Recent discoveries of fossil vertebrates in the lower Peninsula of Michigan.
Editor's Comments. J. A. Holman is presently Curator Emeritus of Vertebrate Paleontology at the Michigan State University Museum and Daniel O. Fisher is a professor and curator of paleontology in the University of Michigan Museum of Paleontology. This paper (produced because of the encouragement of Ronald O. Kapp) provided an update on records of mastodont and mammoth localities (as well as other Pleistocene vertebrates) and, in doing so, posed several questions, including (1) Why were proboscidean sites in the state so abundant for such a short period of time (12,000 to 10,000 years ago), while other vertebrates were apparently so uncommon? (2) Why did the proboscideans and other mammals become extinct so suddenly? and (3) What was the impact of human hunters on the flora and fauna of Michigan. The "Human Interaction" section in the paper introduced some of D. Fisher's evidence for the butchery of mastodonts by human hunters in Michigan. Fisher soon provided other valuable information about the taphonomy and biology of mastodonts, as well as their human interactions, in a flurry of publications in other journals.
Since the last detailed publication on the Pleistocene vertebrates of Michigan (Wilson 1967), much new information has accumulated: new sites have been found; ranges have been extended; C-14 dates have been obtained; vertebrates have for the first time been identified from a Wisconsinan interstadial interval; and butchering of extinct proboscideans by humans has been demonstrated at several localities. Thus, we believe that the time has come to consolidate this new information in a single location.
Several modern workers have gone beyond the stage of merely salvaging fossil vertebrates, and several of these works are cited here. Nevertheless, compelling problems are still with us such as (1) why proboscidean sites are so abundant from such a short period of time (12,000-10,000 years before the present [hereafter B.P.]), while other vertebrates were apparently so uncommon; (2) why the proboscideans and other large mammals became so suddenly extinct; and (3) what was the impact of the Paleo-Indian population on the flora and fauna of Michigan. We hope that this paper will stimulate additional interest in Michigan Pleistocene vertebrates so that some of these problems may be solved. The following two sections, Paleoecology and Human Interactions, are discussions growing out of consideration of the new records in the Systematic Paleontology section.
This section deals with considerations of taphonorny and faunal diversity (Holman) and with the late Pleistocene vegetation and climate (Kapp).
Taphonomy and faunal diversity. -- Seventy-four new records of Michigan late Pleistocene vertebrates are assembled in the Systematic Paleontology section of this paper, superseding the summary of Wilson (1967). A large number of the new records of Michigan late Pleistocene vertebrates are proboscideans (57 of 74 = 77.0%); and in cases where such information was recorded, most of these huge animals came from kettle-like depressions, very often associated with muck or peat deposits. It has previously been assumed (Holman 1975) that these animals became trapped and drowned in these features.
Of the 52 proboscideans that were identified to the specific level 42 (80.8%) were mastodonts, and 10 (19.2%) were mammoths. Other vertebrates reported here include two fishes, one amphibian, one bird, two giant beavers, one muskrat, two meadow voles, one black bear, one peccary, one moose, two Scott's moose, and two whitetailed deer. In a Michigan late Pleistocene vertebrate site, it is usual to find one large animal, sometimes associated with the remains of another species or two. Holman has searched very carefully for microvertebrate remains at many of these sites, and only in one case (Adams Site in Livingston County) has he found small vertebrate remains, representing two fishes and one meadow vole.
Thus one of the unsolved taphonomic questions relating to the late Pleistocene of Michigan is why faunal diversity is so low at these sites. It was suggested to Holman by the late C. W. Hibbard that the reason the smaller animals are not trapped in Michigan bog burials is because these creatures were light enough to run across the tops of the ancient bogs. Data from bog sites in Ohio and Indiana do not bear this out. The Clark Bog site in Darke County, Ohio (about 11,000 B.P.) yielded nine fishes, two turtles, seven birds, and 17 mammals (C. J. Chantell in litt. 8 February 1985, and J. A. Holman 1986); and the Christensen Bog Site in Hancock County, Indiana (about 13,000 B.P.) yielded one frog, three turtles, two birds, and eight mammals (Graham et al. 1983).
Late Pleistocene vegetation and climate .--The last major continental glaciation, the Wisconsinan, involved several glacial advances separated by ice-free interstadial intervals. At the maximum extent, the glacial lobes completely covered Michigan and expanded into south central Indiana and southwestern Ohio. Pollen analytical evidence indicates that the vegetation of the interstadials was of the boreal forest or forest-tundra type and suggests that the climate was of a glacial character. In two instances vertebrate remains have been recovered from deposits from the Plum Point interstadial interval, bracketed by radiocarbon dates of 32,000-24,000 B.P. in Ontario where such deposits are more extensive and have been studied in detail (Dreimanis 1964).
Recovery, during well drilling, of wood fragments of spruce (Picea) and tamarack (Larix) , togetherwith a bone of the Lesserscaup (Aythya affinis), from beneath 17m of glacial overburden gives evidence of the ice-free conditions in Muskegon County at 25,050 [+ or -] 700 B.P. Kapp (1978) concluded that "the regional vegetation was apparently a coniferous forest dominated by spruce and pine, the latter probably Pinus banksiana which had migrated into Michigan during the long ice-free interval."
Evidently Midland County was also deglaciated during the Plum Point interstadial, because mandible fragments and teeth of a Jefferson mammoth were discovered near Coleman and were dated at 24,000 [+ or -] 4000 B.P. (Kapp 1970). These remains were found in stream gravels and no associated macrofossil remains or microfossil-rich sediments were found from which paleoecological inferences might be derived. To date all evidence indicates that the mid-Wisconsinan interstadials in the Great Lakes region were characterized by a glacial climate. Pollen records from such deposits are dominated by conifer pollen, commonly with abundant spruce and pine (to 70%), and herbaceous pollen, including sedges. Some climatic amelioration is suggested by presence of thermophilous deciduous species (Kapp 1977), especially in Ontario. Of the large, extinct, Pleistocene vertebrates at least the mammoth occupied Michigan during the Plum Point interstadial.
The Wisconsinan late-glacial interval is defined as the period following final glacial retreat which was characterized by glacial climate. The ice sheets began to shrink from southern Ohio and Indiana after 16,000 B.P., and several counties (Cass, St.Joseph, Branch, Hillsdale, Kalamazoo, Calhoun, andJackson) in south central Michigan were completely or partially deglaciated by 14,800 B.P. (Farrand and Eschman 1974). By 13,800 B.P. approximately one-half of the land surface of the lower peninsula was deglaciated with the hilly topography of the areas between the major glacial lobes already exposed. It is primarily in such regions of recessional moraines, closed depressions, and poor drainage that most vertebrate fossils have been recovered. Approximately one-half of the new vertebrate localities reported in this report (Figure 1) were found in the interlobate morainal belt between the Saginaw and Erie glacial lobes (Washtenaw, Ingham, Livingston, Oakland, Genesee, Lapeer, and Sanilac Counties). Commonly the re mains were recovered during trenching for installation of tile lines to drain shallow depressions on agricultural land, In other instances ponds, marshes, bogs, or fens were being excavated in order to create larger ponds with open water. The sediments associated with the vertebrate fossils usually reveal that marl accumulated for a period after deglaciation, probably stimulated by influx of carbonate-rich groundwater from recently deposited glacial till. In many instances peat (sedge and/or Sphagnum type) accumulated subsequently, producing an organic-rich muck when tilled.
