snapper 58.310 100.567 29.277 31.703
Gray triggerfish 2.113 0.850 0.843 3.327
Graysby 7.465 3.116 7.106 1.370
Great barracuda 27.324 11.331 19.639 19.765
Greater amberjack 0.141 0.850 0.120 1.566
Grouper spp. 2.394
Grunt spp. 4.648 1.841 19.518 2.153
Hogfish 38.169 36.686 48.554 23.092
Jack spp. 0.196
Jolthead porgy 18.732 13.881 15.904 13.694
King mackerel 0.563 0.850 2.169 0.783
Lane snapper 11.127 3.824 1.205 0.783
Margate 0.845 1.133 2.410 0.391
Mutton snapper 11.127 11.331 10.723 6.654
Nassau grouper 1.831 1.983 0.602 0.196
Nurse shark 0.141 0.283 0.391
Ocean triggerfsh 5.211 2.408 4.096 0.587
Parrotfish spp. 2.113 2.266 0.120
Pinfish 1.690 5.382 1.325
Porkfish 0.423 0.992 1.566 0.783
Queen triggerfsh 0.141 0.992 0.964 0.783
Red grouper 9.577 10.765 3.494 2.935
Red hind 2.676 0.567 0.361 6.849
Rock hind 0.704 0.850 0.361 0.391
Sailfish 0.141 0.142 0.120 0.783
Sailors choice 17.042 8.215 3.133 2.935
Sand perch 2.113 0.850 0.843 0.783
Sand tilefish 0.845 0.567 0.241
Saucereye porgy 1.268 2.408 6.386 0.196
Schoolmaster 4.507 7.224 3.614 2.935
Seatrout 0.141 1.133
Shark spp. 0.423 0.142 0.120
Snapper spp. 0.704 1.133 0.843
Spadefish 0.986 0.120 0.391
Spanish grunt 0.704 0.283 0.241 0.196
Spanish mackerel 0.141 0.142 0.120 1.370
Spiny lobster 155.915 170.538 233.494 203.718
Wahoo 1.268 0.283 0.723 1.957
White grunt 161.127 129.320 166.506 69.667
Yellow jack 5.352 2.691 5.542 3.914
Yellowtail snapper 34.789 25.637 25.542 18.004


Discussion

The Biscayne National Park recreational creel survey provides valuable data for monitoring marine resource trends and for better understanding impacts of recreational fishing on marine resources. Recreational fishing in BNP is intense because of its unique location near the large urban area of Miami. This study provides one of the most detailed examinations of recreational fishing in such a subtropical marine environment. Creel data show landings of over 170 species from a variety of habitats and are especially representative of weekend recreational fishing since 91% of the samples were collected on weekends. The data potentially have some bias because sampling was nonrandomly distributed over space and time. The validity of extrapolating results to weekday fishing is uncertain because of low sample coverage during weekdays. The relative contribution of recreational lobster fishing to total interviews is probably inflated because of concentrated sampling during opening days of the spiny lobster fishing season and 2 day sport season. The fact that sampling was highly concentrated at two access sites within BNP suggests that the data might not reflect use from other locations. Presumably, fishermen landing in BNP are aware that they have a high chance of being checked by park personnel and may be more conscientious of observing fishing regulations.

The classification of angler and diving party types provides some insights into recreational fishing. The fishing party type showing a high level of species preference was spiny lobster divers (89% of parties, Table 2). The remaining party classifications showed no preference or very generalized species preferences. Angling party classifications broadly overlapped in terms of species landed and were not highly differentiated by levels of experience or emphasis on recreation or catching food. Only five taxa accounted for more that 50% of landings: white grunt, spiny lobster, gray snapper, unidentified grunts, and dolphin. Angling parties primarily interested in catching food accounted for about 20% of trip interviews and had about twice the landing per trip (mean = 19.5) than skilled recreational anglers (9.6), lobster divers (8.2) and spearfishermen (7.8). Skilled parties, however, accounted for the greatest percentage (34%) of the total fishing trips.

