Recovered in Kiev: Bach et al. A Preliminary Report on the Music Collection of the Berlin Sing-Akademie.
During the end of the Second World War, many museum, library, and archival holdings were evacuated from German cities and sheltered in remote rural areas. Almost all of the materials located in the eastern parts of Germany were seized as trophies and removed by the Red Army, usually to Moscow. The Red Army cultural officers kept the most significant trophies there and sent those of lesser importance to provincial capitals. Virtually no information was available about the location of these materials, including the confiscated and dislocated possessions of the Berlin Sing-Akademie that had been transferred in August 1943 to the castle of Ullersdorf near Glatz in Upper Silesia. Conflicting hypotheses emerged in the late 1950s, however, when a few nineteenth-century manuscript choirbooks from the Sing-Akademie were returned from Moscow to the music division of the former Deutsche Staatsbibliothek in East Berlin, giving rise to the assumption that the Notenarchiv, along with other extensive music materials, had fo und its way to Moscow. A contradictory rumor reached the East Berlin Staatsbibliothek toward the end of the 1970s, that at least parts of the Sing-Akademie's library were in Ukraine. Yet nothing could be verified, even in official consultations among socialist brother states. The late Leonid Roizman, professor of organ at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory in Moscow and a long-time member of the editorial board of the Neue Bach-Ausgabe, (2) seriously tried to determine the fate of the Sing-Akademie collection with its important Bach sources. (3) East Berlin librarians and German Democratic Republic authorities did the same, with equal lack of success--to say nothing of the efforts by the owner, the Sing-Akademie, which after the war relocated from their historical headquarters in the old center of Berlin (which had become the Soviet sector) to the American sector in West Berlin. (4)
A classified document of the Red Army, commissioned in 1957 by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, eventually provided a clue. It indicated that 5,170 items of music (including first editions and manuscripts) were deposited in the P. I. Tchaikovsky Kiev State Conservatory. (5) Although there was no indication of provenance or other relevant information, the size of the collection corresponded roughly to the size of the Sing-Akademie music collection. Upon inquiry, however, the Tchaikovsky National Music Academy, formerly the conservatory, in Kiev claimed to have no war-time deposited music materials. The vice-rector, a colleague in musicology, had never heard of such a collection, nor did the RISM (Repertoire international des sources musicales) office at the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences in Kiev have any information. Boriak finally tracked down a music librarian retired from the conservatory, who readily disclosed that there had indeed been restricted music deposits at the conservatory that were transferred in 1973 to an undisclosed location. Boriak subsequently managed to trace the music to the Archive-Museum of Literature and Art in Kiev, a division of the Central National Archives of Ukraine. Yet there were further technical and political obstacles to be overcome in order to gain access to the materials. Finally, on 29 June 1999, equipped with an official invitation from the Ukrainian government to help determine the origin of "Fond 441"--an unspecifi ed collection of "European Music from the Seventeenth to the Nineteenth Centuries" in the Archive-Museum of Literature and Art--our team was admitted to inspect the materials. In the stacks we found ourselves in front of numerous archival boxes containing manuscripts and prints that, without much difficulty, could be identified as the missing music collection of the Sing-Akademie. (6)
During July 1999, the Berlin Sing-Akademie, the Central Archival Administration of Ukraine, Harvard University, the Leipzig Bach Archive, and the Packard Humanities Institute of Los Altos consulted together about the desirability of filming the Sing-Akademie's Notenarchi, observing all pertinent rights and copyright laws, in order to enhance access for the international music community to this significant collection, irrespective of location; to preserve it for the future; and to facilitate the initial stages of cataloging and research. In agreement with the Ukrainian Central Archival Administration, HURI issued a press release on 5 August 1999 via the Harvard News Office (see appendix). Portions of the press release spread worldwide like wildfire, though important details were often omitted. About six weeks after the Harvard press release, the Kiev conductor Igor Blazhkov declared in the Ukrainian press that he had known about the collection as early as 1969 (when it was still kept at the conservatory in Ki ev) and that he had even given public performances of some works from the collection. He apparently was the only musician ever to have made use of the collection in Kiev. He had reserved it exclusively for his own purposes, however, and failed, even