A review and summarization of pollen analytical studies is presented in order to determine, on a regional and time-trangressive basis, the type of vegetation associated with the fossil vertebrate fauna. These data are presented in simplified form in Tables 1 and 2. In each instance pollen studies were completed on sediments in direct association with the vertebrate fossils or from stratigraphic units which were equivalent or somewhat younger in age. The pollen reports have been tabulated in simplified form by grouping ecologically similar types (spruce/fir: boreal, pine:north temperate, deciduous:temperace, non-tree:open landscape). More detailed palynological reports are available for many of the specimens (1 Thaller: Held and Kapp 1969; 2,3, and B Pitt, Smith and Flint: Oltz and Kapp 1963; 5 Pontiac: Stoutmire and Benninghoff 1964; 10 Wells: Gooding and Ogden 1965; 11 Christensen: Whitehead et al. 1982; 12 Orleton Farms: Sears and Clisby 1952; Thomas 1952; 13 Pontius Farms: Ogden and Hay 1967; E Coville Far m: Benninghoff and Hibbard 1961). In other instances manuscript reports which are in preparation have been consulted (4 Rappuhn: Kapp; 8 Powers: Garland and Cogswell 1985; 9 Kolarik: Jackson et al. 1986). In addition, palynological results are reported from several additional sites, some very recently discovered (6 Sheathelm, 7 Heisler, A Henry, C Mead, C Harper); detailed pollen spectra from these deposits are presented in Table 3.
Except at the Pitt mastodont site, the pollen spectra associated with mastodonts in Michigan, Indiana, and Ohio all contain at least 40% spruce and fir pollen. This clearly represents a boreal forest or forest/tundra type of environment, with these northern forest types present in the region near the depositional site. At sites with lower frequencies of spruce/fir pollen, the other dominant pollen type is usually pine (e.g., Pitt, Smith, Orleton Farms); these probably are from the period of declining spruce pollen, with concomitant increase in pine, which typifies the end of the late-glacial in pollen diagrams from the Great Lakes region. Three sites (Rappuhn, Sheathelm, Heisler) have significant quantities of deciduous tree pollen. The deciduous types are primarily in the suite of cold-tolerant species which characterize the end of the late-glacial and early postglacial in regional pollen diagrams: black ash (Fraxinus nigra), birch (Betula), ironwood or blue beech (Ostrya/Carpinus), and oak (Quercus) (see Ta ble 3). In three records (Pontiac, Wells, and Christensen mastodonts and, most notably, Henry mammoth), the non-tree pollen frequencies are very high; this indicates an open vegetation of the forest/tundra type or extensive open sedge marsh. The Henry mammoth site, located only a short distance from the Lake Huron shores, seems to record an expanse of nonforested wetland.
In summary, the pollen data associated with all of the mastodont, mammoth, and musk ox sites reveal that the contemporaneous vegetation was most like that of modern areas considerably north of southern Michigan, Indiana, and Ohio localities. Coniferous forests, with significant presence of spruce were widespread, although there were local variations in the abundance of pine, certain deciduous trees, and non-tree species. The singular exception, included in Table 2 to emphasize the foregoing conclusions by way of strong contrast, is the Harper elk site. Recovered from a peat deposit, the elk was dated 5840 [+ or -] 80 B.P. on the basis of wood (Beta- 11881). The contemporaneous pollen record shows that spruce and fir pollen is virtually absent and pine pollen very sparse (most likely attributable to long-range dissemination). The pollen record is dominated by deciduous tree types, some of thermophilous species.
Pollen of American beech (Fagus) is, however, notable for its absence from the Harper site at 5840 B.P. I have elsewhere (Kapp 1977) postulated that beech entered the southern counties of Michigan very tardily, probably migrating from the east and north. Beech seems to have arrived in southwestern Shiawassee County after 5800 B.P., a date consistent with its entry into the Wintergreen Lake sediment record (northeastern Kalamazoo County) at about 5700 B.P. The mid-postglacial pollen record from the Harper site thus stands in sharp contrast with the late-glacial type of paleoecological records recovered from all of the sediments associated with the extinct Pleistocene megafauna.
Radiocarbon dates, if available, have been included in Tables 1 and 2. In certain instances the dates were run on bone material using old methods which are now known to yield inaccurate dates, usually too young. For example King and Saunders (1984) report the conclusion that the data on the Orleton Farms mastodont is much too young. In certain cases, radiocarbon dates on wood or other plant remains directly associated with, or superimposed above, the bone were selected for inclusion in the tables. All dates, with the exception of that on the elk (see interpretive comments above) are of late-glacial age, the interval between deglaciation and the climatic warming which began about 10,000 B.P. This is entirely consistent with the studies of Meltzer and Mead (1983) and Mead and Meltzer (1984) who concluded that there is considerable doubt about the validity of radiocarbon dates on extinct vertebrates which are younger than 10,000 B.P. Furthermore, Semken (1983,202), who reviewed all available fossil dates, conclu ded that "the Pleistocene/Holocene faunal transition in northeastern United States was complete within a few hundred years." The radiocarbon dates for extinct Pleistocene vertebrates from Michigan, some very recent and first reported in this paper, add further support to the hypothesis that mastodonts and mammoths became extinct at the end of the late-glacial.
The paleoecological conditions and habitats in which these extinct vertebrates lived were characteristically coniferous forests with mixtures of cold-tolerant deciduous species and frequent treeless openings. However, the glacial climate of the time may have had milder summers than now found in boreal forests. For example, turtles were recovered at the Christensen site in central Indiana associated with Mammuc, Rangifer, and Castoroides at about 13,000 B.P. (Graham et at. 1983) and at the Clark site in eastern central Ohio, together with Mammut, Castoroides, Cervalces, and Rangifer or Alces at about 11,000 B.P. (Holman 1986). The presence of fossil turtles, which require summer temperatures of at least one month greater than 18[degrees] for egg incubation (Graham et al. 1983), should cause paleontologists to avoid simplistic, uniformirarian conclusions about the late-glacial climate. There may be no exact climatic or biotic analogue which is extant.
This section, prepared by Fisher, considers human interactions with the late Pleistocene vertebrate fauna in Michigan.
It has been appreciated for some time that analysis of the late Pleistocene paleozoological and paleobotanical record offers important insights into the nature and history of glacial environments. In addition, however, some of the sites reported here are now helping to answer questions concerning the history of humans in North America and the cause of extinction of many of the large mammals in our late Pleistocene fauna. Such questions are by no means new, nor is the perception that their answers might have something in common, i.e., that interaction between the earliest human inhabitants of the Americas, the Paleo-Indians, and the now-extinct megafauna might have been a factor in the extinction process. A number of paleontologists and archaeologists, most notably Martin and coworkers (e.g., Martin 1967,1973; Mosimann and Martin 1975), have argued that excessive hunting ("overkill") by Paleo-Indians may have been the principal cause of the late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions in North America. This interpr etation has also, of course, been disputed (e.g., Dreimanis 1968; Graham and Lundelius 1984; King and Saunders 1984), and we do not presume at present to be able to distinguish the most likely of the available explanations. We do argue, however, that analysis of sites such as those we report here offers the first and perhaps the best opportunity for quantitative assessment of the impact of Paleo-Indian hunting practices.
The opportunities presented by sites in the Great Lakes region are in part a matter of sample size and character. Sites are especially common in this part of the continent, and they represent a wide range of periglacial and fluviolacustrine depositional environments. Moreover, quality of preservation, and hence potential recovery of taphonomic information, is frequently excellent. In addition, however, several recent discoveries demonstrate the relevance of this sample to questions of human history and megafaunal extinction. These discoveries bear on a number of mutually related but distinct issues, such as the kinds of evidence capable of demonstrating human/megafaunal association, whether human activity was indeed an agent of mortality for megafauna, the relative incidence of mortality of human and "natural" agents, and the demographic consequences of human-induced mortality.
