Re-evaluating the silent-film music holdings at the Library of Congress.
The United States Library of Congress houses one of the largest collections of silent-film music in a single location. While many scholars have commented on the library's silent-film scores and cue sheets, only a small portion of their silent-film holdings has been considered. Notably missing from the existing literature is any information about the library's extensive collection of photoplay music--the incidental mood music used to accompany silent films. In most silent-film scoring pursuits, photoplay music served an instrumental role, but despite its importance in laying the groundwork for over a century of audiovisual media, we have yet to fully study the scope and legacy of this generic stock. With the aim of assessing this neglected repertory, this article examines two sizable classification series containing silent-film music at the library: M176 "Motion Picture Music," containing over 1,800 items, and M1357 "Moving Picture Orchestra," with over 1,300 items. The article surveys hundreds of diverse photoplay music volumes, which help to elucidate the long, yet tacit, history of using generic production music in the film industry. By cataloging and contextualizing M176 and M1357, this article supplements extant scholarship on the Library of Congress's impressive film-music holdings, and ultimately encourages further exploration into the many untapped, yet worthy, areas of early film-music history.
Cinema flickered into existence in the late nineteenth century, and in the ensuing decades of incubation developed the innovative techniques and conventions that went on to inform the advanced art we recognize today. Within this rapid period of maturation, cinematography grew more sophisticated, simple plots evolved into intricate and engaging narratives, and musical accompaniment quickly became an inseparable component of the medium. With few musical standards of practice upon which to draw, theater managers experimented with various accompaniment techniques, including everything from silence and disinterested mechanical instruments to improvisation and original compositions that sought to match the screen's every action.
To cope with the increasing film length and turnover rates in the mid-1910s, (1) music directors and film exhibitors across the United States began relying heavily on three distinct and intersecting accompanimental aids: cue sheets, compilation scores, and photoplay music. Early efforts in film scoring followed the lead of melodramatic theater by compiling accompaniments from existing popular tunes and classical repertory. To supplement these familiar works, composers generated numerous collections of incidental music--often with generic titles like "Hurry," "Furioso," and "Mysterioso"--to better match the various moods and scenarios of the screen. Theaters amassed extensive production libraries of this so-called photoplay music, which greatly facilitated the scoring process. Studios and trade papers further helped exhibitors select appropriate music by offering film-specific cue sheets that included a list of works (mostly photoplay music) to perform at specific points throughout the presentation (fig. 1). For a few select motion pictures, studios offered fully realized scores that, while occasionally containing original content, typically comprised a compilation of existing stock music. In most silent-film scoring pursuits, photoplay music served an instrumental role, but despite its importance in laying the groundwork for over a century of audiovisual media, we have yet to fully unpack the expansive scope and legacy of this generic stock.
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To assess the neglected repertory of photoplay music, I spent the summer of 2014 at the United States Library of Congress (LC), digging through dusty boxes of old film music. As home to one of the largest collections of silent-film music in a single location, the library is an ideal starting point for such an investigation. Although many scholars have commented on the library's silent-film scores and cue sheets--the most thorough treatment being Gillian Anderson's Music for Silent Films (1988)--only a small portion of its silent-film holdings has been considered. (2) 3 Notably missing from the existing literature is any information about LC's extensive collection of photoplay music. In efforts to address this lacuna, I focused primarily on two sizable classification series containing silent-film material: M176 "Motion Picture Music," containing over 1,800 items, and M1357 "Moving Picture Orchestra," with over 1,300 items. Through careful consideration of all shelved and boxed material, I was able to create comprehensive indexes, which supplement the current online and physical card catalogs. As expected, I found a significant amount of photoplay music, but I also unearthed a mass of seemingly diverse items that compelled me to reconsider the importance of cue music libraries throughout the history of film production and exhibition.
Film music scholarship has tended to herald the Great Composer who wrote a Great Score for a Great Movie; yet, an alternative, perhaps dominant, scoring method has remained just below the surface of this prevailing historical narrative: the compilation score. While compilation scoring was utilized in early melodramatic theater and other pre-cinema media, it remains most closely associated with film exhibition in the silent era. (3) Early written histories of silent-film music, including Kurt London's Film Music (1936) and Charles Hofmann's Sounds for Silents (1970), focused largely on the original or compiled score as a unified authorial creation. (4) Recent scholarship, however, has begun to examine the smaller, precomposed units that brought fife to the compilation score and thematic cue sheet. In the 1910s and 1920s, published cue sheets and scores were ready-made luxuries; in their absence, film exhibitors and accompanists would often cobble together their own scores from collections of popular tunes, classical repertory, and photoplay music--from which there were thousands of titles to choose. (5) The music that accompanied silent era films was thus generated by hundreds of long since forgotten composers and arrangers who collectively churned out numerous anthologies of incidental music for the silver screen.
The compilation scoring method did not disappear with the introduction of sound film, as early talkies were often scored by teams of composers who, as Katherine Spring has shown, had access to extensive music libraries of their own. (6) By the early 1930s, most major motion-picture studios signed deals with American music publishers, and thus acquired the rights to ever-growing music libraries upon which they drew heavily for their productions. Early radio and television functioned in much the same way through published collections of incidental music and anthologies of recorded stock music. In 1929, for example, the World Broadcasting System began distributing records of popular songs and dramatic mood music to radio stations across the country. There were also collections of sheet music published specifically for live radio pianists and organists, such as Ascher's Incidental Themes for Organ (1938) and Edward Truman's Broadcast Mood Music (1943). (7) The introduction of television in the early 1950s, as Paul Mandell's work demonstrates, led to the establishment of several recorded music services, including the Mutel Music Service, which repurposed B movie soundtracks of the 1930s, and Capitol Records's Hi-Q Library, which boasted twenty-two hours of music preserved on 110 reels of high-fidelity tape. (8) Today, music supervisors frequently rely on digital production music libraries like Associated Production Music, and Killer Tracks for use in film, television, trailers, video games, and other audiovisual media.
Both classification series that I consulted at the Library of Congress contain early examples of this common practice in film scoring. The scores, cue sheets, and photoplay music in M176 and M1357 illustrate an emergent need for production music libraries in the mid-1910s, as feature-length films grew in duration and prevalence. Such music libraries remained indispensible scoring tools throughout the 1920s and, as the collections demonstrate, well into the sound era. Nearly all of the items that I cataloged represent this method--from the silent-film photoplay music to the incidental music for movie studios in the 1930s and 1940s. Only rarely did I come across a full score to a film written by a single author. Rather, what the library possesses are artifacts and evidence of this rich tradition that is only recently gaining its due recognition in the film music discourse. This paper therefore addresses the content of these collections with the aim of supplementing extant literature on the Library of Congress's impressive film music holdings, while also encouraging exploration into these untapped, yet worthy, areas of film music history.
MUSIC AT THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS
The music holdings at the Library of Congress are unique in part because of the institution's affiliation with the U.S. Copyright Office. Since the turn of the twentieth century, LC has been the sole repository for all copyrighted material, meaning that it should ostensibly house all musical scores (both published and unpublished) that are protected by U.S. copyright. (9) This privileged role makes the library home to unique items found nowhere else in the world. Regarding M176 and M1357, United States publishers dominate both series, represented by 70.8 and 44 percent of the total items, respectively (tables 1 and 2). Following in second and third places for both are English and French publishers, which is of little surprise given their interest in early cinema and their shared markets in Europe and the United States. (10) Somewhat unusual are the foreign publishers that submitted only a handful of items, as in the four items each from Copenhagen and Stockholm in M1357. Sweden's four titles are from the Imperial Collection (1928) photoplay series, and curiously include only volumes 1, 2, 3, and 5. The content of these collections raise many questions about why foreign publishers nominated only a few of their items for copyright and not others; why, for instance, is volume 4 of the Imperial Collection absent? Volume 4 may possibly be missing because: it was never composed or published, it was never deposited for copyright, it remains off-site at the Landover, Maryland, storage facility, or it was misfiled into a different classification series. While unusual and infrequent, the foreign publications that do exist in these class series are valuable for their potential insights into the silent-film traditions, practices, and composers of locations where histories of film music have yet to be written.
The Library of Congress's wealth of film music resources comes with several limitations regarding the access and viewing of material. Besides the lack of representation in the current catalog systems, the most significant obstacle for M176 and M1357 is the illogical filing methods of the boxed material. Both of these collections consist of bound items, which are typically larger published scores, and smaller classed items that are boxed together based on classification number. Bound works have distinct call numbers, making them easier to find and access, while classed material is often absent from the catalogs. Further complicating things is the fact that a single classed item may be organized alphabetically either by name or by work title. While this sorting method confounded even the most knowledgeable reference librarians, it likely developed to accommodate scores with unnamed or multiple composers and arrangers. The implications of such a system mean that any given piece of music could appear in at least two places: one based on composer and one based on title. Mayhew L. Lake's first volume of Carl Fischer's Loose Leaf Motion Picture Collection for Piano (1915), for example, could potentially appear in box "C Titles" but is actually housed in box "Lake, M. L." The updated finding aids, however, help mitigate this problem. A final practical issue one encounters with these collections is the often-fragile condition of the old scores and archival boxes in which they are stored.
M176 and M1357 contain valuable relics of early film music, and the few issues outlined above are admittedly minor and should not discourage researchers from exploring the collections fully. The sheer number of silent-film photoplay collections provides for us a clearer picture of their economic importance and practical functionality in scoring films in the 1910s and 1920s. More importantly, they demonstrate the popularity of the compilation score, which influenced similar anthologies of printed and recorded stock music in the sound era as well as in such other media as radio and television. While it is possible to subdivide these 3,205 individual items into distinct generic types, as I have done below, they all (or nearly all) support a scoring method that, despite going largely unnoticed by the lay listener, has been an important and frequently utilized tool throughout the history of film.
M1357: "MOVING PICTURE ORCHESTRA"
The M1357 class series comprises 1,273 items that are housed in seventy-two boxes with an additional eighty-four bound items that are shelved separately. As the title suggests, the majority of M1357 is written for an ensemble of two or more instruments, and appears in generic formats that fall into three broad categories: (1) silent-film scores, (2) collections of silent-film photoplay music, and (3) individual pieces of silent-film music.
There are seventy-one silent-film scores in M1357, of which most are from the mid-1910s (appendix 1). Fifty-seven scores bear a copyright date of 1915 or 1916, compared to the twelve that were published in the 1920s. Gillian Anderson identifies all but two of these scores in Music for Silent Films, making them easily accessible to readers via the microfilm series Music 3212: "Motion Picture Music: Silent Films--Library of Congress." The two absent titles are Ernst Luz's The Echo of Youth (1919) and the incidental music to Der Rosenkavalier (1926), which both likely arrived at the library after 1978 when the titles for the project were collected. Additionally, Anderson's guide does not mention the following duplicate orchestral scores that are housed with the boxed materials: Civilization (1916), The Crippled Hand (1916), and Old Iron Sides (1927). Because Anderson identifies the scores of this classification series in great detail, I will forego a detailed breakdown of composers and publishers; instead, I will focus on the implications of compositional method.