after the collapse and dissolution of the Soviet Union, to disclose his sources or to communicate with local, let alone international colleagues. In particular, Russian and Ukrainian Bach scholars remained unaware of the materials in Kiev. Not even oblique references to the Sing-Akademie collection had ever appeared in Ukrainian or Russian music publications or journals. Otherwise, Eastern scholars and musicians would eagerly have taken the opportunity, and Western scholars could have spared themselves their long search. Many colleagues in the East were quite aware that, ever since 1979, when the holdings of the former Prussian Staatsbibliothek (including some two hundred Mozart autographs) at the Jagiellonian Library in Crakow were made public, the location of th e Sing-Akademie music collection had become a matter of primary interest in the music world. (7)
Regrettably, Blazhkov--with absurd accusations of American commercial abuse of Ukrainian national treasures and implications of Western bribery of Ukrainian archival officials--raised a public demand in Ukraine for defending the collection against foreign infringement upon national property. Indeed, Blazhkov's campaign and nationalistic slogans caused considerable trouble for the entirely cooperative Ukrainian archival authorities. They seriously hindered and delayed for many months attempts at cooperation and negotiations about the filming project between Ukrainian and Western organizations: the Ukrainian National Archives, the National Music Academy, and the National RISM Bureau at the Academy of Sciences in Kiev; and the Berlin Sing-Akademie, the Leipzig Bach Archive, the Harvard Music Department, and the Central RISM Office in Frankfurt. Our Ukrainian colleagues were fully aware that neither a scholarly catalog nor most research projects could be undertaken without access to Western bibliographic resource s and concordant or corresponding manuscripts, and without the help of Western scholars experienced in questions of repertory, copyists, and provenance. Fortunately, the international cooperative scheme eventually prevailed so that the filming of the collection could begin in the late summer of 2000, with crucial funding from the Packard Humanities Institute.
Rather unexpectedly, the possibility arose late in 2000 that the entire collection might be returned to its original owner. Then on 19 January 2001, during a working visit with German Chancellor Gerhard Schroder at the Berlin chancellery, Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma made a symbolic gesture of goodwill by handing over a manuscript of chorale preludes for organ by Johann Sebastian Bach from the Sing-Akademie collection. (8) Moreover, an inter-governmental agreement about restitution of the materials was signed, the first such agreement concerning "musical trophies" from World War II. Subsequently, in early May 2001, a German committee of diplomats, librarians, and scholars met with Ukrainian counterparts in Kiev in order to work out details of the repatriation. As a result of this latest round of negotiations, the return to Berlin of the collection can be expected during the final quarter of 2001. It will then be housed in the music division of the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, as a permanent deposit of the Sing-Akademie.
Now that the collection has resurfaced, it offers a considerable expanse of repertory and exciting implications for music scholarship and performance. Through the early 1940s, the Sing-Akademie materials remained deplorably under-researched because of inadequate access (fig. 1; the collection was never serviced by professional librarians or archivists) and historical misconceptions (the collection was generally considered to be largely worthless after all original Johann Sebastian Bach manuscripts were acquired from the Sing-Akademie in 1854 by the Royal Library, later State Library, in Berlin). (9) While it is quite remarkable that, due to petty arguments, the Sing-Akademie Notenarchiv remained closed to a scholar of Philipp Spitta's standing, this promising body of materials never received systematic scholarly attention, except for specific inquiries carried out under restrictive conditions by very few Bach scholars and a single Telemann scholar. (10)
A descriptive catalog begun in 1929 by Friedrich Welter came to a halt in its initial stages. (11) Hence, the only reliable basis for judging the collection that had steadily grown until 1832 is a catalog made after the death of Carl Friedrich Zelter and now owned by the Berlin Staatsbibliothek, (12) This catalog, at any rate, enables us to determine that the Sing-Akademie in Kiev collection is preserved complete, without any discernible losses. Only the books on the theory and literature of music are still missing; they probably never went to Kiev in the first place, but remained in Moscow, where they are presumably still held. The state of preservation of the Kiev materials, considering the circumstances, is excellent. Damage resulting from water or transport, such as I found earlier in the Spitta collection from the Hochschule fur Musik Berlin at the Lodz University Library, (13) are not in evidence.