The new evidence with which these issues are being addressed (Fisher 1984a, b) is at present limited to late-glacial occurrences of Mammut americanum, the most frequently reported element of our fauna, but extension of this work is anticipated to incorporate other times and taxa as well. A number of putative cases of human/mastodont association have been reported in the past (e.g., Sanford 1935; Wittry 1965), but most have been considered inconclusive or dismissed entirely (Williams 1957) because of a lack of associated lithic artifacts. While such artifacts have not been recovered from the sites reported here, the Pleasant Lake, New Hudson, Van Sickle, Cole, Sakstrup, and Rappuhn sites (together with several previously reported, but recently reanalyzed sites) do show other evidence of butchery. This includes (1) cutmarks on bones, probably made during removal of meat; (2) marks on the conarticular surfaces of anatomically associated bones, produced during disarticulation of the carcass; (3) utilized tools ma de of bone, discarded among the remains of the carcass; and (4) indications of burning of bone in cooking fires. Each of these types of bone alteration has been studied by scanning electron microscopy and distinguished from similar features of nonhuman origin by comparison with bone samples that have been subjected to a known history of experimental or natural modification (Shipman et al. 1984). Other types of evidence that are individually less compelling, but that nevertheless show a clear association with other indications of butchery, involve (5) anatomical and technical aspects of bone breakage; (6) patterns of bone disarticulation and distribution at sites; (7) presence/absence of bones from particular anatomical regions; and (8) distribution and intensity of carnivore gnawing (Fisher 1984b). The fact that we have thus far not recovered lithic artifacts may be explained partly by the relatively small number of sites that have been excavated carefully. It also appears, however, to be associated with a re gional/cultural pattern of conservation of lithic materials (Fitting 1966) that is also manifested in the extensive reliance on bone tools in butchery (Fisher 1984b).
Ever since the discovery of Paleo-Indian associations with mammoths (reviewed by Haynes 1969) we have known that late-glacial to early postglacial humans in North America were capable of recovering food and probably other materials from large mammal carcasses (though the importance of this behavior to their subsistence has been subject to divergent interpretations). We can now confirm long-held suspicions that Paleo-Indians exploited mastodonts in a similar way. In addition, comparison of mastodont butchering patterns at different sites is beginning to suggest a high degree of uniformity and stability in the techniques used for carcass processing (Fisher 1984b). This appears to represent both a detailed knowledge of proboscidean anatomy and a certain level of cultural/historical continuity. It is not self-evident, though, that this helps to explain extinction, i.e., that butchered mastodonts represent otherwise viable individuals that were intentionally hunted and killed by Paleo-Indians. If, for instance, bu tchery represented only scavenging and utilization of individuals that were dead or near death from other causes, it might be entirely incidental to the cause of extinction.
Preliminary evidence that butchered, late-glacial mastodonts from the Great Lakes region were indeed victims of Paleo-Indian hunting is offered by comparison of the season of death of butchered and non-butchered individuals. Mastodonts (and other proboscideans as well) show a conspicuous pattern of accretionary lamination within the dentine of their tusks and molar teeth. In the tusks, there are three orders of periodic variation in dentine structure, recognized as daily, fortnightly (or in other cases, apparently lunar monthly), and annual intervals of tusk growth (Fisher 1984b). This interpretation of periodicity is based primarily on regularity of spacing of increments and the number of increments included at each level of the hierarchy of orders, though it is also supported by determinations of individual age that are consistent with expectations based on analogy with extant elephants. Variations in increment width throughout the year permit identification of an interval of winter growth (with thinner for tnightly increments) and a complementary interval of spring through autumn growth (with thicker increments). Finally, analysis of the last-formed dentine permits determination of the season of death. Probability of death from natural causes, as determined from a sample of non-butchered mastodonts (identified on the basis of independent taphonomic criteria and assumed to represent natural deaths), peaked in the late winter and early spring - not an unexpected pattern for a large mammal in a highly seasonal climate. In contrast, all butchered mastodonts that have been analyzed died in the autumn, a season not represented by any of the non-butchered individuals (Fisher and Koch 1983). This disparity supports a unique cause of death, probably human hunting, for the butchered mastodonts. Preparations are now underway to test this inference by determining whether the autumn mode in mortality is present in populations of mastodonts prior to the entry of humans into North America.
The number of sites that have been incorporated into this analysis is presently only about fifteen, including a subset of those reported here and several previously reported sites. It is remarkable, however, that the frequencies of butchered and non-butchered mastodonts in this sample are approximately equal. Possible sampling biases will be discussed in detail elsewhere, but as far as can be anticipated they seem, if anything, to favor inclusion of natural deaths. The demographic consequences of human predation on mastodonts also remain to be clarified, but we are in a better position to do this than ever before. Analysis of annual lamination gives a precise record of individual age for use in survivorship studies. In addition, the fortnightly lamination, probably related to the reproductive cycle (known to be two weeks in African elephants; Sikes 1971), could potentially yield information on individual reproductive histories.
Particularly if temporal trends in population dynamics can be resolved, it may be possible to determine whether hunting by Paleo-Indians was a pivotal or peripheral cause of mastodont extinction.
Beyond demonstrating the significance of the sites reported here, the research goals discussed above carry imperatives for the conduct of future work. If we are to interpret the postmortem history of individual occurrences, it is essential that new discoveries of fossil vertebrates be carefully excavated and preserved. In situ bone distribution and associated lithologic and stratigraphic information should be documented as thoroughly as possible within the constraints imposed by the circumstances of recovery. Because of the importance of bone breakage and fabrication of bone tools in butchering technology, even small or broken skeletal elements may preserve crucial evidence of human association. Finally, the approach suggested here places equal emphasis on sites showing evidence of human association and on those that record only nonhuman processes. We cannot fully understand the former without the latter.
The following annotated list updates the summary of Wilson (1967). In a very few cases, records listed by Skeels (1962) and Wilson (1967) are repeated where more information about the fossils has become available since the earlier works. Fossil records in the following list that lack literature citations represent Michigan Pleistocene vertebrates that are reported for the first time. The following abbreviations are used for museum specimens with individual numbers: CIS, Cranbrook Institute of Science; ISM, Illinois State Museum; KMNH, Kingman Museum of Natural History, Battle Creek; UMMP, University of Michigan Museum of Paleontology; MSUVP, Michigan State University Museum Vertebrate Paleontology Collections.
Only two fishes have been identified from the Pleistocene of Michigan since Wilson (1967). Both were in matrix stratigraphically associated with a Mammut americanum skull. A few vertebrae and opercula, unidentified as yet, were excavated at the Shelton Site in Oakland County (J. Shoshani in litt. to J. A. Holman, 2 February 1985).
Catostomus commersoni (Lacepede) White Sucker
1. Adams Site, near Fowlerville, Howell Township, Sec. 7, T3N, R4E. Age: late Pleistocene because of stratigraphic association with Mammut americanum. Material: sub quadrate scale (MSUVP 1006) collected by J. A. Holman, August 1977. Remarks: this site is discussed in the Adams Site Section under Mammut americanum. Literature: Holman (1979).
cf. Pomoxis sp. Crappie
1. Adams Site: near Fowlerville, Howell Township, Sec. 7, T 3 N, R 4 E. Age: late Pleistocene because of stratigraphic association with Mammut americanum. Material: dorsal fin spine (MSUVP 1007) collected by J. A. Holman, August 1977. Remarks: this site is discussed in the Adams Site Section under Mammut americanum. Literature: Holman (1979).
A single toad ilium from the late Pleistocene represents the first report of the class Amphibia from the Michigan fossil record.
Bufo americanus Holbrook American toad
ST. CLAIR COUNTY
1. Meskill Road Site, Columbia Township, Sec. 16, T 5 N, R 15 E. Age: late Pleistocene; exact age is unknown as the specimen was recovered below glacial lake clay and silt (probably Glacial Lake Whittlesey) 22.9 meters below the surface. Material: right ilium (MSUVP 1074) collected by Mr. Fred Orzel while drilling a water well in the 1970s. Remarks: this represents the first amphibian from the fossil record of Michigan.
Only three taxa of birds were reported by Wilson (1967). A fourth record is added here. This record is of importance as it is only the second Michigan vertebrate reported from a Wisconsinan interstadial site.