The silent-film scores contained in both M1357 and M176 indicate an abrupt shift in 1915 away from the original score toward the compilation type. Of the thirty-five scores created from 1898 to 1914, for example, all credit a single composer and advertise originality. (11) The remaining seventy-four scores published from 1915 to 1929 showcase a marked increase in compilation scoring. For my purposes, any score that uses "selected by," "arranged by," "adapted by," or "compiled by," to attribute the score's creator indicates a compilation score; another key sign is the appearance of unique copyright information under each cue. Between 1915 and 1929, fifty-eight scores are of the compilation type, while only sixteen claim to be "composed by" one individual. This compelling shift in language around 1915 reflects a similar shift in the total 168 scores listed in Anderson's guide. (12) For her larger subset of scores, I consulted microfilm sets Music 3212 and Music 3236 at the library, and determined that all thirty-seven scores published between 1898 and 1914 were original (listed as "composed by"), and that from 1915 to 1929 there were twice as many compiled scores as original--eighty-four and forty-seven, respectively.
One should be cautious in accepting the "composed by" scores as indicating originality, because those claiming to be "specially composed" often quote or borrow without crediting, especially before the 1914 formation of ASCAP. Regarding the early scores in the collection, Martin Marks, in Music and the Silent Film (1997), confirms that Walter C. Simon's twelve Kalem scores published in 1912 were indeed original, and that Manuel Klein's seven All-Star Feature scores from 1914 were also advertised as newly composed (fig. 2). (13) Herbert Reynolds additionally notes that, in its copyright applications, Kalem describes Simon's scores as comprising both "re-arrangements and new matter." (14) Early original scores, as Rick Altman explains, borrowed heavily from opera and European classical repertory as well as folk and popular tunes, as is the case with Simon's contributions. (15) While these special scores relied on existing music, and therefore complicate notions of originality, they are original in the sense that their creators orchestrated and blended the melodies to meet the needs of the film, and did not simply copy wholesale. Despite the early adoption of the original score in film exhibition, several practical issues encouraged a shift toward the (to borrow Rodney Sauer's phrase) reusable repertory of photoplay music in the mid-1910s. (16)
Altman attributes the decline of the original score around 1915 to inadequately trained keyboardists who, as film turnover rates grew throughout the decade, had increasingly less time to rehearse. (17) The exponential growth in the number of films being produced annually allowed theaters to change titles more frequently to remain competitive, which reduced the time needed to prepare an entirely original score. According to the American Film Institute, the number of feature films released in the United States grew from sixty in 1913, to 357 in 1914, and by 1917 they report an astounding 940 titles. (18) Marks similarly notes a shift toward compilation scoring at this time, and points to the increase in film durations--from one to three reels in 1912 to five or more by 1915. (19) Original scores to lengthy films were difficult to compose and rehearse in a timely manner, especially with the growing size of the accompanying ensemble. The concurrent and rapid proliferation of photoplay music collections provided a solution to these pressing problems, as they were integral to the success and realization of the compilation score.
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Multivolume collections of photoplay music make up the largest subsection of this series, with an impressive 1,221 items that were published between 1912 and 1935. M1357 represents 129 distinct series titles, ninety-six of which contain two or more volumes (appendix 2). Familiar titles are peppered throughout the series such as A.B.C. Dramatic Set (1915-20), Berg's Incidental Series (1916-17), Hawkes Photoplay Series (1922-32), Synchronizer Suite (1923), and multiple items from Carl Fischer, Robbins Music, and Sam Fox. More obscure titles include Augener's Cinema Music (1920-22), Biblioteca Cinema (1926-29), Carr's Cinemusic (1925), Furstner's Film-Musik (1929), Kinema Kameos (1929), and Pour Mon Cinema (1928). Unique among the photoplay collections are series tied directly to prominent composers or figures in the entertainment industry, including Joseph Carl Breil's Original Collection of Dramatic Music (1917), [Riccardo] Drigo: Loose Leaf Collection of Characteristic, Dramatic and Descriptive Cinema Classics (1926), [Ernst] Luz Feature Photoplay Edition (1919-20), and Musiques pour Films Rhene-Baton (1928-29). This sizable collection of familiar and unique anthologies points to the importance of such publications in silent-film exhibition, and the apparent demand for new and varied collections to supplement theater music libraries.
The publication dates for these photoplay volumes illustrate an abrupt increase in the production of incidental music in 1915. In this series, there are only two items published before this date: Carl Fischer Moving Picture Folio (1912) and Cinema Music's The Cinema Music Journal, No. 1 (1914; fig. 3). By contrast, thirty-four titles were published in 1915, and an impressive ninety-one in 1916. This apparent surge in photoplay music production points to the increased importance of incidental music in silent-film scoring. (20) It is by no means a coincidence that the emergence of this market appeared at a time when films were growing in length and, as shown above, scoring methods shifted from original compositions to compilations. Keeping in mind that most of these photoplay volumes were scored for variously sized ensembles, their sudden appearance reflects the expansion of accompanying forces and growing standardization of silent-film orchestras as the decade progressed.
What is perhaps most striking about the publication dates is that there is a dramatic increase in photoplay music production from the mid-1920s through the end of the decade. While one might expect the successful experiments with sound film to deter publishers from continuing to offer such collections, there is actually a steady increase: 1925 (57 sets), 1926 (74), 1927 (87), 1928 (132), and 1929 (193). The number of items drops back to 114 in 1930, and down to only six in 1931. As is easily forgotten, the transition to sound film was not instantaneous. Many exhibitors questioned the longevity of the novelty, and others were discouraged from changing due to the cost of furnishing a theater with sound equipment, especially at the onset of the Great Depression. On this point Donald Crafton observes, "The transition was years in the making and in the finishing." (21) As theaters slowly warmed to sound between 1926 and 1931, incidental music remained an irreplaceable tool for holdouts, which relied on the continued outpouring of new titles until the steep drop-off in 1931--the year that Crafton marks as the end of the changeover to sound.
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Individual Pieces of Silent-Film Music
There are sixty-five individual pieces of silent-film music in the M1357 class series. Most of these works are single pieces with generic descriptive titles, and carry familiar names such as Maurice Baron or Victor L. Schertzinger. Instead of detailing each of the predictable photoplay selections, I want to highlight three unique nonphotoplay works found in the boxes. The first is Mayhew L. Lake's Radioverture (1924), which is a striking example of the experimentations with musical sound in the silent era. When the piece first premiered in June 1924 at the Strand Theater in Brooklyn, New York, the Brooklyn Standard reported that the piece depicted "a series of musical excerpts, instrumental and vocal, as done by the radio, with the customary interruptions, squeals, static and code." (22) Lake's own description that appears on the cover page refers to it as "a descriptive overture illustrating the trials and tribulations of the radio fan, beset by constant interruptions" (fig. 4). By highlighting the sonic drawbacks and frustrations of early radio, Lake craftily reinforces for the moviegoing audience the negative stereotypes of the newly emerging and competing medium of radio.
Another item that was intended for use before the feature picture is Lest We Forget (1923) from the Sing Them Again series. The Educational Film Exchanges created this sing-along series to capitalize on the public's perceived hunger for "modernized revivals of the songs you used to sing." According to an ad printed in Motion Picture News, "Three great radio broadcasting stations in Chicago asked what songs the people liked best. More than 70 per cent of the 100,000 replies favored the old familiar songs over the modern jazz." (23) The piano/organ score accompanied a one-reel film dramatization of old pop tunes; for Lest We Forget, the songs included "Tenting on the Old Camp Ground," "Wait Till the Sun Shines, Nellie," and "Mother Machree" (fig. 5). (24) As the film was projected, lyrics appeared at the bottom of the screen with a treble clef sign indicating when the audience and organist should enter. (25)
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A final example is the song "With You, Dear, in Bombay," which appeared with Charlie Chaplin's film The Gold Rush (1925). This novelty fox-trot published by Witmark & Sons represents the common trend of selling ancillary film tie-ins, such as sheet music, in theater lobbies and retail shops for at-home consumption. Chaplin composed the tune and later recorded it with the help of the Brunswick Co., which distributed the record (Brunswick 2912-B) through its "special publicity department." (26) Both the Brunswick record and Witmark sheet music were intended to exploit the song in tandem with the film's presentation, and therefore extend the filmgoing experience into the home--much like the theme songs of classic Hollywood films.
While I created these three subgroupings to make the data easier to discuss, I want to stress their shared function not only as music used to accompany silent films, but also as markers of the compilation score. Fifty-one of the sixty-three unique silent-film scores in M1357 indicate that they are arrangements of preexisting music--many calling specifically for numbers from photoplay music collections. (27) Additionally, the photoplay volumes and individual pieces of incidental music were created for the expressed purpose of constructing film accompaniments, whether as published scores or ones created in-house by a theater's music director. The content of M176 continues these trends, and also demonstrates how the compilation score extended from the silent era into sound film, radio, and television.
M176: "MOTION PICTURE MUSIC"
The M176 classification series contains 1,693 classed items and 159 items that are bound and shelved separately. On the whole, the class series can be divided into four broad categories: (1) silent-film scores and cue sheets, (2) photoplay collections for keyboard, (3) incidental music for sound film, and (4) scores for major studio sound productions. Other, uncategorized items include famous themes that were extracted from film scores and published separately, and unique items like Six Pieces to Accompany Magic Lantern Illustrations from 1899.
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Silent-Film Scores and Cue Sheets
M176 contains fifty-eight silent-film scores, of which forty-six appear in Anderson's Music for Silent Films, and all but five are piano-conductor scores (appendix 3). Not mentioned in her book are Carli Densmore Elinor's The Eyes of the World (1917), Hugo Riesenfeld and Joseph Carl Breil's Jim the Penman (1921), Riesenfeld's The Covered Wagon (1923), and a photocopy piano score for Sally of the Sawdust (1925). Eight additional scores are not from the silent era, but are rather reorchestrations or new compositions published on or after 1985. Five of these are for Chaplin films--City Lights, Modern Times, Pay Day, The Pilgrim, and Shoulder Arms--and the final three include Dean Drummond's 1998 microtonal score for The Last Laugh, Jo van den Booren's 1985 score for La passion de Jeanne d'Arc, and a 2006 publication of Metropolis credited to Gottfried Huppertz. (28)
M176 also contains forty-one cue sheets that, save for two titles, are entirely unique from the 790 listed in Anderson's guide. Thirty-eight of these are housed together under the call number M176.S Case--all but one of which are simply photocopies of cue sheets produced by the Cameo Music Service, and most (thirty-four) credit James C. Bradford. Only one item from this box, The Brat, is a copy of a hand-written cue sheet (printed on cue paper from California Theatre Musical Setting). The M176.S Case cue sheets are stored alphabetically, and curiously stop at titles beginning with P (Passion), which suggests that the original collection from which these were copied contains additional cue sheets, Q-Z.