The entire extent of the Sing-Akademie collection in Kiev amounts to almost 5,200 titles, of which probably 85 to 90 percent are manuscript sources. According to an estimate made by the Ukrainian National Archives, the number of pages surpasses one-half million. Principal credit for creating the collection goes to Zelter (1758-1832), successor to Carl Friedrich Fasch (1736-1800), founder of the Sing-Akademie that was established in 1791 as Germany's oldest bourgeois choral society. In 1807, Zelter added to it a so-called Ripienschule, an orchestra school for lay instrumentalists to help with performances of oratorios and instrumental works (the Sing-Akademie's principal orchestra desks were at that time held by members of the Prussian court Kapelle). Thus was created Berlin's first music school. In 1819 followed the Institut fur Kirchenmusik, a seminary devoted to sacred music also founded by Zelter. The need at the affiliated institutions for both choral and instrumental music explains the balance of vocal, instrumental, and mixed repertories in the Sing-Akademie's music collection.
Three brief working visits in Kiev (the second, in October 1999, together with three colleagues from the Leipzig Bach Archive) allowed a mere random sampling for initial research. Nevertheless, a number of useful observations, including some surprises, resulted from being able to view material no living music scholar had ever seen. The following examples focus exclusively on the Bachiana: (14)
* The scores and performing parts from the so-called Alt-Bachisehes Archiv, some twenty-seven items consisting of works by seventeenth-century Bach family members and mainly in copies by J. S. Bach from C. P. E. Bach's estate, enable us to determine dates and functions of these important sources, especially their use under J. S. Bach in his later Leipzig years (figs. 2 and 3). (15)
* A copy of J. S. Bach's four-part chorales, made in 1762 by C. F. Fasch, reveals essential evidence about the history and compilation of Bach's chorale collections.
* Three densely filled pages with completely unknown contrapuntal studies written alternately by W. F. and J. S. Bach in the late 1730s show important traces of the context and compositional history of The Art of the Fugue. (16)
* An unknown thematic catalog of C. P. E. Bach's keyboard works in his own hand and dated 1772 furnishes much information about their extent and chronology, also about the composer's destruction of his compositions from before 1733 because they were "too youthful" (fig. 4). (17)
* The scores and performance parts of C. P. E. Bach's unpublished vocal works from the Hamburg period, including twenty Passion settings, are completely preserved and can finally be prepared for critical editions. (18)
* Unknown in the Bach literature, a bound volume of C. P. E. Bach's published songs, with numerous original emendations and autograph revisions, demonstrates the composer's intention of issuing near the end of his life a new complete edition of his songs.
The music collection of the Sing-Akademie is of significance not merely to Bach scholarship, for the Bachiana in the collection amount to approximately 10 percent only. The bulk of the materials pertains to eighteenth-century music, but the overall collection consists of rich holdings from the sixteenth through the early nineteenth centuries, with a focus on German and Italian repertoires. Heinrich Ignaz Franz von Biber, Dietrich Buxtehude, Johann Jakob Froberger, Johann Pachelbel, Johann Rosenmuller, Samuel Scheidt, and many of their contemporaries are represented as are Carl Friedrich Rungenhagen, Felix Mendelssohn, Otto Nicolai, and theirs, especially composers from the Sing-Akademie circle. Works by Antonio Caldara, Francesco Durante, Antonio Lotti, and Giovanni Battista Pergolesi are prominent among the Italian repertories. Of particular importance, however, are the manuscripts of compositions by Telemann (17 instrumental works; 1 opera; over 200 cantatas, 25 in unique copies) and Johann Adolf Hasse (90 operas; 42 sacred works), as well as by the wider circle of musicians serving at the Prussian court capelle, among them major holdings pertaining to the brothers Carl Heinrich and Johann Gottlieb Graun (420 instrumental works; 90 operas; 75 sacred works), the brothers George Anton and Franz Benda (altogether over 120 works), and substantial materials for Johann Friedrich Agricola, Friedrich II of Prussia, Johann Gottlieb Janitsch, Johann Joachim Quantz, and Christoph Schaffrath. Apart from welcome supplements to the worklists of a large number of composers, general repertory studies, and editorial projects, these extensive source materials raise a multiplicity of questions, notably in regard to the role of the Sing-Akademie in the early developmental stages of bourgeois musical life in Berlin. The fact that its library was early on perceived as a "music archive" (19) reflects the trend (emerging in late-eighteenth-century amateur circles) of a growing interest in music of the past--a trend that eventually cul minated in Mendelssohn's influential performance of Bach's St. Matthew Passion at the Berlin Sing-Akademie in 1829.