Aythya affinis (Eyton) Lesser scaup
1. Well Site , near Casnovia, Casnovia Township, Sec. 24, T 10 N, R 13 W. Age: late Pleistocene, correlative with the Plum Point Interstadial of Ontario. Wood fragments recovered from the fossiliferous horizon were dated at 25,050 [+ or -] 700 B.P. (U.S.G.S. W-2897). Material: left ulna (MSUVP 789) collected by the Bell Well Drilling Company, Sparta, Michigan, December 1972. Remarks: botanical evidence suggests that the material of the site was deposited in a wet depression dominated by coniferous trees, possibly a tamarack swamp, and that the original vegetation was spruce and pine. Literature: Holman (1975, 1976); Kapp (1978).
Mammals were by far the most abundant Pleistocene vertebrates recorded between 1967 and 1985. Many of these animals appear to have become fossilized because they were trapped in late Pleistocene bogs.
Castoroides ohioensis Foster Giant beaver
1. Dowagiac River Site, near Niles, Niles Township, Sec. 12, T 65, R 16 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: "...well preserved skull of Castoroides ohioensis but with the mandible lost, both zygomatic arches missing, and the facial portion of the maxilla broken away; dental series complete and in good condition...." This description is from Engels (1931) who reports the fossil is No. 1195 in the Museum of the Northern Indiana Historical Society in South Bend. Remarks: the skull was found during excavations by the Michigan Central Railway, but no strarigraphic data is available. The skull was purchased in South Bend, Indiana, and donated to the Northern Indiana Historical Society. Engels (1931) provides a good photograph of this excellent specimen.
1. I-96 Site, near Lansing, Delta Township, Sec. 21, T 4 N, R 4 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: upper incisor tooth (MSUVP 278) collected by Ernest Erickson, September 1968. Remarks: the fossil was in marl associated with freshwater mollusks, plant material, and conifer cones. Vertebrate remains associated with the tooth were the proximal portion of the humerus of a deer and the fragmentary rib of a proboscidean.
Ondatra zibethicus (Linnaeus) Muskrat
1. Shelton Site, Brandon Township, Sec. 26, T 5 N, R 9 E: Age: late Pleistocene based on strarigraphic association with Mammut americanum. Material: two dentaries (J. Shoshani, in litt. to J. A. Holman, 2 February 1985).
Literature: Shoshani (1984).
Microtus pennsylvanicus (Ord) Meadow vole
1. Adams Site, near Fowlerville, Howell Township, Sec. 7, T 3 N, R 4 E. Age: late Pleistocene because of stratigraphic association with Mammut americanum. Material: palate with molar teeth (MSUVP 1005) collected by J. A. Holman, August 1977. Remarks: this site is discussed in the Adams Site Section under Mammut americanum. Literature: Holman (1979).
1. Shelton Site, Brandon Township, Sec. 26, T 5 N, R 9 E. Age: late Pleistocene because of stratigraphic association with Mammut americanum. Material: crania and mandibulae (J. Shoshani in litt. To J. A. Holman, 2 February 1985). Literature: Shoshani (1984).
Ursus americanus Pallas Black bear
1. Green Site, Nobi Green property, Sec. 33, T 3 N, R 9 E. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: mandible (UMMP 60455) found during excavation of a sewage line, May, 1971. Remarks: found in marl overlying a sand unit. A proboscidean (UMMP 60454) was also found at the site and shows similar preservation.
Mammut americanum (Kerr) American mastodont
Most Michigan Pleistocene vertebrate fossil finds are in some way associated with the discovery of mastodont remains. These large animals often appear to have been trapped in bogs.
1. Berndt Site, Fred Berndt Farm, Lincoln Township, Sec. 13, T 5 S, R 19 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: R [M.sup.2] and fragments of a mandible (UMMP 49425) collected 5 May 1964, by Fred Berndt. Remarks: found in topsoil overlying gravel. Literature: Wilson (1967) has an incomplete report of this fossil.
1. Bronson, Sec. 16, T 7 S, R 8 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: mandible with L [M.sub.1], [M.sub.3] plus R [M.sub.2], [M.sub.3] collected by Stan Mayer, April 1974. Remarks: found in marl layer overlain by peat. Specimen was kept b~ owner to put on
display in county courthouse.
1. Parker Site, near Mulliken, Roxand Township, Sec. 20, T 4 N, R 5 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Materials: cranium and mandible with teeth; tusk, femur, large number of ribs, vertebrae, leg and foot bones, pelvis, and scapulae. Recovered in 1965 by Keith Warner (excavator) and S. D. Parker (owner) while digging a farm pond. Transferred to the Alma College Department of Biology by Keith Musser in 1969.
1. Cole Site, near Gaines, T 6 N, R 5 E. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: two vertebrae, rib, fragment of humerus, metapodials, calcaneum, and third molar (unnumbered in UMMP). Found by Mr. Cole. Remarks: specimens were dredged up from the bottom of a pond. The owner kept all of the specimens except a cast of the molar kept by the UMMP.
2. Johnson Site, Richfield Township, Sec. 9, T 7 N, R 8 E. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: fragmentary skull, mandible with two left and one right molars and mandibular tusk, both upper tusks, 17 vertebrae, 28 ribs, both scapulae, broken humerus, fragmentary pelvis, and femur (UMMP 57648) collected by C. Paulsen, G. R. Smith, D.C. Fisher and party, October 1979. On permanent display at the Sloan Museum, Flint. Remarks: found in sands of a point bar. Analyzed for evidence of butchery but none found. Literature: Fisher (1984b).
3. Ray Road Site, near Gaines, Gaines Township, Sec. 35, T 6 N, R 5 E. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: 20 ribs, 16 vertebrae, sacrum, scapula, and pelvis (UMMP 44433) collected in 1954 by J. A. Robbins and C. M. Barber of the Genesee County Museum. Remarks: found in a bog deposit. Literature: Wilson (1967) has an incomplete citation of this record.
4. Taylor Site, near Clio, Thetford Township, Sec. 20, T 9 N, R 7 E. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: tusk fragments, portions of several vertebrae, three complete ribs with 47 other substantial rib fragments, radius, fibula, patella, several tarsal elements, metapodials, sternal element, and hyoid elements (UMMP 61246). Collected fall 1983 by D. C. Fisher and party. Remarks: several bones found in situ in mottled clay below a peat layer but most from a spoil heap from a pond excavation. Literature: Fisher (1984b).
1. Ruskovic Site, near Alma, Emerson Township, Sec. 5, T 11 N, R 2 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: mandible, femur, scapula, ribs, and vertebrae collected in the 1950s and transferred to the Alma College Department of Biology by Keith Musser in 1969. Remarks: subsequent visits to the shallow recovery basin in a cultivated field yielded no more material. Literature: Skeels (1962) listed neither the name of the site nor the depository.
2. Shaffer Site, near Sumner, Sumner Township, Sec. 25, T 11 N, R 4 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: molar in possession of Noel Shaffer and collected in mucky soil near a drainage channel.
3. Smith Site, near Ithaca, Emerson Township, Sec. 17, T 11 N, R 2 W. Age: late Pleistocene; pollen record dominated by spruce. Material: portion of cranium, including maxilla with broken tooth roots, vertebrae and ribs, head of femur, pelvic fragment, and scapula collected by Albert Smith in 1909 from marl overlain by peat. Literature: Oltz and Kapp (1963).
4. Thaller Site, near Riverdale, Seville Township, Sec. 18, T 12 N, R 4 W. Age: 9910 +/- 350 B.P. on tusk (M-1739) and 11,200 +/- 400 B.P. on organic gyttja (M-1743). Bone dates are usually too young. Material: 20 ribs, femur, patella, fibula, set of foot bones, tusk, two third molars, second molar, ulna, humerus, vertebrae, and set of hyoid bones collected by the Louis Thaller family during the excavation of a farm irrigation pond. Remarks: a bog burial, with associated late glacial vegetation. Literature: Held and Kapp (1969).
1. Near Winn, Freemont Township, Sec. 24, T 13 N, R 5 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: pelvis (UMMP 44432). Remarks: donated to UMMP from the Genesee County Museum where it had been for 38 years. Originally donated to GCM by Dr. I. F. Jorae of Central Michigan University.