As addressed above, the silent-film scores in these two class series represent a mix of composed and compiled works. Cue sheets, on the other hand, are plainly of the compilation ilk by their very design. As Rick Altman observes, the practice of creating cue sheets--both printed in trade papers and separately published--emerged around 1915 and 1916. (29) This timeline not only falls in line with the development of published photoplay collections, but also aligns with the shift toward compilation scores. Though the earliest cue sheets date from the mid-1910s, they did not gain widespread popularity until the 1920s. Accordingly, out of the forty-one cue sheets in M176, all but one were created for films released between 1924 and 1929, with the single outlier being for the 1919 film The Brat.
Photoplay Collections for Keyboard
M176 contains 219 volumes of photoplay music for organ or piano (appendix 4). There are sixty-one distinct series, of which twenty-six have two or more volumes. Only seven titles in this collection overlap with M1357, making for a combined total of 183 unique photoplay series. (30) The earliest item in the collection is Gregg A. Frelinger's Motion Picture Piano Music (1909; fig. 6), believed to be the earliest of such publications, and the latest is Alpha Music's Sketches of Mood Music Suite (1960). Thirty-four collections in the series were published before 1930, suggesting that most were composed and intended for use in silent-film exhibition. While this series contains fewer photoplay titles than M1357, it is particularly valuable for the sizable amount of early examples. To illustrate, thirteen collections published their first volume on or before 1915, which supports the popular depiction of solo keyboard accompanists in theaters up through the mid-teens. Since little historical information is available for the first decades of film music, these collections contain useful insights into early exhibition practices--especially ones with detailed prefaces or those from foreign countries for which histories of silent-film music have yet to be written. For example, the foreword to Breil's Dramatic Music for Motion Picture Plays (1917; fig. 7) demonstrates the importance he placed on a score's tonal continuity, and the single item from Russia, Kino-Muzyka (1920), illustrates a different compositional language for common generic moods.
This series also contains several collections published just after the transition to sound. Sam Fox Publishing, for example, created at least three sets of incidental music just after being acquired by Twentieth Century-Fox in 1931; these include Atmospheric Series (1932-33), Collection of Max Steiner Compositions (1933), and Incidental Music Book: For News Reels, Cartoons, Pictorial Reviews, Scenics, Travelogues, etc. (1931-32). This last title indicates usage in parts of the nightly program on either side of the feature film, and demonstrates the reliance on incidental music in other film and entertainment genres. Keith Prowse Music, which published five collections between 1934 and 1935, also created collections for use in other parts of the program, including News Reel Sound Titles (1934) and Sound Title Overtures (1934).
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Fig. 7. Foreword to Joseph Carl Breil's Dramatic Music for Motion Picture Plays (London: Chappell, 1917), Library of Congress, Music Division FOREWORD The object of this book is to assist directors of orchestras, pianists and organists in MOVING PICTURE PRESENTATIONS to devise fitting music for their attractions. It is the result of several years experience at composing and adapting music to MOTION PICTURE PLAYS. The numbers herein contained, embrace expression of the various human emotions and impressions; and are so arranged that they may be satisfactorily played, by either a solo piano or organ, or by an orchestra of either limited or large dimensions. Each number has been divided into several sections, A-B-C--etc, all designed to express the normally logical sequences of scenes. These can each be repeated in part, or as a whole, if the, scenes are of unusual duration. Each single section has been so constructed that it can be played independently, in other words the entire book has been so arranged, that it is possible to pass from one section of one number into almost any section of another without violently offending the ear or breaking the musical continuity. It will be found that both in TONALITY and THEMATIC CONSTRUCTION a co-relation has been maintained between nearly all the numbers. Thus for instance, it seems quite natural to pass from the end of B in number 1 to either A of number 2 or B of number 4 etc. etc. Upon examination it "ill be found that this rule applies to nearly all sections in the book. The musical director of a Motion Picture Orchestra will thus, with a little acumen and understanding on his own part, be enabled to give absolute spice and variety to the accompaniment of a picture play; and if he handles the adaptations deftly, he will find the numbers in this book will enable him to present what, really might be called an opera score without voices. The actors on the screen will prove to be silent singers. Besides having compiled this book with all these utilitarian objects in view, the other aim not neglected was to write it in a dignified musicianly manner, attractive to both the unscholastic as also to the music student That the "HOI POLLOI" will enjoy, and the musical SAVANT take no exceptions to these strains is the ardent wish of THE COMPOSER. Los Angeles Dec. 20th 1916
The majority of M176 comprises incidental pieces of keyboard music written for film studios in the mid-1930s, indicating the continued popularity of compilation scoring methods from the silent era. Here, I have distinguished "incidental music" from the above list of photoplay collections because most of these items are individual pieces of music with characteristic titles, instead of full collections or "folios" of music. Many compositions were never published, as they were generated exclusively to furnish music libraries at four film studios: Fox, Universal, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, and the National Screen Service. Some titles resist neat classification, however, as will be seen with the published collections from Movietone.
At 852 unique titles, Movietone's incidental music contributes the largest amount of material to M176. These items span 1932 to 1937, during which time the company was affiliated with Twentieth Century-Fox as a second music subsidiary. (31) In fact, most of the names on these items credit prominent staff composers at Fox, as identified in Clifford McCarty's Film Composers in America (2000): Samuel Kaylin (154 items), Hugo Friedhofer (114), David Buttolph (98), Reginald H. Bassett (90), Peter Brunelli (88), Louis De Francesco (71), Arthur Lange (60), and Cyril J. Mockridge (53). (32) At ninety-nine titles, Glenn Knight is the only prominent Movietone composer that McCarty does not list as being associated with Fox. While many pieces appear as single songs with descriptive titles like "Humoresque" and "Swahili Hunt Song", there also exist multivolume collections with titles that, despite the series name Motion Picture Music, indicate usage in concerts, stage melodramas, and radio productions (see appendix 4 for all published Movietone collections and the other photoplay collections). These titles include Movietone New Reel and Main Titles (1935), Collection of Picturesque and Descriptive Compositions for Screen, Stage, Radio and Concert (1936), and Songs and Themes for the Screen, Radio and Stage (1937). Such titles indicate the interchangeability of music across varied media and generic formats.
Milton E. Schwarzwald's unfortunately titled S. S. Library is another collection of incidental music that was composed for use in Universal sound shorts. The box labeled "M176 Schwarzwald" contains eighty-four nonconsecutively numbered items that were written in 1936, and are attributed to Schwarzwald, Joseph Gershenson, Jack Schaindlin, Al Curtis, and Hal C. Sanders. (33) This collection of compositions was likely written in conjunction with the formation of a new music library at Universal. In April of 1936, Motion Picture Daily reported that Schwarzwald completed a "musical library ranging from storm music to Spanish rhumbas for background use in the Universal Newsreel." (34) The Film Daily additionally noted that Schwarzwald recorded his library for the studio. (35) Aside from these brief mentions in the trade press, little information on the S. S. Library exists, as it was not published or intended for commercial distribution.
The final two subgroups of incidental music are the generic titles and arrangements of popular tunes generated for Robbins Music--one of the "Big Three" MGM subsidiaries--and for the National Screen Service--a company that, through the 1920s and 1930s, produced and distributed movie trailers. Leo A. Kempinski contributed at least fifty-four individual titles to the National Screen Service between 1935 and 1938, while Robbins drafted a minimum of seventy-three generic tunes, largely between 1936 and 1937. Robbins's compositions are attributed to Marvin Hatley (63), Gaston Borch (6), Leroy Shield (1), A. Morton (1), Ray Sinatra (1), and Johannes Brahms (1). Again, these items were never published because they were likely part of in-house studio libraries.
Scores for Studio Productions
Finally, M176 has a particularly strong collection of short scores to sound films: 250 titles produced between 1929 and 1949 (appendix 5). Scores to films by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (139 titles) and Universal Pictures (68) dominate the collection, with three additional items from Paramount and one each from Twentieth Century-Fox and RKO Pictures. (36) In addition to the major studios, M176 contains film scores from smaller production companies, including Walter Lantz (27), Jam Handy (3), Buck Jones (3), Crime Club (2), Republic Pictures (1), and Louis Lewyn (1). Most of these items were deposited for copyright as handwritten cues preserved on the distinct pink and purple Ditto Longrun paper. While some scores contain a date of composition, many bear only a copyright acquisition stamp. Based on the copyright stamps, it appears that studios deposited the items en masse, making it difficult to accurately date the production for which the music was written.
I have successfully identified 115 titles as scores to feature films; the remaining scores represent an admixture of film projects that include shorts, serials, and generic cue music. (37) Twelve titles belong to James FitzPatrick's TravelTalks, which was a Technicolor travelogue series that included such titles as Around the World in California, Visiting Virginia, and Glimpses of Old England. At least thirty-one scores were intended for use in animated shorts, including twenty-seven Walter Lantz productions (many featuring Oswald the Lucky Rabbit), three for MGM's short-lived series The Captain and the Kids, and one Scott Bradley score for Tex Avery's Henpecked Hoboes (1946)--originally titled Bums Away. Another twenty titles are for a variety of film shorts, including three confirmed Jam Handy films, one RKO Sportscope, and one Universal Name Band Musical titled Takin' the Breaks (1946). Into the M176 classification fall scores for seven Universal serials: Ace Drummond, Jungle Jim, Radio Patrol, The Scarlet Horseman, Secret Agent X9, Tim Tyler's Luck, and Wild West Days. Each of these serial scores contains between two and twenty-three individual cues. It is unclear whether these cues were intended for distinct chapters of the serial or were simply the title theme and a few ancillary cues that were reused for each chapter in the series.
The remaining sixty-four unidentified scores potentially reflect working titles that changed upon release (such as You'll Be Manned By Noon becoming Married Before Breakfast), or are single cues with generic titles like "Poisoning Scene" and "Chinese Prelude." These latter individual titles were likely part of larger film scores and were either deposited separately, split apart upon deposit, or misfiled through years of use by readers at the library. The number of cues for a given film score ranges from a single cue to the impressive forty-three in the case of MGM's Firefly (1937). Dracula'sDaughter (1936), for example, contains twenty-one separate cues with individual titles, including "The Autopsy" and "Gypsy Waltz." Oftentimes, multiple composers and arrangers worked on a film's score, such as the seven names associated with Universal's When Love is Young (1937). In these instances, each cue typically bears the name of a distinct composer.