But whence and how did Zelter acquire this music? As for the Bachiana, it is fairly easy to determine their provenance from basically three streams of transmission: (1) the collection of Fasch, founder of the Sing-Akademie and former colleague of C. P. E. Bach at the Prussian court; (2) after 1800, major acquisitions by Zelter from the estate of C. P. E. Bach; (3) the legacy of Sara Levy (1761-1854), pupil of W. F. Bach and Mendelssohn's great-aunt. (20) The provenance of the non-Bach sources--primarily performing materials of older origins--is harder to determine. A history of the Sing-Akademie library has not yet been written, but it seems that a considerable number of scores and parts came from the Royal Opera House on the avenue Unter den Linden and from the Prussian court Kapelle--which means from institutions in the immediate neighborhood of the Sing-Akademie in the old center of Berlin. The Royal Library, now Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, had drawn comparable holdings from the same owners as well, resulting in a close relationship between Staatsbibliothek and Sing-Akademie collections.
In all, the recovered Notenarchiv of the Berlin Sing-Akademie offers research opportunities that are as rich as they are abundant. Moreover, it consists not so much of manuscripts and editions of purely historical interest--which might well rest in the files--but of much unpublished and notable music, until now inaccessible and singly transmitted, that will lend itself to musical performances and contribute to musical life. It is this goal in particular to which the international partnership mentioned above is expressly devoted.
Christoph Wolff is William Powell Mason Professor of Music at Harvard University. Preliminary versions of this paper were presented at the annual meeting of the American Musicological Society, Toronto, November 2000, and at the American Academy in Berlin where he was a resident fellow for the spring semester of 2001.
(1.) See Patricia Grimsted. "Bach Scores in Kyiv: The Long-Lost Music Archive of the Berlin Sing-Akademie Surfaces in Ukraine," Working Papers, Ukrainian Research Institute, Harvard University, http://www.fas.harvard.edu/-huri/wOrk2.html (accessed 12 September 2001).
(2.) Johann Sebastian Bach, Neue Ausgabe samtlicher Werke, ed. Johann-Sebastian-Bach-Institut Gottingen and Bach-Archiv Leipzig (Kassel: Barenreiter, 1954-).
(3.) Detailed accounts of the J. S. and C. P. E. Bach materials in the "lost" Sing-Akademie collection, based on secondary references, are presented by werner Neumann, "welche Handschriften J. S. Bachscher werke besa[Beta] die Berliner Singakademie?" in Hans Albrecht in Memoriam: Gedenkschrift mit Beitragen von Freunden and Schulern, ed. Wilfried Brennecke and Hans Haase (Kassel: Barenreiter, 1962), 136-42; and Elias N. Kulukundis, "C.P.E. Bach in the Library of the Singakademie zu Berlin," C.P.E. Bach Studies, ed. Stephen L. Clark (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988), 159-76.
(4.) A general description of the contents of the Sing-Akademie's Notenarchiv, based on personal recollection, was provided by Friedrich welter in conjunction with the celebrations of the 175th anniversary of the Sing-Akademie ("Die Musikibibliothek der Sing-Akademie," in Sing-Akademie zu Berlin: Festschrift zum 175 jahrigen Bestehen, ed. werner Bollert [Berlin, 1966], 33-44).
(5.) Die Trophaenkommissionen der Roten Armee: Eine Dokumentensammlung zur Verschleppung von Buchern aus deutschen Bibliotheken, ed. Klaus-Dieter Lehmann and Ingo Kolasa (Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann, 1996), p. 245, document no. 46.
(6.) A five-volume Russian inventory, prepared in the late 1940s, provides general guidance to the collection but lacks any specificity. Volumes 1-4 make cross-references to the old shelf-numbers of the Sing-Akademie, recorded in the Zelter catalog of 1832 (see below, n. 12).