1. Van Sickle Site, near Hunter's Creek, Lapeer Township, Sec. 28, T 7 N, R 10 E. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: both tusks, molar fragment, 13 vertebrae, 23 mostly complete ribs and some fragments, phalanges, and two hyoid elements (UMMP 58023) collected by D.C. Fisher and party, September 1982. Remarks: this individual shows evidence of butchery by Paleo-Indians, including disarticulation marks, cut marks, bone breakage, and burned bone. Found in silty, clayey peat interpreted as a bog margin. Literature: Fisher (1984b).
1. Gullich Road Site, near Haslett, Williamston Township, Sec. 9, T 4 N, R 1 E. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: atlas (UMMP 52727) collected by Joe Guertin, 15 October 1965. Remarks: found in peat during a pond excavation.
2. Sheathelm Site, near Dansville, White Oak Township, Sec. 19, T 2 N, R 2 E. Age: 11,850 +/- 110 B.P. (Beta-11469) and 10,840 +/- 120 B.P. (Beta-11470), both dates based on wood associated with the skull. Material: the greater portion of a skull and skull fragments; a complete set of mandibles with full dentition; tusk pieces and fragments; and a few cranial fragments collected by Orla Sheathelm and his family members as well as by parties from Michigan State University and the University of Michigan in August and October 1984. These skeletal elements are now at UMMP under study, but the final depository has not been determined. Remarks: a bog burial. A wedge-shaped, pointed piece of wood was associated with the skull, but the nature of this object is unknown at present. D. C. Fisher established that the skull is from a female.
1. Crandell Site, near Portland, Sebewa Township, Sec. 9, T 5 N, R 6 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: a molar tooth recovered from the bank of a drainage ditch by Shawn Crandell in 1980 or 1981. Retained by Theodore Crandell.
1. Vanmiddlesworth Site, near Climax, Climax Township, Sec. 1, T 2 5, R 9 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: molar tooth collected by Peter Vanmiddlesworth, October 1983, and presently in his possession. Remarks: said to have been collected from muck.
1. Rappuhn Site, near North Branch, Burlington Township, Sec. 21, T 10 N, R 11 E. Age: 10,750 [+ or -] 400 B.P. based on associated wood (M-1780); date based on tusk (9,250 [+ or -] 350 B.P., M-1783) is erroneous. Material: a skeleton associated with plant macrofossils and pollen; site discovered by Gottlied Rappuhn in 1960 and excavated in 1965 and 1966 by W. L. Wittry of the Cranbrook Institute of Science where the bones remain. Remarks: a shallow bog site, believed to be a butcher or salvage site based on charring and cut marks on bone and associated wooden artifacts. Literature: Skeels (1962) gave a preliminary report, as did Wittry (1965). A detailed report by R. O. Kapp is in progress.
1. Cadmus Road Site, near Hudson, Hudson Township, Sec. 17, T 7 S, R 1 E. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: part of a tooth and a tusk, and a limb bone collected by Robert Hodge in August 1964.
1. Adams Site, near Fowlerville, Howell Township, Sec. 7, T 3 N, R 4 E. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: a skull (MSUVP 1004) broken by machinery during the excavation of a stock-watering pond by Charles Adams, August 1977. The specimen now exists as a palatal region including the upper molars and premaxillae; the posterior part of a skull including the occipital region; several large indeterminate pieces of skull highly perforated by sinuses; and hundreds of tiny skull fragments. Remarks: this is a very different type of Michigan site in that the matrix surrounding the mastodont was a sandy clay that could easily be washed through the screens for microvertebrate fossils, three of which were found (white sucker, ?crappie, meadow vole). The presence of the white sucker and centrarchid indicate the presence of a permanent body of water with enough available oxygen to support these particular fishes. The meadow vole could have lived in the grassy border of the aquatic situation. Thus, the site of deposition of t he mastodont was probably not a bog entrapment, in contrast to many other Michigan proboscidean finds. Literature: Holman (1979).
2. Four Lakes Drive Site, near South Lyon, Green Oak Township, Sec. 27, T 1 N, R 6 E. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: [LM.sup.3] (UMMP 55519) collected by Allegra Walker, August 1967. Remarks: found in muck taken from a drainage ditch.
1. Near Midland, T 14 N, R 2 E. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: tusk and tusk fragments collected in November 1971. Remains at Central Michigan University. Remarks: found in clay and muck.
1. Jolman Site, Sheridan Township, Sec. 10; T 12 N, R 13 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: right scapula of a young adult collected by Wheeler Jolman of Muskegon, Michigan. The bones remain at the Jolman residence. Remarks: the surface vegetation was reported to be "willow scrub" and the matrix in which the bone was found was said to have been, at least in part, "marl." Literature: Gilbert (1981).
1. Green Site, near Eames, Pontiac Township, Sec. 33, T 3 N, R 9 E. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: partial scapula, pelvis, and vertebrae (UMMP 60454) found during the excavation of a sewage line, May 1971. Remarks: found in marl overlying a sand unit. A bear mandible (UMMP 60455) was also found at the site.
2. Groleau-White Lake Site, White Lake Township, Sec. 23, T 3 N, R 8 E. Age: 10,200 [+ or -] 170 B.P. Material: one third of a skeleton that was combined with elements cast from other masrodonts to form a mounted skeleton now on exhibit at the Highland Lakes Campus of Oakland Community College. The original skeleton was found by the Groleau Brothers Inc. of Walled Lake, Michigan. Remarks: this specimen is said to be only the second mounted mastodont skeleton in Michigan. Literature: Dorr et al. (1982).
3. Near New Hudson, Lyon Township, Sec. 8, T 1 N, R 7 E. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: skull fragments, scapula fragments, numerous ribs, and vertebrae (UMMP 57856) collected by D. C. Fisher and party. Remarks: found in point bar sands. This individual shows evidence of butchery, including disarticulation marks, cutmarks, bone breakage, and burned bone. D. C. Fisher interprets this site as a secondary processing locality. Literature: Fisher (1984b).
4. Shelton Site, Brandon Township, Sec. 26 T 5 N, R 9 E. Age: 12,320 [+ or -] 110 B.P. and 11,960 [+ or -] WHAT? B.P. dates were obtained from wood fragments associated with the mastodont (J. Shoshani, in litt. to J. A. Holman, 8 December 1984). Material: a cranium with mandible, each half with teeth; atlas, axis, third cervical vertebra, caudal vertebra, two tusks, four ribs, parts of a scapula, and many bone fragments. The first bones were discovered 24 November 1977 while a pond was being dug (J. Shoshani, in litt. to J. A. Holman, 2 February 1985). Jeheskel Shoshani and his field parties have further excavated this skeleton in 1983 and 1984. The excavation is jointly administered .by the Cranbrook Institute of Science, the Highland Lakes Campus of Oakland Community College, and Wayne State University. Remarks: this excavation is still underway. A soil layer "closer to the surface than to the mastodon bones" yielded a bifacial projectile point (Shoshani 1984). Literature: Shoshani (1984).
5. Troy, Troy Township, T 2 N, R 10 E. Age: late Pleistocene. Material. mandible of a juvenile with two teeth (CIS 892).
OCEAN A COUNTY
1. Near Rothbury, Grant Township, Sec. 12, T 13 N, R 17 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: palate fragment with R and L [M.sup.2] plus R and L [M.sup.3] and two ribs. Discovered by Adrian Huls, September 1963. Remarks: found in peat and mud and retained by owner.
1. Near Evart, Evart Township, Sec. 23, T 17 N, R 8 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: right fibula and broken right tibia found by backhoe operator in July 1972. Remarks: found in muck containing pine and charcoal. Charcoal was preserved by Dr. Warren Wittry of the Cranbrook Institute of Science. At last report the bones were on display in the Evart Public Library Museum.
1. Maurer Sire, near Frankenmuth, Frankenmuth Township, Sec. 9, T 10 N, R 6 E. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: mandible with R [M.sup.3] collected in May 1974 from the Raymond Maurer Farm. Remarks: depositional setting unknown as is present location of material. May be at Delta College or in owner s possession.