As with M1357, the items in M176 point to a shift in film scoring practices around 1915. With the appearance of cue sheets and fully-realized compilation scores (not to mention the countless theaters fashioning accompaniments in-house) came a rapid proliferation of photoplay music at approximately the same time. While the number of published collections grew steadily throughout the 1920s, titles in M176 demonstrate that the reliance on incidental-music anthologies bridged the transition to sound film and extended into other areas of entertainment, such as stage shows, radio, and television. The formation of extensive studio music libraries--such as the abovementioned Fox, Universal, and MGM collections--further illustrates the industry's dependence on easily accessible and thematically organized compositions.
As the backbone of early film exhibition, photoplay music can illuminate much about historic and current industry practices. Not only was it a vital, cost-effective tool for scoring, but it also helped solidify the broad spectrum of musical signifiers that composers still rely on when eliciting emotional responses in moviegoers. The library's collections of photoplay music, cue sheets, and silent-film scores vividly illustrate the emergence of this repertory, which facilitated the growing dependence on compilation scoring throughout the 1910s and 1920s. The overwhelming quantity of incidental music generated during this era--an output that TC's holdings only partially represent--demonstrates its widespread adoption as a sturdy scoring model that did not simply disappear with the advent of synchronized sound. As is made clear by the music collections published for screen, stage, radio, and television, incidental-music libraries aided in a variety of other media, and frequently transcended generic boundaries.
Today, long after the silent era, incidental-music libraries remain versatile tools for production studios; Associated Production Music, for example, attests that its extensive online catalog furnishes music for "everything from the smallest of indie films to the largest blockbuster studio releases; television sit-coms to commercials and sports broadcasting; video games to mobile handheld games; and, even musical greeting cards to online User Generated Content." (38) The ways in which the current film industry function and even sound--relying primarily on short clips that reflect a singular mood--are thus predicated largely on the contributions of long-forgotten silent-film pioneers, whose names await rediscovery in this and other film music archives.
These two classification series and their array of film music artifacts represent a vibrant period in the motion picture industry, and offer significant ground for future study. My intentions in this article were to account for and begin to make sense of LC's silent-film music holdings, yet much remains for study with regard to how the music was produced and consumed. By generating a greater awareness of these collections, I hope to encourage closer readings of their contents and historical significance, which would considerably supplement and reshape current narratives of early film music. Lying dormant in these class series are potential new insights into the underlying relationships among studios, composers, publishers, and exhibitors. The diversity of foreign and domestic music publishers, for instance, holds important insights for scholars interested in the composers and traditions of locations that are often overshadowed by those of New York and Los Angeles. One can also elucidate from the scores and cue sheets the many commercial ties that generated the early entertainment industry, especially with respect to the apparent alliances between publishers and studios. Regarding sound film, the many studio short scores in M176 provide unique source materials found nowhere else that would assist in a much needed study of documentary shorts, cartoons, and serials, as well as a deeper investigation into the division of labor in music departments at specific studios.
By re-evaluating the silent-film music holdings at the Library of Congress (music we thought we already knew), a narrative emerges that alludes to the long, yet tacit, history of compilation scoring methods in the film industry. Additional investigations of this and other film music collections would yield important discoveries and enrich our current understanding of this popular art. Although my conclusions are primarily drawn from items that arrived at the Library of Congress by happenstance, my investigation of similar silent-film music depositories reveal dozens of libraries and archives throughout the United States and abroad that house extensive collections of incidental music--music that, in order to enhance an already documented history, warrants another look.
APPENDIX 1: M1357 Silent-Film Scores Note: all scores are piano-conductor, unless otherwise noted. Title (Year) Composer/Arranger 1. Aloha Oe (1915) Wedgewood Nowell 2. The Battle Cry of Peace (1915), Samuel L. Rothapfel, eds. Ivan orch. Rudisill, S. M. Berg 3. Beau Geste (1927) Hugo Riesenfeld 4. Beau Geste (1927), orch. Hugo Riesenfeld 5. Beau Geste: Themes (1927), orch. Hugo Riesenfeld 6. The Beckoning Flame (1915) Victor L. Schertzinger 7. Between Men (1915) Joseph Nurnberger, Victor L. Schertzinger, Wedgewood Nowell 8. Carmen (1915), orch. Samuel L. Rothapfel, arr. Hugo Riesenfeld 9. Civilization (1916) Victor L. Schertzinger 10. Civilization (1916), orch. Victor L. Schertzinger, arr. Lee Orean Smith 11. The Conqueror (1916) Victor L. Schertzinger, Wedgewood Nowell 12. The Corner (1915) George W. Beynon 13. The Crippled Hand (1916), orch. Max Winkler, F. Rehsen 14. The Crippled Hand (1916), orch. Max Winkler, F. Rehsen 15. The Crisis (1916), orch. A. Carrano 16. Cross Currents (1915) J. A. Raynes 17. D'Artagnan (1915) Joseph Nurnberger, Victor L. Schertzinger, Wedgewood Nowell 18. A Daughter of the Gods (1916) Robert Hood Bowers 19. The Despoilers (1916) Louis F. Gottschalk 20. Double Trouble (1915) Joseph Carl Breil 21. Double Trouble (1915), orch. Joseph Carl Breil 22. Echo ofYouth (1919), orch. Ernst Luz 23. The Edge of the Abyss (1915) Victor L. Schertzinger, Joseph E. Nurnberger 24. Fabiola (1923), orch. Alexander Henneman 25. The Flirt (1916), orch. Max Winkler 26. The Flying Torpedo (1916) J. A. Raynes 27. Foolish Wives (1922) Sigmund Romberg, ed. J. Frank Cork 28. The Gay Lord Warning (1916), Max Winkler, F. Rehsen orch. 29. Gentleman from Indiana (1915), George W. Beynon orch. 30. Gloria's Romance (1916), orch. Jerome Kern 31. The Golden Claw (1915), orch. Joseph E. Nurnberger, Victor L. Schertzinger, Wedgewood Nowell 32. The Great Problem (1916), orch. Max Winkler, F. Rehsen 33. The Green Swamp (1916) William Furst, C. Herbert Kerr 34. The Grip ofjealousy (1916), Max Winkler orch. 35. Honor's Altar (1916) Louis F. Gottschalk 36. Hop, The Devil's Brew (1916), Max Winkler orch. 37. Jane (1915) George W. Beynon 38. Jeanne Dore (1916), orch. Max Winkler 39. John Needham's Double (1916), Max Winkler, F. Rehsen orch. 40. Jordan is a Hard Road (1915), J. A. Raynes orch. 41. Let Katie Do It (1915) William Furst 42. The Lily and the Rose (1915) Joseph Carl Breil, J. A. Raynes 43. The Lily and the Rose (1915), Joseph Carl Breil, J. A. Raynes orch. 44. The Martyrs of the Alamo Joseph Carl Breil (1915), orch. 45. Matrimony (1915), orch. Joseph E. Nurnberger, Victor L. Schertzinger, Wedgewood Nowell 46. The Missing Link (1916) George W. Beynon 47. Old Ironsides (1927), orch. J. S. Zamecnik, Hugo Riesenfeld 48. Old Ironsides (1927), orch. J. S. Zamecnik, Hugo Riesenfeld 49. La Passion de Jeanne d'Arc Leo Pouget, Victor Allix, (1928), orch. orch. E. Metehen 50. Peer Gynt (1915), orch. George W. Beynon 51. Los Pendentes (1915) Joseph Carl Breil 52. The Prince of Power (1916) J. A. Raynes 53. The Princess of the Dark Victor L. Schertzinger (1917), orch. 54. The Reform Candidate (1915) George W. Beynon 55. Der Rosenkavalier (1926) Richard Strauss 56. Rupert of the Hentzau (1916), Max Winkler orch. 57. The Sable Lorcha (1915) J. A. Raynes 58. The Sable Lorcha (1915), orch. J. A. Raynes 59. Secret Love (1916), orch. Max Winkler 60. Sheherazade (1929) orch. Leo Pouget, Victor Alix, orch. E. Metehen 61. The Strength of the Weak Max Winkler (1916), orch. 62. Tangled Hearts (1916), orch. Max Winkler, F. Rehsen 63. Tongues of Men (1916) George W. Beynon 64. Undine (1916), orch. Max Winkler 65. Verdun (1929), orch. Andre Petiot, arr. A. H. Bernard 66. Virgin of Stamboul (1920) Max Winkler 67. The Winged Idol (1915), orch. Joseph E. Nurnberger, Victor L. Schertzinger, Wedgewood Nowell 68. The Wood Nymph (1916) Joseph Carl Breil 69. The Wrong Door (1916), orch. Max Winkler 70. The Yankee Girl (1915), orch. George W. Beynon 71. The Yaqui (1916), orch. Max Winkler
APPENDIX 2: M1357 Photoplay Collections
Title, Volume Number(s)
Composer. Place: Publisher, Date(s) of Publication
1. A.B.C. Dramatic Set, nos. 1-21, 23, 25 Ernst Luz. New York: Photoplay Music Co., 1915-20
2. A.B.C. Feature Photoplay Edition, 10 misc. items Ernst Luz. New York: Photoplay Music Co., 1917
3. A.B.C. Photo Play ConCert Edition, nos. 1-6 Ernst Luz (arr.). New York: Photoplay Music Co., 1917-18
4. Artist's Orchestra Repertoire, nos. 80-82 Irenee Berge. New York: Ross Jungnickel, 1922
5. Augener's Cinema Music, 21 misc. items Ernest Reeves (arr.). London: Augener, 1920-22
6. Beliebte Musik Fur Kino-u. Kafe-Kapellen, 1 misc. item Mac Rauls-Darell. Magdeburg: Heinrichshofen's Verlag, 1924
7. Belwin Concert Edition: Cinema De Luxe, no. 4 Morris Aborn [Maurice Baron] (arr.). New York: Belwin, 1924
8. Berg's Descriptive Series, 6 misc. items Gaston Borch. New York: S. M. Berg, 1918