Spearfishing data were closely examined because few quantitative studies exist and spearfishing is a frequent topic of management and angler concern due to its selectivity (Murdock, 1957; Long, 1957). Spearfishing was a small component of the overall recreational fishery. It accounted for 12.0% of, all recreational fishing trip interviews, 10.3% of the total number of landings, but only 7.6% of the total number of organisms caught in BNP. No data exist, however, to assess cryptic mortality of speared organisms that escape capture. The fact that fishing trips were randomly selected for interviews suggests that the relative proportion of angler to spearfishing trips is valid.

Spearfishing was highly selective for hogfish which accounted for almost half (49%) of spearfishing landings. The data suggest, however, that there is relatively little competition for hogfish between anglers and spearfishermen. Anglers rarely mentioned hogfish as preferred target species (Table 2). Many anglers consider hogfish difficult to hook and only 15.7% of hogfish were landed by angling. After hogfish, spearfishing most commonly targeted various grouper and snapper. While the average size of some species of fish caught by spearfishing was larger than that caught by angling (e.g. gray snapper, red grouper, black grouper), there was no significant size difference for other species (e.g. white grunt, hogfish, Nassau grouper). Even though spearfishing landed larger fish for some species, anglers tended to land more fish because they made more trips.

Spearfishing can cause behavioral changes and other impacts that were not addressed by this study. Some species, for example, are known to avoid divers and areas where spearfishing is practiced (Randall, 1982). This avoidance can impact recreational diving, education, tourism, and other nonextractive uses. Simply moving fish around is not a fishery problem, however, unless fish populations are excluded from essential habitat for foraging, shelter, or reproduction (Bohnsack, 1982).

Unlike earlier studies of BNP (Tilmant et al., 1979; Tilmant, 1981; Tilmant and Stone[1]), this study showed declining CPUE for some species. The continuous CPUE decline of jolthead porgy, for example, suggests that it may be particularly vulnerable to increased exploitation. Whether the observed landings declines represent diminished resources or diminished shares caused by increased usage cannot be precisely determined from available data without some measure of total effort. Over the study time period, the estimated population of Miami-Dade County increased 32.3% from 1,482,300 in 1976 to 1,961,700 in 1991 (Floyd, 1997). An assumption that recreational fishing effort is directly proportional to the total population would suggest that total recreational fishing effort also increased by 32%.

Although observed drops in mean annual number of fish landed per angler trip in 1985-86 and in 1990-91 were most likely the short-term result of numerous new minimum size limits enacted in Florida in 1985 and 1990, respectively, the long-term impacts of these conservation efforts could not be assessed because of disruptions to fishing and the environment caused by Hurricane Andrew. More recent regulations such as new minimum size and bag limits also are likely to impact recreational fishing in Biscayne National Park. The recreational creel survey has obvious importance for resource monitoring and would be enhanced if data can be collected on total fishing effort.

Acknowledgments

This study was funded by Sub-Agreement IA-5250-2-9501/2 to Interagency Agreement 1A-5000-8-8011 between the National Park Service and the NMFS Southeast Fisheries Science Center. We thank Richard Curry of the Biscayne National Park for contributions and assistance provided during this study. Thomas Schmidt Everglades National Park, and Jim Tilmant, NPS, provided comments and reviewed of the manuscript.

(1) Tilmant, J. T., and R. Stone. 1984. Reef fish harvest trends, Biscayne National Park Dade County, Florida. In 1984 Stock Assessment Workshop. U.S. Dep. Commer., NOAA, Natl. Mar. Fish. Ser., Southeast Fish. Sci. Cent., Miami, Fla., 26 p.

(2.) Mention of trade names or commercial firms does not imply endorsement by the National Marine Fisheries Service or the National Park Service.

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Douglas E. Harper (Doug.Harper@noaa.gov) and James A. Bohnsack are with Southeast Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, 75 Virginia Beach Drive. Miami, FL 33149. Brian R. Lockwood is with the Biscayne National Park, National Park Service, US Department of Interior, 9700 S.W. 328th Street, Homestead, FL 33033.
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Author:HARPER, DOUGLAS E.; BOHNSACK, JAMES A.; LOCKWOOD, BRIAN R.
Publication:Marine Fisheries Review
Geographic Code:1U5FL
Date:Jan 1, 2000
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