1. Argyle Township, Sec. 2, T 13 N, R 13 E. Age: late Pleistocene. Remarks: exact fossil material was not listed; this find was reported to J. A. Holman by Barbara Mead (in litt. 11 July 1978). The bones were reported by Cliff Hawes of the Michigan Department of Natural Resources and identified by Donald Weston.
2. Bryce Site, near Deckerville, Custer Township, Sec. 2, T 12 N, R 14 E. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: molars, tusks, vertebrae, ribs, and several other undetermined pieces (in litt. Barbara Mead to J. A. Holman 11 July 1978). The bones were discovered by James Bryce and were collected by Donald Weston and a field party from the Sr. Clair Community College Museum. This museum has all of the remains with the exception of two molars kept by Mr. Bryce. Remarks: the tusk was reported to have come from "loam to silty loam." Literature: Weston and McMillion (1973).
3. Elk Township, Sec. 19, T 10 N, R 14 E. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: a molar identified by Donald Weston, its present location unknown (reported to J. A. Holman in litt. by Barbara Mead, 11 July 1978). Remarks: the tooth is said to have been found in a bog area.
1. Vanagon Site, Antrim Township, Sec. 14, T 5 N, R 3 E. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: incomplete right scapula in possession of Larry G. Harrison of Durand and collected 10 October 1979. Remarks: presumably a bog burial as the bone was said to have come from "pear" (personal communication by L. C. Harrison to J. A. Holman, 10 October 1979).
ST. JOSEPH COUNTY
1. Zeller Site, Burr Oak Township, Sec. 21 or 22, T 7 5, R 9 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: a fully erupted molar collected by Virgil Zeller who retains the tooth. Photographs and measurements of the tooth are at the Michigan State University Museum. Remarks: Mr. Zeller said he collected the tooth in a field.
2. Blake Site, near Leonidas, Leonidas Township, Sec. 27, T 55, R 9W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: a large portion of a skull, various parts of which are in possession of Mr. Paul Blake and his relatives. Collected by the Blake family and relatives, October 1978.
VAN BUREN COUNTY
1. Pine Creek Site, near Hartford, Hartford Township, Sec. 17, T 3 5, R 16 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: two molars found in fall 1971 on the bank of Pine Creek. Remarks: kept by the collectors Tracey Shafer and Timothy Link.
2. Powers Site, near Paw Paw Township, Sec. 14, T 4 S, R 14W. Age: 11,220 [+ or -] 310 B.P. based on rib fragments (Beta-9482). Material: a large part of a skeleton including both cranial and postcranial material. The specimen is at Western Michigan University where each fossil element has been assigned a lot number and a special location recorded for that number. Remarks: most bone
was embedded in peat and an underlying "gray clay" in former "glacial lake bed." Most elements were in approximate anatomical relationship, suggesting a natural rather than a human butcher site (E. Garland in litt. to J. A. Holman, 4 February 1985). Literature: Garland and Cogswell (1985).
3. Shine Site, near Bangor, Bangor Township, Sec. 2, T 2 S, R 16 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: two scapulae, humerus, tibia, fibula, ribs, four vertebrae, tusk fragments, mandible with four teeth collected by Elizabeth Garrett, September 1970, from the Robert Shine Farm. Loaned to Western Michigan University by the Shine Family. Remarks: found in peat and muck.
1. Killin Gravel Pit Site, Ann Arbor, Ann Arbor Township, Sec. 25, T 2 S, R 5 E. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: piece of tusk (UMMP 61427) collected by E. Armstrong (date unknown) said to have been collected 38 meters below the ground. Remarks: Killin's Gravel Pit is mining sand from outwash from the Fort Wayne Moraine.
2. Kuhl Site, near Ann Arbor, Scio Township, Sec. 33, T 2 S, R 4 E. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: lower jaws with molars; skull fragments; one complete tusk and fragments of the other; vertebral column 80% complete; 70% of the ribs; right radius and humerus; four hyoid bones; toe bones; portions of both scapulae; and the pelvis (UMMP 59936) collected in December 1969 by a field party directed by G. R. Smith from a pond excavation at Arthur Kuhl's farm on Scio Church Road. Remarks: this individual shows numerous pathologies due to three causes: injury, congenital defects, and old age.
3. Pleasant Lake Site, near Manchester, Freedom Township, Sec. 20, T 3 S, R 4 E. Age: 10,395 [+ or -] 100 B.P. (Beta-1138) on wood from the tusk pulp cavities and 12,845 [+ or -] 165 B.P. (Beta-1389) on wood from below the mandible. Material: broken skull, maxillary fragment with molar, mandible with four molars, both tusks, 23 vertebrae, eight ribs, broken left scapula, portions of left humerus, most of the left wrist, forelimb phalanges, left femur, both tibiae, both fibulae, and most of the right ankle (UMMP 57705). Excavated in fall 1979 by D. C. Fisher and party from the Egeler property. Remarks: this specimen was found in a peat bog deposit. It shows evidence of Paleo-Indian butchery, including disarticulation marks, cutmarks, bone breakage, bone tools, and burned bone. Literature: Fisher (1984b); Shipman et al. (1984).
4. Sakstrup Site, near Ann Arbor, Pittsfield Township, Sec. 14, T 3 S, R 6 E. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: fractured skull and maxilla with R and L [M.sup.3]; lower jaw with R [M.sup.3] plus [M.sup.2] plus L [M.sup.3]; broken scapula and pelvis; toe bones, and rib fragments (UMMP 54910). Collected by G. R. Smith and party, July 1977, from a pond excavation. Remarks: considering the fine quality of bone preservation, the extensive fracturing of the cranium suggests possible human butchery, but this evidence is far from conclusive. Found in peat associated with marl.
1. Hollis Site, near Northville, Northville Township, Sec. 15, T 1 S, R 8 E. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: R [M.sub.2], discovery date unknown. Kept by Mrs. Hollis. Remarks: found in sand unit.
Mammuthus jeffersoni (Osbom) Jefferson mammoth
1. Prillwitz Site, near Eau Claire, Berrien Township, Sec. 5, T 6 S, R 17 W. Age: late Pleistocene (a date, 8,260 [+ or -], M-1400, is too young). Material: a nearly complete skeleton (UMMP 61425) was excavated by C. W. Hibbard and party in 1962. The specimen was given to Andrews University, Berrien County, where it is now on display. UMMP has a cast of the mandible. Remarks: found in muck. Literature: Green (1967).
2. Near Watervliet, Watervliet Township, Sec. 17, T 3 S, R 17W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: R [M.sup.3] (UMMP 44381) collected by Larry Kickels in 1961. Literature: Wilson (1967) gave an incomplete account of this specimen.
1. Lennon (Flint) Site, near Lennon, Clayton Township, Sec. 31, T 7 N, R 5 E. Age: 11,400 [+ or -] 400 B.P. on tooth material (M-1361). Pollen analysis of sediments in cranial crevices showed a late-glacial plant assemblage. Material: cranium and tusks excavated by faculty from Flint Junior College about 1962; material now at C. S. Matt Community College.
1. Sweeney Site, near New Greenleaf, Sheridan Township, Sec. 33, T 15 N, R 12 E. Age: 9,600 [+ or -] 500 B.P. based on a large piece of bone (bone dates are usually too young), Enterprise CX 2881. Material: tusk and tusk fragments, two molar teeth, skull fragments, and rib fragments. Mainly collected in 1971 and 1972 by Donald Weston and his parties. The remains were donated to the Michigan Department of Natural Resources. Remarks: probably a bog burial. Literature: Weston and McMillion (1973).
1. Mead Site, near Dansville, Ingham Township, Sec. 1, T 2 N, R 1 E. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: [M.sub.3] and a partial tusk collected by Cloice Mead and J. A. Holman, May 15 1977. Remarks: a bog burial. Literature: Holman (1979).