9. Berg's Incidental Series, nos. 1-70 Misc. New York: S. M. Berg, 1916-17
10. Biblioteca "Cinema" Scene Musicali per Films Cinematografiche, 20 misc. items
Ettore Montanaro, Franco Vittadini, P. A. Trindelli. Milan: G. Ricordi, 1926-29
11. Bosworth's Loose Leaf Cinema Incidentals, bks. 1, 2, 5-10 (nos. 1-12, 25-60)
Misc. London: Bosworth & Co., 1926-29
12. Bosworth's Loose Leaf Film Play Music Series, bks. 1, 2 (nos. 1-12) Albert W. Ketelbey. London: Bosworth & Co., 1924
13. C. B. Co. Photoplay Edition, no. 11 Joseph Marr (orch.). Boston: Cundv-Bettoney Co., 1923
14. Capitol Photoplay Series, nos. 5, 7, 9, 16, 19, 36, 66, 84, 85, 87, 97 Misc. New York: Richmond-Robbins and Robbins-Engel, 1923-27
15. Carl Fischer Edition, nos. 4, 10, 11, 18, 19, 24, 25 Will L. Becker. New York: Carl Fischer, 1916
16. Carl Fischer Film Themes, nos. 1-3, 5-19, 22-25 Misc. New York: Carl Fischer, 1924
17. Carl Fischer Loose Leaf Motion Picture Collection, vols. 2, 3 (nos. 16-45) M. L. Lake, Lester Brockton. New York: Carl Fischer, 1916, 1918
18. Carl Fischer Moving Picture Folio Misc. New York: Carl Fischer, 1912
19. Carl Fischer Moving Picture Series, nos. 1-3, 5-9, 12-17, 20-23, 26-42, 44- 46, 48, 49, 52-55, 58-60 Misc. New York: Carl Fischer, 1916-19
20. Carl Fischer Screen Classics, pts. 1-4 Chas. J. Roberts (arr.). New York: Carl Fischer, 1919
21. Carr's Cinemusic, vol. 3 Howard Carr. London: W. Paxton, 1925
22. Chappell's Cinema Library, nos. 1-6 Max Irwin. London: Chappell & Co., 1928
23. Cine Collection Sam-Fox, 6 misc. items Misc. Paris: Editions Musicales Sam-Fox, 1927-30
24. Cine Marches Collection, 1 item Albert Renaud. Paris: Choudens, 1930
25. Cine-Scenes Dramatiques, 3 misc. items Paul Fosse, Bober. Paris: Buffet Crampon et Cie, 1923-24
26. Cine: Situations Tragiques et Animees, 1 item Hans Ourdine (arr.). Paris: S. Chapelier, 1925
27. Cinema De Luxe, nos. 1-3 Sol P. Levy. New York: Cinema Music Co., 1918
28. Cinema Incidental Series, nos. 1-11, 13, 16, 20, 23, 29, 43, 58, 59 Misc. New York: Belwin and Cinema Music Co., 1917-26
29. The Cinema Journal, nos. 1-3, 6-8 Misc. London: Cinema Music Co., 1914-15
30. Cinema: Scenes exotiques, 1 item Hans Ourdine (arr.). Paris: S. Chapelier, 1926
31. Cinematics, nos. 6-10 Maurice Samehtini. London: Maurice Piena, 1928
32. Les Cinemelodies, nos. 1-7 Monteux-Brisac (orch.). Paris: Edition Arlequin, 1928
33. Cinemusica, 3 misc. items Victor Charmettes (orch.). Paris: Enoch et Cie, 1929-30
34. Cinesinfonia, 1 item Rudd (orch.). Paris: Enoch et Cie, 1925
35. Collection Adapta, nos. 4-7, 9-18, 24-26 Gaston Tramin, Francois Martin. Marseille: Francois Martin, 1919-20
36. Collection Cine-Concert, 9 misc. items Misc. Cannes: Francis Moulin, 1926-29
37. Collection Cine-Passe-Partout, 1 item Ad. Gauwin. Paris: Librairie Hachette, 1924
38. Collection "Drama" 1re Serie, 12 misc. items Gabriel-Marie. Paris: Societe Anonyme des Editions Recordi, 1918
39. Collection Musica-Cinema, 2 misc. items F. July. Paris: F. July, 1928
40. Collection Standart Sam Fox, 1 item Andre Messier. Paris: Editions Musicales Sam-Fox, 1927
41. Collezione Cinema, nos. 9, 11-13, 15, 17-19, 21-26, 28-30 Misc. San Remo: Edizioni Dott. C. Beltramo, 1929
42. Defina-Serie der Preis-Kino-Bibliothek, no. 1 Hans May. Magdeburg: Heinrichshofen's Verlag, 1930
43. Descriptive Music for Motion Pictures, vol. 1 Domenico Sodero. N.P., 1923
44. Ditson's Music for the Photoplay, nos. 1-17, 19-35, 46-49 Misc. Boston: Oliver Ditson, 1918-25
45. Domenico Savino Tone Pictures for Orchestra, 1 item Domenico Savino. New York: Robbins Music, 1932
46. Domenico Savino's Symphonic Love Themes, no. 1 Domenico Savino. New York: Robbins Music, 1927
47. Drigo: Loose Leaf Collection of Characteristic, Dramatic and Descriptive Cinema Classics R. Drigo. New York: Carl Fischer, 1926
48. Ed. J. C. Breil, no. 21 Joseph Carl Breil. New York: E. L. Greinert, 1922
49. Episode Cinematographique, 3 misc. items Francis Casadesus, Ch. Delsaux (arr.). Paris: Ch. Havet and Choudens, 1926-29
50. Euterpeia, no. 10 H. Mouton (arr.). London: Jean Jobert, 1924
51. Excelsior! Adaptation Musicale Pour le Cinema, 1 item V. Monti. Paris: Societe Anonyme des Editions Ricordi, 1915
52. Le Film Sentimenal, nos. 2-4 V. Dyck. Paris: E. Gaudet, 1928
53. Filma Nouvelle Collection d'OEuvres Symphoniques, 23 misc. items Misc. Paris: Max Eschig, 1926-35
54. Filmelodies Photo Play Music, nos. 1-18 Montague Ewing. London: Elkin & Co., 1927-29
55. Filmharmonie Original Music for Cinema, nos. 2-5, 7, 8, 28 Misc. Berlin: Musikverlag Robert Ruhle, 1927-29
56. Filmona Film-Illustrations-Musik, nos. 1, 3, 5, 9, 12, 14, 15, 18, 21 Misc. Leipzig: Universal-Editions, 1929-30
57. Filmuthek, nos. 1, 6 Leopold Weninger (arr.). Leipzig: D. Rahter, 1927
58. Foster Motion Picture Incidental Series, 14 misc. items Arthur Kay, Edmund Roth (arr.). Chicago: Forster Music, 1925
59. Fox Favorite Orchestra Folio, vol. 5 Misc. Cleveland: Sam Fox, 1925
60. Francis & Day's Cinema Music Folio, nos. 1-16 Julian Rutt. N.P.: Francis & Day, 1920
61. Francis Day Repertoire pour Cinemas, 5 misc. items Misc. Paris: Francis-Day, 1929-31
62. Furstner's Film-Musik, nos. 1-10 Misc. Berlin: Adolph Furstner, 1929
63. Gordon's Loose Leaf Motion Picture Collection, vols. 1, 2 Walter C. Simon. New York: Hamilton S. Gordon, 1923
64. Hawkes Concert Picture Series, nos. 1,2,4 Gaston Borch, Quentin Maclean (arr.). London: Hawkes & Sons, 1928
65. Hawkes Octavo Edition, 2 misc. items Frant Smid, F. G. Charrosin. London: Hawkes & Sons, 1924, 1928
66. Hawkes Photoplay Series, nos. 1-19, 21, 22, 25, 41, 42, 53, 62, 68, 70-78, 93-95, 103, 109-20, 133-44, 151-62 Misc. London: Hawkes & Sons, 1922-32
67. Hawkes Photoplay Series Piano Album, bk. 9 (nos. 49-54) Frederic Noyes. London: Hawkes & Sons, 1925
68. Imperial Collection, nos. 1-3, 5 Misc. Stockholm: Edition International A. E. Wappler, 1928
69. Impressions Cinematographiques, 1 item Ch. Delsaux (arr.). Paris: Choudens Ed., 1930
70. Incidental Miniatures, nos. 1, 2, 4-8 Misc. New York: Photoplay Music Co., 1924
71. Incidental Symphonies, no. 5-22, 24-27, 30-36 Misc. New York: Photoplay Music Co., 1922-27
72. Jacobs' Incidental Music, nos. 1-12, 17-24 R. E. Hildreth (orch.). Boston: Walter Jacobs, 1918-20
73. Jacobs' Incidental Music Classic, sers. A-G R. E. Hildreth (arr.). Boston: Walter Jacobs, 1920
74. Jacobs' Incidental Music for Piano, vols. 1, 2 (nos. 1-24) R. E. Hildreth (orch.). Boston: Walter Jacobs, 1918
75. Joseph Carl Breil's Original Collection of Dramatic Music, nos. 1-12 Joseph Carl Breil. New York: Chappell & Co., 1917
76. Kinema Kameos, nos. 7, 8, 10, 12 E. Frederic Curzon. London: Boosey & Co., 1929
77. Kinemusic, 1 item Albert W. Ketelbey. N.P.: A. Hammond & Co., 1915
78. Kino-Musik Series, nos. 1-12 Jacob Gade. Copenhagen: Wilhelm Hansen, 1926, 1929
79. Kino-Musik Series for Piano, nos. 1-12 Jacob Gade. Copenhagen: Wilhelm Hansen, 1926, 1929
80. Kinothek Dramatische Musik, nos. 1A, IB, 2A, 2B, 3A, 3B Giuseppe Becce. Berlin: Schlesinger'sche Buch, 1920-23
81. Kinothek Modern Atmospheric Music, nos. 1-10, 21-23, 25-30, 52-57 Giuseppe Becce, Alfred Pagel (arr.). Berlin: Schlesinger'sche Buch, 1925-26
82. Lafleur Modon Picture Edition, nos. 13-18 Richard Howgill. Paris: J. R. Lafleur & Son, 1929
83. Liber's Photo-Play Series, nos. 1-4 Pierre Latour. London: J. Liber Music, 1927
84. Lipskin Orchestra Photoplay Series, no. 507 Anthony La Paglia. New York: G. & J. Lipskin, 1927
85. Lutetia Collection de Grandes OEuvres Symphoniques, 4 misc. items Misc. Paris: Choudens, 1930
86. Lutetia Nouvelle Collection d'OEuvres Symphoniques, 14 misc. items Misc. Paris: Choudens Ed des Capucines, 1927-30
87. Luz Feature Photo Play Edition, nos. 3, 13, 15, 18-21 Misc. New York: Photoplay Music Co., 1919-20
88. Luz Symphonic Color Classics, nos. 1, 4-8 Misc. New York: Music Buyers Corp., 1925-27
89. Lyra, no. 3547 Ad. Gauwin. Leipzig: Anton J. Benjamin, 1928
90. Master Movie Music Orchestral Library Edition, 4 misc. items Herman Hand. New York: Edward B. Marks Music, 1925-26
91. Morceaux Speciaux pour Cinemas, 2 misc. items V. Dyck. Paris: Editions E. Gaudet and Francis Salabert, 1929
92. Motion Picture Music, no. A1 Paul Johns. Boston: Park Music Company, 1915
93. Movietone Fanfares, nos. 11-20 Joseph Engleman. Leipzig: Bosworth & Co., 1931
94. Moving Picture Series, nos. 57, 59, 60 Fred Luscomb. New York: Carl Fischer, 1918
95. Musiques pour Films Rhene-Baton, nos. 1, 2, 4-6 Roger Branga (orch.). Paris: Durand & Cie, 1928-29
96. Mysticfilm Nouvelle collection d'OEuvres Caracteristiques, nos. 1-15, 17-20, 433
Misc. Paris: Choudens Ed, 1928-30
97. Paul Johns Motion Picture Music, nos. A1-A3 Paul Johns. Boston: Park Music Company, 1915
98. Paxton's Cinemusic, nos. 13, 16, 21 Ch. Franklin (arr.). London: W. Paxton & Co., 1929-30
99. Photo Play Series, nos. 41-45, 48, 49 Domenico Savino. New York: G. Schirmer, 1923
100. Pour Mon Cinema, 15 Pieces Pour Cinema Misc. Paris: Lawrence Wright, 1928
101. Pour Simplifier Les Adaptations Cinematographiques, no. 1 Andre Colomb. Paris: Union Musicale Franco-Espagnole, 1929
102. Preis-Kino-Bibliothek, nos. 32, 35, 39-40, 42, 51-99 Misc. Magdeburg: Heinrichshofen's Verlag, 1926-30
103. Reid's Musicinema Librarry, no. 42 Ralph Dustan, George L. Hatton (orch.). London: Reid Bros., 1928
104. Repertoire des Cinemas, no. 16 Alex de Taeye. Paris: Choudens, 1926
105. Robbins-Engel Descriptive Series, nos. 4, 6, 13 Domenico Savino. New York: Robbins-Engel, 1924-25
106. Robbins-Engel Red Seal Concert Series, nos. 20, 22, 41 Misc. New York: Robbins-Engel, 1924, 1927
107. Roehr's Film Illustration Capitol Series, no. 3 Joan Fresco. Berlin: Roehr A. G., 1925
108. Salabert Film Series Salafilm, nos. 1-11, 13-36 Huguet-Verdun. Paris: Editions Arlequin and Francis Salabert, 1928-29