(7.) During the Leipzig Bach Festival of July 2000, the Ukrainian delegation at the Neue Bachgellschaft membership meeting pointed out that without the Western press reports from the summer of 1999, it would not be known what treasures of Bachiana were located in Kiev.
(8.) Vorspiele \ uber die Melodien \ verschiedener \ Choral-Gesange \ fur \ die Orgel. \ von \ Herrn Johann Sebastian Bach (Zelter catalog, no. 1936; Kiev Inventory, no. 4719).
(9.) Cf. Neumann, n. 3.
(10.) Max Schneider, "Thematisches Verzeichnis der musikalischen Werke der Familie Bachs," Bach-Jahrbuch 4 (1907):103-77; "Alt-bachisches Archiv," ed. Schneider, Das Erbe deulscher Musik, Reihe 1, Bd. 1-2 (Leipzig: Breitkopf & Hartel, 1935; reprint, 1966); Schneider also consulted Sing-Akademie materials for his revised edition of the St. Matthew Passion (Das Leiden unseres Herrn Jesu Christ nach dem Evangelisten Matthaeus, Klavierauszug nach dem Urtext der autographen Partitur und der Stimmen von Max Schneider, Veroffentlichungen der Neuen Bachgesellschaft, Jahrg. 35, Heft 3 [Leipzig: Breitkopf & Hartel, (1935?)]; Martin Falck, Wilhelm Friedemann Bach: Sein Leben und seine Worke, Studien zur Musik-geschichte, Bd. 1 (Leipzig: C. F. Kahnt, 1913); Hans Uldall, Das Klavierkonzert der Berliner Schule (Leipzig: Breitkopf & Hartel, 1928); Heinrich Miesner, Philipp Emanuel Bach in Hamburg (Heide, 1929; reprint, Wiesbaden: M. Sandig, 1969); Ernst Fritz Schmid, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach und seine Kammermusik (Kassel: Barenreiter, 1931); Werner Menke, Das Vokalwerk Georg Philipp Telemanns: Uberlieferung und Zeitfolge, Erlanger Beitrage zur Musikwisschenschaft, Bd. 3 (Kassel: Barenreiter, 1942).
(11.) See n. 4, above.
(12.) Daniel R. Melamed, working in the mid-1980s on his Harvard dissertation, "J. 5. Bach and the German Motet," managed to locate the apparently sole surviving copy of the Zelter catalog with the help of Mrs. Friedrich Welter (Melamed, J. S. Bach and the German Motel (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 171. The late Friedrich Welter had been hired in 1929 to catalog the Sing-Akademie music collection, a project that was terminated for lack of funds only a year after it had begun. The copy uncovered by Melamed was subsequently acquired by tise Staatsbibliothek PreuBischer Kulturbesitz, then in West Berlin, today's Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin.
(13.) Christoph Wolff, "From Berlin to Lodz: The Spitta Collection Resurfaces." Notes 46, no. 2 (December 1989): 311-27.
(14.) A more detailed discussion can be found in the report on the Sing-Akademie Roundtable at the Leipzig Bach Conference of January 2000 that will appear in vol. 5 of Leipziger Beitrage zur Bach-Forschung (in press).
(15.) Schneider's edition of 1935 (see above, n. 10) is a selective, not a complete edition.
(16.) Peter wollny is preparing an edition for vol. VIII/3 of the Neue Bach-Ausgahe; see also his forthcoming article, "Ein Quellenfund in Kiew: Unbekannte Kontrapunktstudien von Johann Sebastian und Wilhelm Friedemann Bach," Leipziger Beitrige zur Bach-Forschung, vol. 5 (in press).
(17.) See Wolff, "Carl Philipp Emanuel Bachs Verzeichnis seiner Clavierwerke von 1733 bis 1772," in Uber Leben Kunst und Kunstwerke: Aspekte musikalischer Biographie, ed. Wolff (Leipzig: Evangelische Verlagsmstalt, 1999):217-35.
(18.) As a first example. Ulrich Leisinger prepared an edition of the unpublished Danck-Hymne of 1785 for the new edition of C. P. E. Bach's collected works (Los Altos, Calif. and Cambridge, Mass.: forthcoming). The work received its first modern performance on 23 and 25 March 2001 by the Handel & Haydn Society in Boston under the direction of Christopher Hogwood.