1. Henry Site, near East Tawas, Baldwin Township, Sec. 18, T 22 N, R 7 E. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: a third molar collected by John Henry, fall 1983. Pictures of this specimen are on file at the Michigan State University Museum. Tusk fragments (MSUVP 1043) were collected by R. 0. Kapp, J. A. Holman, and W. Monaghan on 10 July 1984. Remarks: this specimen extends the range of Mammuthus jeffersoni northward on the east side of the southern peninsula and is a county record (Fig. 1). The specimens came from a shelly marl, thus a bog burial is probably represented.
1. Betz Site, near Springport, Springport Township, Sec. 3, T 1 S, R 3 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: molar tooth collected by Chester Betz, August 1975, and retained by him. Remarks: collected from muck (personal communication, Chester Betz to J. A. Holman), thus presumably a bog burial.
1. Seneca Township, Sec. 9, T 8 S, R 2 E. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: tibia, fibula, astragulus, calcaneum, tarsals, metatarsals, vertebrae, three ribs, and part of a scapula (UMMP 37169) collected in 1872 by Orman Tuttle and donated to UMMP in 1960.
1. American Aggregates Gravel Pit Site, near South Lyon, Brighton Township, T 2 N, R 6 E. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: tooth (UMMP 54301).
1. Bailer Site, near Coleman, Warren Township, Sec. 22, T 16 N, R 2 W. Age: 24,000 [+ or -] 4000 B.P. (M-2145). Material: third lower molar, fragments of mandible including anterior symphysis; recovered by Robert Bailer while excavating a farm pond in stream bed gravels. Donated to Chippewa Nature Center, Midland. Remarks: specimen believed to derive from the ice free, mid-Wisconsinan Plum Point Interstadial and to have been redeposited during stream cutting about 3,300 years ago (based on C-14 dates and associated plant material, M-2361). Literature: Kapp (1970).
VAN BUREN COUNTY
1. Johnson Site, near Gobles, T 1 S, R 14 W. Material: fully erupted molar tooth (photograph in Kalamazoo, Michigan, Gazette, 2 October 1976, with its collector, Vein Johnson). Remarks: stratigraphy unknown.
1. Carmichael Site, near Watervliet, Watervliet Township, Sec. 25, T 3 S, R 16 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: two portions of a tusk, one retained by Ken Carmichael and one retained by Andrews University, Berrien County. Remarks: a bog burial.
1. Heisler Site, near Springport, Clarence Township, Sec. 14, T 1 S, R 4 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: vertebrae, ribs, scapula, distal femur. Collected by James and Lester Heisler and J. A. Holman, November 1984. The bones are presently being studied at the Michigan State University Museum. Remarks: a bog burial.
1. I-96 Site, Delta Township, Sec. 21, T 4 N, R 4 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: distal rib (MSUVP 280) collected by J. A. Holman and Jeffrey Tordoff, 11 September 1968. Remarks: specimen in marl associated with freshwater shells, plant debris, and conifer cones, as well as with a giant beaver and a deer.
1. Zamarron Site, near Crystal, Crystal Township, Sec. 11, T 10 N, R 5 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: right femur on display at the Flat River Historical Museum, Greenville. Collected by Ray Zamarron 5 May 1974. Remarks: plowed up on a farm.
VAN BUREN COUNTY
1. Near Hartford, Hartford Township, T 3S, R 16W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: a right scapula submitted to J. A. Holman for study by Frank Dennis of the Michigan State University Horticulture Department, 11 January 1984. Was collected several years ago. Remarks: bone was said to have been found while digging a farm pond (Frank Dennis in litt. to J. A. Holman, 11 January 1984).
Platygonus compressus (Le Conte) Peccary
1. Ann Arbor, Ann Arbor Township, Sec. 26, T 2 S, R 6 E. Age: 10,790 [+ or -] 150 B.P. based on bone; but stratigraphic evidence from the Defiance Till suggests that this age is 2,000 to 4,000 years too young. Material: three skulls and mandibles and the majority of the skeletons of these three individuals (UMMP 60533, 60534, and 60535) from a barrow pit, Geddes Lake property, collected in 1971 by Paul Campbell, Robert Lovelace, and C. W. Hibbard. Remarks: unfortunately, the manner of exposure and collection of this material precludes attribution of postcranial elements to any one skull. Literature: Eshelman, Evenson, and Hibbard (1972).
1. Near Ann Arbor, Scio Township, Sec. 13, T 2 S, R 5 E. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: tibia, 17 ribs, right patella (UMMP 61426) collected August 1964, by Paul Augustine. Remarks: a bog burial.
Cervalces scotti Lydekker Scott's moose
1. Shelton Site, Brandon Township, Sec. 26, T 5 N, R 9 E. Age: 10,970 [+ or -] 130 B.P. based on associated wood (J. Shoshani in litt. to J. A. Holman, 8 December 1984). Material: jaw fragments and teeth collected by J. Shoshani and his field parties in 1983 and 1984. Presently administered by the Cranbrook Institute of Science, the Highland Lakes Campus of Oakland Community College, and Wayne State University. Remarks: Russell Graham and William Turnbull identified parts of this material. Literature: Shoshani (1984).
VAN BUREN COUNTY
1. Powers Site, near Paw Paw, Paw Paw Township, Sec. 14, T 4 S, R 14 W. Age: 11,220 [+ or -] 310 B.P. on rib fragments of Mammut americanum. Material: right cuneiform (ISM 490,018); right proximal metacarpal (ISM 490,019); right scaphoid (ISM 490,020); and right lunate (ISM 490,021). Remarks: these remains were associated with a mastodont excavated by Elizabeth Garland of Western Michigan University and her field crew. The bones were identified by Russell Graham. Literature: Garland and Cogswell (1985).
Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman) Whitetailed deer
1. Osgood Site, near Delton, Prairieville Township, Sec. 18, T 2 N, R 9 W. Age: late Pleistocene because of its strarigraphic association with a proboscidean (Robert Learner, personal communication to J. A. Holman, September 1974). Material: humerus (KMNH 974-5-1); metapodial (KMNH 974-2) collected by Stephen and Jennie Osgood, September 1974. Remarks: remains found in "muck," so it is assumed to have been a bog burial. The humerus appears to have been from an adult deer as the epiphyses are firmly fused, yet the bone is only one-half to two-thirds the size of adult Odocoileus virginianus humeri in the Michigan State University Museum.
1. I-96 Site, Delta Township, Sec. 21, T 4 N, R 4 W. Age: late Pleistocene based on its strarigraphic association with Castoroides ohioensis. Material: proximal end of humerus (MSUVP 279) collected by J. A. Holman and Jeffery Tordoff 11 September 1968. Remarks: specimen in marl associated with freshwater shells, plant debris, and conifer cones, as well as with the tooth of a giant beaver and the rib of a proboscidean.
Rangifer sp. Caribou
1. Flanders Site, Brandon Township, Sec. 9, T 5 N, R 9 E. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: antlers (MSUVP 365) collected by Richard Flanders of Ortonville, May 1969. Remarks: said to have been taken while dredging (Richard Flanders, personal communication to J. A. Holman, May 1969).
1. Seventy-four new records of Michigan late Pleistocene vertebrates supersede the summary of Wilson (1967).
2. Fifty-seven of these (77.0%) are proboscideans. Of the 52 proboscideans specifically identified, 42 of these (80.8%) are mastodonts and 10 of these (19.2%) are mammoths.
3. Where stratigraphic information exists for the newly recorded proboscideans, it becomes quite evident that almost all of these animals came from kettle-like depressions that were very often associated with muck or peat deposits.
4. An American toad fossil is the first record of the Class Amphibia in the Michigan fossil record.
5. The first vertebrate faunal evidence of deglaciation in Michigan during the Plum Point Interstadial Interval (32,000 to 24,000 B.P.) is provided by a fossil duck (and associated wood and pollen) in Muskegon County, and a Jefferson's mammoth in Midland County.