109. Sam Fox Allegro Series, nos. 1-5 Misc. Berlin: Sam Fox Musikverlag, 1928
110. Sam Fox Cinema Impressions, vol. 1 J. S. Zamecnik. Cleveland: Sam Fox Publishing, 1924
111. Sam Fox Concert Orchestral Folio, no. 2 J. S. Zamecnik. Cleveland: Sam Fox Publishing, 1923
112. Sam Fox Library Orchestra Folio, nos. 2-8 Misc. Cleveland: Sam Fox Publishing, 1915-25
113. Sam Fox Loose Leaf Collection of Marches, vols. 1, 2 Misc. Cleveland: Sam Fox Publishing, 1924, 1927
114. Sam Fox Paramount Edition for Orchestra, sers. A, B Misc. Cleveland: Sam Fox Publishing, 1926-27
115. Sam Fox Photoplay Edition, vols. 1-4 J. S. Zamecnik. Cleveland: Sam Fox Publishing, 1919-27
116. Sam Fox Select Song Gems, vol. 1 Misc. Cleveland: Sam Fox Publishing, 1926
117. Scenes Mystiques, nos. 1, 2 Louis Billaut, Rene Jacquemont. Cannes: Francis Moulin, 1929
118. Schirmer's Photoplay Series, nos. 2-8, 10-28, 33, 34, 36, 37, 39, 40, 51-70 Misc. New York: G. Schirmer, 1915-29
119. Schott & Co's Cinema Repertory, 38 misc, items Misc. London: Schott & Co., 1920-24
120. Schott's Domesticum, 40 misc. items Misc. Mainz: Schott's Sohne, 1929-30
121. Seca Photoplay Series, 53 misc. items Misc. Paris: Editions Francis Salabert, 1929-30
122. Silver Screen Series Photo Play Music, nos. 13-16, 18-20 Misc. New York: American Composers Inc., 1927
123. Les Succes des Cinemas, 5 misc., items J. Franceschi. Marseille: J. Franceschi, 1928-30
124. Les Succes Universels pour Cinemas, 1 item Paul Gilson. Brussels: J. Buyst, 1925
125. Super Cine, 5 misc. items M. Delmas, F. Andrieu. Paris: Editions Musicales Andrieu, 1928-30
126. Symphonie Incidentals, nos. 1-7 P. A. Marquardt. New York: Music Buyers Corp., 1927
127. The Synchronizer Suite, nos. 1-6 M. L. Lake. New York: Cari Fischer, 1923
128. Synchrono Moderne Illustrations-Musik Fur Kino, vols. 1-5 Bernard Homola. Berlin: Schlesinger'sche Buch, 1930
129. Tragicfilm Nouvelle collection d'OEuvres Caracteristiques, nos. 2, 148, 424 Misc. Paris: Choudens, 1926, 1930
APPENDIX 3: M176 Silent-FUm Scores and Cue Sheets SCORES: Note: ail scores are piano-conductor, unless otherwise noted. Nos. 7 and 41 contain two film scores published as one. Tide (Year) Composer/Arranger 1. America (1914) Manuel Klein (Witmark) 2. Anthony and Cleopatra (1914) George Colburn 3. An Arabian Tragedy (1912) Walter C. Simon (Kalem) 4. Bismarck (1914) Ferdinand Hummel 5. The Black Crook (1916) Walter C. Simon (Kalem) 6. The Black Pirate (1925, reprint 2002) Mortimer Wilson 7. The Bugler of Battery B. (1912) Hungry Walter C. Simon (Kalem) Hank's Hallucination (1912) Walter C. Simon (Kalem) 8. Captured By Bedouins (1912) Walter C. Simon (Kalem) 9. La Chaine D'Amour (1898) Jules Bouval 10. City Lights (1931, 2004), orch. Charlie Chaplin, Timothy Brock 11. Comtesse Ursel (1913) Giuseppe Becce 12. The Confederate Ironclad (1912) Walter C. Simon (Kalem) 13. The Covered Wagon (1923) Hugo Riesenfeld 14. Dan (1914) Manuel Klein (Witmark) 15. Don Q, Son of Zorro (1926, reprint Mortimer Wilson 2002) 16. Double Trouble (1915), orch. Joseph Carl Bred 17. Drake's Love Story (1913) Victor Montefiore 18. The Drummer Girl of Vicksburg (1912) Walter C. Simon (Kalem) 19. L'Empreinte (1908) Fernand Le Borne 20. The Eyes of the World (1917) Carli Densmore Elinor 21. Fabiola (1923) Alexander Henneman 22. Fighting Dan McCool (1912) M. Komroff (Kalem) 23. The Fighting Dervishes of the Desert Walter C. Simon (Kalem) (1912) 24. Im Kientopp (1912) Otto Lindemann 25. In Mizzoura (1914) Manuel Klein (Witmark) 26. Intolerance (1916) Joseph Carl Breil 27. Jim the Penman (1921) Hugo Riesenfeld, Joseph Carl Breil, Carl Edouard, James C. Bradford 28. Jordan is a Hard Road (1915), orch. J. A. Raynes 29. The Jungle (1914) Manuel Klein (Witmark) 30. The Last Laugh (1996, 1998), orch. Dean Drummond 31. The Lily and the Rose (1915), orch. Joseph Carl Breil, J. A. Raynes 32. Manon (1926) Henry Hadley 33. Messaline (1915) Jean Messager 34. Metropolis (1925, reprint 2006), orch. Gottfried Huppertz 35. Modern Times (1936, 1963, 2000), orch. Charlie Chaplin, Timothy Brock 36. Paid in Full (1914) Manuel Klein (Witmark) 37. La Passion de Jeanne d'Arc (1985), Jo van den Booren orch. 38. Pay Day (1974, 2004), orch. Charlie Chaplin, Timothy Brock 39. Pierre of the Plains (1914) Manuel Klein (Witmark) 40. The Pilgrim (1959, restored 2002), Timothy Brock orch. 41. A Prisoner of the Harem (1912) Walter C. Simon (Kalem) Egyptian Sports (1912) Walter C. Simon (Kalem) 42. Le Retour d'Ulysse (1909) Georges Hue 43. Richard Wagner ( 1913) Giuseppe Becce 44. Sally of the Sawdust (1925) No Author 45. Samson (1914) Noble Kreider 46. Schuldig (1913) Giuseppe Becce 47. Le Secret de Myrto (1909) Gaston Berardi 48. Shoulder Arms (1959, restored 2002), Timothy Brock orch. 49. The Siege of Petersburg (1912) Walter C. Simon (Kalem) 50. The Soldier Brothers of Susanna Walter C. Simon (Kalem) (1912) 51. Soldiers of Fortune (1914) Manuel Klein (Witmark) 52. The Spanish Revolt of 1836 (1912) Walter C. Simon (Kalem) 53. A Spartan Mother (1912) Walter C. Simon (Kalem) 54. The Storm at Sea (1916) Alice Smvthe Jay 55. Tragedy of the Desert (1912) Walter C. Simon (Kalem) 56. Under a Flag of Truce (1912) Walter C. Simon (Kalem) 57. When the Clouds Roll By (1919) No Author 58. The Winged Idol (1915) orch. Joseph E. Nurnberger, Victor L. Schertzinger, Wedgewood Nowell CUE SHEETS: Note: none of the M176 cue sheets contain a date of publication. The dates listed below reflect film release dates. Title (Release Date) Compiler 1. Beau Geste (1926) James C. Bradford 2. The Brat (1919) No Author 3. Breed of Courage (1927) Eugene Conte 4. Contraband (1925) James C. Bradford 5. The Crown of Lies (1926) James C. Bradford 6. Devil-May-Care (1929) Ernst Luz 7. The Devil's Cargo (1925) James C. Bradford 8. Drums of the Desert (1927) James C. Bradford 9. Duchess of Buffalo (1926) James C. Bradford 10. Firemen, Save My Child (1927) James C. Bradford 11. Flames (1926) James C. Bradford 12. The Gay Defender (1927) James C. Bradford 13. Get Your Man (1927) James C. Bradford 14. The Great Mail Robbery (1927) James C. Bradford 15. Her Night of Romance (1924) Eugene Conte 16. His Tiger Ladv (1928) James C. Bradford 17. Hula (1927) James C. Bradford 18. In Old Kentucky (1927) Ernst Luz 19. The Jazz Age (1929) James C. Bradford 20. Just Suppose (1926) James C. Bradford 21. King Cowboy (1928) James C. Bradford 22. Ladies of Leisure (1926) James C. Bradford 23. The Latest from Paris (1928) Ernst Luz 24. Legion of the Condemned (1928) James C. Bradford 25. Little Mickey Grogan (1927) James C. Bradford 26. Lone Wolf Returns (1926) James C. Bradford 27. The Million Dollar Handicap (1925) James C. Bradford 28. Miss Bluebeard (1925) James C. Bradford 29. The Mona Lisa (1926) James C. Bradford 30. Morals for Men (1925) James C. Bradford 31. My Wife and I (1925) James C. Bradford 32. Naughty But Nice (1927) James C. Bradford 33. Nell Gwyn (1926) James C. Bradford 34. Nevada (1927) James C. Bradford 35. Now We're In the Air (1927) James C. Bradford 36. The Old Soak (1926) Eugene Conte 37. One Woman to Another (1927) James C. Bradford 38. Pagan Passions (1924) James C. Bradford 39. Paindng The Town (1927) James C. Bradford 40. Passion (1925) James C. Bradford 41. Red Hair (1928) James C. Bradford 42. Untamed (1929 Ernst Luz
APPENDIX 4: M176 Photoplay Collections
Title, Volume Number(s) Composer. Place: Publisher, Date(s) of Publication
1. Album of Photo-Play Music, vols. 1, 2 G. Martaine. New York: Academic Music Co., 1914
2. B. F. Wood Music Co. Collection, nos. 1, 2 Misc. Boston and London: B. F. Wood Music Co., 1922
3. Bosworth's Loose Leaf Film Play Music Series, bk. 1 Albert W. Ketelbey. N.P.: Bosworth & Co., 1924
4. Carl Fischer's Loose Leaf Motion Picture Collection for Piano Solo, vols. 1-3 M. L. Lake, Lester Brockton. New York: Carl Fischer, 1915-18
5. Christensen's Picture Show Collection for Piano Axel W. Christensen. Chicago: A. W. Christensen, 1913
6. Cinema Music Leslie J. Jones. London: Keith Prowse, 1935
7. A Collection of Descriptive Music for Photoplays Frank C. Dougherty. Philadelphia: Co-operative Music Co., 1922
8. Corelli-Jacobs Mood Music: For Film, Television, Radio, and General Performance, vol. 1
Robert Mersey. New York: Corelli-Jacobs Film Music, 1959
9. Cornell Folio, no. 1 Charles Sidney Cornell, Diane Carrol. Los Angeles: Hamilton Music Co., 1951
10. Dramatic and Moving Picture Music, The World; The Theatre John Bastian. Chicago: Bastian Music Supply Co., 1913-14
11. Emerson's Moving Picture Music Folio Misc. Cincinnati: Joseph Krolage Music, 1913
12. Favorite Moving Picture Music Folio, nos. 1, 2 Malvin M. Franklin. New York: Knickerbocker Music, 1914-15
13. Film Folio: Moods and Motives for the Movies George West. Boston: Boston Music Co., 1920
14. Filmelodies: Photo Play Music, vol. 3 Montague Ewing. London: Elkin & Co., 1929
15. First Pianoforte Album of Cinema Music Ernest Vousden. London: Herman Darewski Music, 1920
16. Francis & Day's Picture Music Folio for the Piano Edward Jones. New York: Francis, Day & Hunter, 1910
17. Gordon's Motion Picture Collection: For Moving Picture Pianists, pts. 1, 2 Sol P. Levy. New York: Hamilton S. Gordon, 1914
18. Harms Modern Moving Picture Music: A Collection of New Ideas for Piano or Organ William Schroeder. New York: Harms Inc., 1923
19. Haviland's Moving Picture Pianist's Album Eugene Platzman. New York: F. B. Haviland Publishing, 1911
20. Hawkes Photo-Play Series: Piano Album, nos. 1-7, 14, 18 Misc. London: Hawkes & Sons, 1922-28
21. Joseph Carl Breil's Original Collection of Dramatic Music for Motion Picture Plays
Joseph Carl Breil. London: Chappell, 1917
22. The Keith Prowse Movie Music Misc. London: Keith Prowse, 1921
23. Kino-Muzyka, no. 7 Misc. Moscow: D. S. Blok, 1920