(19.) Friedrich Schleiermacher, "Uber die neue Liturgie fur die Jof- und Garnisons-Gemeinde zu Potsdam ... (1816)," Friedrich Schleiermacher's Sammtliche Werke, Abt. 1, Bd. 5 (Berlin: C. Reimer, 1846):203.
(20.) See Peter Wollny, "Sara Levy and the Making of Musical Taste in Berlin," Musical Quarterly 77 (1993): 651-88.
APPENDIX: HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS RELEASE, 5 AUGUST 1999
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
C. P. E. Bach's Musical Estate Resurfaced in Ukraine
The major part of the surviving musical estate of Johann Sebastian Bach's second son, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, has been found in Kyiv, Ukraine, where it is preserved along with the library of the Berlin Sing-Akademie. The Sing-Akademie library, which contains one of the most important collections of 18th-century music and the most significant historical repository of largely unique Bach family materials had been displaced since World War II and was considered lost for more than half a century.
Christoph Wolff, professor of music at Harvard University and dean of its Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, has been following several leads for more than two decades. In close collaboration with the Ukrainian Research Institute at Harvard University and the Institute of Ukrainian Archaeography and Source Studies at the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, the collection could recently be located, identified, and examined at the Ukrainian State Archives by Professor Wolff, Dr. Patricia K. Grimsted of the Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute, Barbara Wolff, music cataloger at Harvard's Houghton Library, and Dr. Hennadii Boriak of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences.
The library of the Berlin Sing-Akademie, founded in 1791 by Carl Friedrich Fasch and directed from 1800 to 1832 by Carl Friedrich Zelter, contains well over 5,000 items (mostly manuscripts) that have been preserved in excellent condition. The library has been inaccessible since the early 1930s[; ]even before that time, it was not readily accessible and its merely provisionally catalogued holdings have never been systematically studied by anyone. It was the Berlin Sing-Akademie that presented the first performance of Bach's St. Matthew Passion after the composer's lifetime, in 1829, under the direction of Zelter's pupil, the young Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy.
The estate of C. P. E. Bach (1714-1788) that forms a central portion of the Sing-Akademie library, includes the so-called Old Bach Archive (compositions by J. S. Bach's ancestors) and music by his father and brothers, but most importantly the bulk of his own compositions in autograph or authorized copies, among them 20 Passions, 30 keyboard concertos, and many vocal and instrumental works. Most of them (including all Passions and more than two thirds of the keyboard concertos) are unpublished and have never been available for performance or study. Led by a team of scholars at Harvard University and the Bach Archive in Leipzig, Germany, The Collected Works of C. P. E. Bach are currently being edited under the auspices of the Packard Humanities Institute, with Christopher Hogwood as chair of the editorial board. A catalogue of the Bachiana in the Singakademie [l]ibrary is projected as part of the Bach Repertoriurn series, a research project on the music of the Bach family and coordinated by the Leipzig Bach Arc hive and the Harvard Music Department.
In addition to important 17th- and 18th-century manuscripts, the Sing-Akademie library also contains particularly substantial holdings (in part stemming from the Bach estate) of works by Georg Philipp Telemann (220 plus cantatas), Carl Heinrich and Johann Gottlieb Graun (more than 150 vocal and 420 plus instrumental sources), Johann Adolf Hasse (ca. 130 vocal and 80 instrumental sources), Franz and Georg Benda (ca. 120 works), and compositions by many musicians associated with the Prussian court and generally from 18th and early 19th-century Berlin.
The over 5,000 music scores from the Sing-Akademie [c]ollection identified this summer in Kyiv undoubtedly represent the most valuable trophy collection to have surfaced in Ukraine. Negotiations between Ukrainian archival authorities and Harvard representatives are currently underway to develop a collaborative project between the University, the Packard Humanities Institute, and the Ukrainian Archival Administration to make these uniquely important materials available for research and performance. It is hoped that the Academy of Music in Kyiv will also be able to participate. The project will also be closely coordinated with the Sing-Akademie of Berlin, one of Germany's oldest continuing performing organizations, and there is hope that the priceless musical sources will eventually be returned to their original home.
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|Date:||Dec 1, 2001|
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