6. All of the other new vertebrate records recorded came from the late glacial interval about 12,000 to 10,000 B.P.
7. About one-half of these new discoveries were found in the interlobate moraine belt between the Saginaw and Erie glacial lobes (Washtenaw, Ingham, Livingston, Oakland, Genesee, Lapeer, and Sanilac Counties).
8. A mammoth site in Iosco County extends the range of this species in northeastern lower Michigan.
9. Vegetation during the 12,000 to 10,000 B.P. period in Michigan consisted mainly of coniferous forest, with significant presence of spruce.
10. Michigan late Pleistocene bog burial sites significantly lack the faunal diversity of similar sites in Ohio and Indiana for reasons not presently understood.
11. Several proboscidean sites show evidence of human butchery based on skeletal orientation, cut marks, and disarticulation marks on bone verified by ultramicroscopic examination, burned bone, and evidence of use of bone tools.
TABLE 1 Pollen Associated with Mastodont Fossils, Great Lakes Region Pollen Groups (%) Lat. Site Radiocarbon Spruce Deciduous Map (N) (County, State) Age (B.P.) & Fir Pine 1. 43[degrees] Thaller >11,200 60 20 29' (Gratiot, MI) 2. 43[degrees] Pitt -- 24 53 23' (Gratiot, MI) 3. 43[degrees] Smith 10,700 40 35 23' (Gratiot, MI) 4. 43[degrees] Rappuhn 10,750 62 3 10' (Lapeer, MI) 5. 42[degrees] Pontiac 11,900 46 4 42' (Oakland, MI) 6. 42[degrees] Sheathelm 10,840- 50-55 5-6 33' (Ingham, MI) 11,850 7. 42[degrees] Heisler -- 53 9 23' (Calhoun, MI) 8. 42[degrees] Powers 11,220 73 2 8' (Van Buren, MI) 9. 41[degrees] Kolarik 11,750 50 5 8' (Starke, IN) 10. 40[degrees] Wells 11,000- 30-50 2-8 59' (Fulton, IN) 12,000 11. 39[degrees] Christensen 13,200 50-60 3-5 52' (Hancock, IN) 12. 39[degrees] Orleton Farms 8,420 45-50 35-40 51' (Madison, OH) 13. 39[degrees] Pontius Farms 13,180 72 16 27' (Ross, OH) Pollen Groups (%) Lat. Deciduous Map (N) Trees Non-Tree Other 1. 43[degrees] 5 15 -- 29' 2. 43[degrees] 10 8 5 23' 3. 43[degrees] 15 10 -- 23' 4. 43[degrees] 20 10 5 10' 5. 42[degrees] 8 41 1 42' 6. 42[degrees] 25-30 10 5 33' 7. 42[degrees] 20 11 5 23' 8. 42[degrees] 13 9 3 8' 9. 41[degrees] 30 15 -- 8' 10. 40[degrees] 10-15 15-25 -- 59' 11. 39[degrees] 15 10-27 5 52' 12. 39[degrees] 6 10-15 -- 51' 13. 39[degrees] 2 6 4 27' TABLE 2 Pollen Associated with Mammoths and Other Fossi Vetebrates, Michigan Pollen Groups (%) Lat. Site Radiocarbon Spruce Map (N) (County, State) Age (b.p.) & Fir MAMMOTHS A. 44 [degrees] Henry -- 27-30 20' (Iosco, MI) B. 42 [degrees] Flint 11,400 45 59' (Genesee, MI) ELK C. 42 [degrees] Harper 5,840 1 50' (Shiawasse, MI) WOODLAND MUSK OX X. 42 [degrees] Coville Farm 13,000 69 10' (Kalamazoo. MI) Pollen Groups (%) Lat. Deciduous Map (N) Pine Trees Non-Tree Other MAMMOTHS A. 44 [degrees] 3-5 5 50-55 5 20' B. 42 [degrees] 37 10 8 -- 59' ELK C. 42 [degrees] 8 73 14 4 50' WOODLAND MUSK OX X. 42 [degrees] 0.5 10 12.5 8 10' TABLE 3 Pollen Spectra (%) from Sediments Associated with Fossil Vertebrates (Entries in brackets not included in pollen sum, but shown as percentage of total) Pollen Type MASTODONT MAMMOTH Trees/Shrubs Rappuhn Sheathelm Heisler Powers Henry Abies -- 4.5 -- 2.5 -- Picea 61.9 46.1 52.9 70.5 26.2 Pinus 3.0 6.2 8.6 1.5 3.9 Larix -- 3.3 1.4 0.5 1.0 Cupressac./Taxacea 1.0 2.1 3.2 2.0 2.9 Acer -- 0.4 1.4 1.5 -- Quercus 6.1 9.5 8.1 5.0 1.9 Fraxinus -- 7.4 5.9 0.5 -- Ulmus -- -- -- 0.5 -- Betula 0.5 4.9 1.8 2.0 3.9 Ostrya/Carpinus 0.5 1.6 1.4 -- -- Juglans -- 0.4 0.5 -- -- Carya -- 0.4 -- 0.5 -- Populus 8.1 1.6 0.5 0.5 -- Salix 2.0 1.6 0.9 3.0 -- Alnus 1.5 -- -- 0.5 -- Herbaceous Ambrosia 2.0 1.2 0.5 1.5 1.9 Artemisia 2.0 2.1 0.5 2.5 1.9 Compositae 2.0 1.2 0.5 0.5 3.9 Cheno-Am. -- 0.4 0.5 0.5 -- Gramineae 2.5 2.1 1.8 0.5 2.9 Cyperaceae (42.1) (0.8) 4.5 2.5 30.1 Thalictrum -- -- 0.5 0.5 -- Fern spores 4.5 0.4 1.4 -- 1.0 Selaginella -- -- -- -- 10.7 Typha/Sparganinum (3.5) (2.4) (0.5) (0.5) -- Typha (0.5) -- -- -- -- Undetermined 1.0 2.9 3.3 0.5 3.9 Pollen Type ELK Trees/Shrubs Harper Abies -- Picea 0.8 Pinus 8.3 Larix 0.5 Cupressac./Taxacea 1.3 Acer 2.2 Quercus 46.2 Fraxinus 0.9 Ulmus 14.1 Betula 1.8 Ostrya/Carpinus 6.2 Juglans -- Carya 0.9 Populus -- Salix 0.9 Alnus 0.5 Herbaceous Ambrosia 0.9 Artemisia 0.9 Compositae -- Cheno-Am. -- Gramineae 7.0 Cyperaceae 2.2 Thalictrum -- Fern spores 2.3 Selaginella -- Typha/Sparganinum 2.2 Typha -- Undetermined 2.3
We wish to gratefully acknowledge the following persons who answered our correspondence and provided information about Michigan Pleistocene vertebrates: Dennis M. Au, Anthony Barnosky, Robert A. Black, Dennis R. Bodem, William A. Clemens, John A. Dallman, Theodore Downs, James Farlow, Lynn N. Fauver, Elizabeth B. Garland, Russell W. Graham, John Halsey, James Harding, Robert Learner, Barbara Mead, Jane A. Miller, Robert Purdy, Ronald L. Richards, Holmes A. Semken, Edward P. Speare, Asa C. Thorensen, and Donald E. Weston.
Special acknowledgements are extended to Jeheskel Shoshani of the Department of Biology at Wayne State University who provided very specific information on his ongoing excavation (Shelton Site) and on "Elmer," the Groleau-White Lake mastodont now on exhibit at Oakland Community College.
We gratefully acknowledge grant No. 2938-84 from the National Geographic Society that supported Holman's work on the Sheathelm mastodont site.
The many Michigan landowners who so willingly allow excavations on their property, and who often donate their finds to public museums, are here thanked. Without their cooperation, there would be little information on Michigan's Pleistocene vertebrates.
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|Author:||Holman, J. Alan; Fisher, Daniel C.; Kapp, Ronald O.|
|Date:||Sep 22, 2003|
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