24. Metzler's Original Cinema Music, vols. 1-6 G. H. Clutsam. London: Metzler & Co., 1914-20
25. Modern Compositions for Radio Screen Television Maurice Garden. New York: Sam Fox, 1946
26. Motion Picture Moods: For Pianists and Organists Erno Rapee. New York: G. Schirmer, 1924
27. Movie Snapshots, nos. 1, 2 Peter Yorke. London: Keith Prowse, 1934
28. Moviemusic for Piano or Organ Walter Goodell. New York: Robbins-Engel, 1927
29. Movietone Collection of Picturesque and Descriptive Compositions for Screen, Stage, Radio and Concert, vols. 1-4 Misc. New York: Movietone Music Corp., 1936
30. Movietone Edition: Characteristic Series, vol. 1 Misc. New York: Movietone Music Corp., 1936
31. Movietone Edition: Dramatic Series, vols. 1, 2 Misc. New York: Movietone Music Corp., 1936
32. Movietone Edition: Incidental Series, vols. 1-12 Misc. New York: Movietone Music Corp., 1932-37
33. Movietone Edition: Melody Series for Screen, Stage, Radio, and Concert, vols. 1-3 Misc. New York: Movietone Music Corp., 1932-37
34. Movietone Edition: Modern Dance Series, vol. 1 Misc. New York: Movietone Music Corp., 1935
35. Movietone Edition: Music of All Nations Characteristic and Atmospheric, vol. 1 Misc. New York: Movietone Music Corp., 1935
36. Movietone Edition: Samuel Kaylin Series of Melodic, Dramatic and Descriptive Compositions, vol. 1 Samuel Kaylin. New York: Movietone Music Corp., 1937
37. Movietone Edition: Types and Moods Series, vol. 1 Misc. New York: Movietone Music Corp., 1937
38. Movietone Galaxy of Musical Screen Episodes, vols. 1-8 Misc. New York: Movietone Music Corp., 1937
39. Movietone Tit-Bits, nos. 1-30; New Reel, Main Titles, nos. 1-6; Fanfares, nos. 1-5 Peter Yorke. London: Sam Fox Publishing, 1935
40. Moving Picture Piano Music: Descriptive Music to Fit the Action, Character or Scene of Moving Pictures Gregg A. Frelinger. La Fayette, IN: G. A. Frelinger, 1909
41. Musical Cinema Guide Ch. Grelinger. Paris: Edition A. de Amit, 1919
42. New Moving Picture Music Albert W. Ketelbey. London: Bosworth & Co., 1916
43. News Reel Sound Titles, nos. 1-8 Peter Yorke. London: Keith Prowse, 1934
44. Paxton's Recorded Film Music, vols. 1-21 Misc. London: W. Paxton & Co., 1952-57
45. Sam Fox Atmospheric Series, vols. 1-3 J. S. Zamecnik. Cleveland: Sam Fox Publishing, 1932-33
46. Sam Fox Collection of Characteristic Compositions for the Screen Misc. Cleveland: Sam Fox Publishing, 1932
47. Sam Fox Collection of Max Steiner Compositions, vol. 1 Max Steiner. Cleveland: Sam Fox Publishing, 1933
48. Sam Fox Incidental Music Book: For News Reels, Cartoons, Pictorial Reviews, Scenics, Travelogues, etc., bks. 1-4 Misc. Cleveland: Sam Fox Publishing, 1931-32
49. Sam Fox Loose Leaf Collection of Ring-Hager Novelties, vol. 1 Ring-Hager. Cleveland: Sam Fox Publishing, 1926
50. Sam Fox Motion Picture Themes J. S. Zamecnik. Cleveland: Sam Fox Publishing, 1921
51. Sam Fox Moving Picture Music, vols. 1-4 J. S. Zamecnik. Cleveland: Sam Fox Publishing, 1913-23
52. Sam Fox Photoplay Edition: A Loose Leaf Collection of High Class Dramatic and Descriptive Motion Picture Music, vols. 1, 2, 4 J. S. Zamecnik. Cleveland: Sam Fox Publishing, 1920-2
53. Screen Fragments, nos. 1-20 Peter Yorke. London: Keith Prowse, 1934
54. Silver Screen Series of Photo Play Music, vol. 1 Emil Bierman. New York: American Composers Inc., 1927
55. Sketches of Mood Music Suite, vols. 1-9 Vaclav Nelhybel. New York: Alpha Music, 1960
56. Songs and Themes for the Screen, Radio and Stage, vols. 1-3 Misc. New York: Movietone Music Corp., 1937
57. Songs Without Words: For the Screen, Radio and Stage, vol. 1 Misc. New York: Movietone Music Corp., 1937
58. Sound Title Overtures, nos. 1-3 Peter Yorke. London: Keith Prowse, 1934
59. The Synchronizer: Motion Picture Music for Piano Solo, suites 1-6 M. L. Lake. New York: Carl Lischer, 1924
60. Witmark Moving Picture Album for Piano or Organ New York: M. Witmark & Sons, 1913
61. Witmark Photo-Play Music for Piano or Organ Oliver Wallace. New York: M. Witmark & Sons, 1926
APPENDIX 5: M176 Studio Short Scores Note: whenever possible, I have provided the precise premiere date, correct production company, and film title (in parenthesis) as they appeared upon release. Score Title Production Company Date 1. Ace Drummond Universal Pictures 1937 2. Adventure's End Universal Pictures 12/12/37 3. Air Express Walter Lantz Productions 09/20/37 4. Alarm after Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1934 Assassination 5. The American Girl Metro-Goldwyn-Maver 1934 6. Armored Car Universal Pictures 06/20/37 7. Around the World in Me tro-Goldwyn-Mayer 05/17/47 California 8. As Good as Married Universal Pictures 05/09/37 9. At the Inn Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1933 10. At the Pyramids Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1934 11. At the Table Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1933 12. Auld Lang Syne Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1946 13. Bad Man of Brimstone Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 12/31/37 14. Ballroom & Garden Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1933 15. The Beach Comber 10/05/36 (Beachcombers) Walter Lantz Productions 16. Behind the Mike Universal Pictures 09/26/37 17. Benefits forgot Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 02/11/38 (Of Human Hearts) 18. Between Two Women Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 07/09/37 19. The Big City Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 09/03/37 20. The Big Race Walter Lantz Productions 03/03/37 21. Billy Rose Texas Revue Louis Lewyn Productions 04/26/38 (Billy Rose's Casa Manana Revue) 22. The Birthday Party Walter Lantz Productions 03/29/37 23. The Black Doll Crime Club Productions 01/30/38 24. Blue Monday Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 04/02/38 25. Bombshell Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 10/13/33 26. Booth Mystery Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1937 27. Border Wolves Universal Pictures 02/25/38 28. Breezing Home Universal Pictures 01/31/37 29. The Bride Wore Red Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 10/08/37 30. Broadway Melody Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 08/20/37 (of 1938) 31. Bums Away (Henpecked Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 10/26/46 Hoboes) 32. The Cafe Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1937 33. California Straight Universal Pictures 05/02/37 Altead! 34. The Canary Comes Across Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 01/26/38 35. Cape Breton Island Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 05/08/48 36. Captain Kidd's Treasure Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 01/22/38 37. The Captain's Pup Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 04/30/38 38. Carnival Echoes Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1933 39. Carnival Queen Universal Pictures 10/03/37 40. The Chase Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1934 41. Chinese Prelude Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1934 42. Chinese Wedding Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1932 Procession 43. Circus Troupe Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1937 44. Cleaning House Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 02/19/38 45. The Clock Ticks On Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1938 46. Conflict Universal Pictures 11/29/36 47. Conquest Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 10/22/37 48. Corn in the Pan Republic Productions 1935 49. Cottage Episode Attacca Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1933 50. Country Store Walter Lantz Productions 07/05/37 51. Courage of the West Universal Pictures 12/05/37 52. Crash Donovan Universal Pictures 07/12/36 53. Dawn of Love (from 08/04/33 Tugboat Annie) Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 54. Double Wedding Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 08/12/37 55. Dr. Carver (The Story Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 06/18/38 of Doctor Carver) 56. Dracula's Daughter Universal Pictures 05/11/36 57. The Duck Hunt Walter Lantz Productions 03/08/37 58. The Emperors Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 07/02/37 Candlesticks 59. Empty Saddles Buckjones Productions 12/20/36 60. Espionage Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 02/26/37 61. Everybody Sings Walter Lantz Productions 02/22/37 62. Everybody Sings Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 01/28/38 (Everybody Sing) 63. Farewell My Own Me tro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1934 64. Farming Fools Walter Lantz Productions 05/25/36 65. Festival Dance Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1933 66. Firefly (The Firefly) Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 11/05/37 67. Fireman's Picnic Walter Lantz Productions 08/16/37 68. The Fleet on Parade Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 05/04/34 (from Manhattan Melodrama) 69. Flight Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1934 70. The Flying Fleet March Metro-Goldwvn-Mayer 01/19/29 71. Flying Hostess Universal Pictures 11/22/36 72. Football Thrills of 1945 Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 09/07/46 (Football Thrills No. 9) 73. Forbidden Valley Universal Pictures 02/13/38 74. Forever Free (Semper Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1946 Tiber) 75. Four Days of Wonder Universal Pictures 12/03/36 (Four Days' Wonder) 76. Fowl Play Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1938 77. A Friend Indeed (Friend Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 12/28/37 Indeed) 78. The Gambling House Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1932 79. The Girl from Trieste Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 10/08/37 (The Bride Wore Red) 80. Girl of the Golden West Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 03/18/38 81. The Girl on the Front Universal Pictures 09/27/36 Page 82. Girl Overboard Universal Pictures 02/28/37 83. Girl with Ideas (A Girl Universal Pictures 11/01/37 with Ideas) 84. Glimpses of California Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 10/26/46 85. Glimpses of New Scotland Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 08/30/47 86. Glimpses of Old England Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 10/08/49 87. Glorification Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1934 88. The Golfers Walter Lantz Productions 01/11/37 89. Gypsy Revels Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1934 90. Gypsy Spirit Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1934 91. Hail Columbia Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1937 92. Historic Virginia Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 11/29/47 (Visiting Virginia) 93. House of Magic Walter Lantz Productions 02/08/37 94. How Do I Know Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1938 95. How to Appreciate Music Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1938 96. I Cover the War Universal Pictures 07/04/37 97. I Love My Husband, But! Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 12/07/46 98. Idea Girl Universal Pictures 02/08/46 99. Idol of the Crowds Universal Pictures 09/30/37 100. I'll Wait Forever Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1934 101. Irish Picnic Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1933 102. Italian Peasants Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1933 103. Italian Street Singer Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1933 104. Joaquin Murrieta Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 06/11/38 105. Judge Hardy's Children Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 02/26/38 106. Judo, Film Documentaire Les Editions du 1947 Coquelicot 107. Jungle Jim Universal Pictures 1937 108. Kiddie Show (Kiddie Walter Lantz Productions 09/21/36 Revue) 109. Knights for a Day Walter Lantz Productions 12/25/37 110. Knights of the Air Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1933 111. Lady Fights Back Universal Pictures 09/29/37 112. Lady in the Dark: Waltz Paramount Pictures 02/19/44 from 113. Lady on a Train: Last Universal Pictures 08/17/45 Chapter 114. The Last Gangster Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 11/12/37 115. Left Hand Law Buck Jones Productions 04/01/37 (Left-Handed Law) 116. Leo is on the Air Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1936 117. Looking at London Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 06/01/46 118. Lord Jeff Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 06/17/38 119. Love in a Bungalow Universal Pictures 06/27/37 120. Love Letters of a Star Universal Pictures 11/08/36 121. Love, Live & Learn Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 10/29/37 (Live, Love and Learn) 122. The Luckiest Girl in Universal Pictures 10/01/36 the World 123. Lumberjacks (Lumber Walter Lantz Productions 03/15/37 Camp) 124. Mad About Music Universal Pictures 02/27/38 125. Madame X Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 10/01/37 126. Madelon (Port of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 07/01/38 Seven Seas) 127. The Magnificent Brute Universal Pictures 10/11/36 128. Mamasita, from Fiesta Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 06/12/47 (Fiesta) 129. The Man I Marry Universal Pictures 11/01/36 130. The Man in Blue Universal Pictures 05/30/37 131. Man-Proof Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 01/07/38 132. The Man Who Cried Wolf Universal Pictures 08/29/37 133. Mannequin Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 01/21/38 134. Marie Walewska Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 10/22/37 (Conquest) 135. Menu Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 09/23/33 136. Merry Go Round of 1938 Universal Pictures 11/14/37 137. Midnight Intruder Universal Pictures 02/06/38 138. Mile a Minute March Jam Handy Picture Service 1937 139. Modeling for Money Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 04/29/38 140. The Mother Heart Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1934 141. Music Hath Charms Walter Lantz Productions 09/07/36 142. My Dear Miss Aldrich Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 09/17/37 143. My Man Godfrey Universal Pictures 09/06/36 144. Mysterious Crossing Universal Pictures 12/27/36 145. Navy Blue and Gold Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 11/19/37 146. The New China Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1932 147. News Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1937 148. Night Life of the Bugs Walter Lantz Productions 10/19/36 149. Nite Key (Night Key) Universal Pictures 05/02/37 150. Nobody's Fool Universal Pictures 05/31/36 151. Old Homestead Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1934 152. On the Level Jam Handy Picture Service 1937 153. On the Shores of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 06/28/47 Nova Scotia 154. One Hundred Men and Universal Pictures 09/05/37 a Girl 155. Optimistic Crowd Jam Handy Picture Service 1937 156. Ostrich Feathers Walter Lantz Productions 09/06/37 157. Oswald in Gopher Trouble Walter Lantz Productions 11/30/36 (Gopher Trouble) 158. Our Love Together Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1934 159. Paris Crowd Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1934 160. Parliament Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1946 161. Parnell Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 06/04/37 162 Parole (Parole!) Universal Pictures 06/14/36 163. Pastoral Metro-Goldwyn-Maver 1934 164. Pete Smith Jungle Title Metro-Goldwvn-Mayer 10/21/37 165. (Jungle Juveniles) Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1934 Piano Solo 166. The Playful Puppy (The Walter Lantz Productions 07/12/37 Playful Pup) 167. Poisoning Scene Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1934 168. Port of Seven Seas Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 07/01/38 169. Postal Inspector Universal Pictures 08/16/36 170. Prescription for Romance Universal Pictures 12/12/37 171. The Prosecutor Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1934 172. Puppet Show Walter Lantz Productions 11/02/36 173. Radio Patrol Universal Pictures 1938 174. The Rest Resort Walter Lantz Productions 08/23/37 175. Ride 'em Cowboy Universal Pictures 04/13/42 176. The Road Back Universal Pictures 06/01/37 177. Roaming Through Metro-Goldwvn-Mayer 07/09/49 Northern Ireland 178. Rosalie Metro-Go1dwyn-Mayer 12/24/37 179. Sandflow Buck Jones Productions 02/14/37 180. Saratoga Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 07/23/37 181. Ta Savate Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 03/12/38 182. Scaramouche Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1937 183. The Scarlet Horseman Universal Pictures 1946 184. Schnarzan (from Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 06/01/34 Hollywood Party) 185. Scholastic England Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 12/18/48 186. Sea Spoilers Universal Pictures 09/28/36 187. Secret Agent X9 Universal Pictures 1937 188. She's Dangerous Universal Pictures 01/24/37 189. The Singing Outlaw Universal Pictures 01/23/38 190. Snow in Your Eyes Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 05/14/38 191. (Snow Gets in Your Eyes) Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1938 So You Won't Sing 192. Some Blondes are Universal Pictures 11/28/37 Dangerous 193. Souvenirs Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1933 194. Sportscope Yachting RKO 05/07/38 (Windward Way) 195. The Spy Ring Universal Pictures 01/09/38 196. The Steel Workers Walter Lantz Productions 04/26/37 197. The Stevedores Walter Lantz Productions 03/24/37 198. Stormy Waters, Trailer Metro-Goldwvn-Mayer 06/15/46 199. Sunset Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1946 200. Sure Cures Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 11/02/46 201. Takin' The Breaks Universal Pictures 05/22/46 202. Tango Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1934 203. Test Pilot Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 04/22/38 204. That Mothers Might Live Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 04/30/38 205. That's My Story! Universal Pictures 10/24/37 206. There's a Method in Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1935 my Madness 207. This is My Wife (The Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 09/10/37 Women Men Marry) 208. Thoroughbreds Don't Cry Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 12/03/37 209. Three Comrades Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 06/03/38 210. Three Men in the Snow Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 06/04/38 (Paradise for Three) 211. Three Smart Girls Universal Pictures 12/20/36 212. Tim Tyler's Luck Universal Pictures 1937 213. Top of the Town Universal Pictures 04/18/37 214. Torch Song Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1934 215. The Toy Wife Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 06/10/38 216. The Trailer (Trailer Walter Lantz Productions 05/03/37 Thrills) 217. Treve (The Mighty Treve) Universal Pictures 01/17/37 218. Trophy Room Episode Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1933 219. Trouble at Midnight Universal Pictures 10/17/37 220. Trumpet Calls Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1934 221. Turkey Dinner Walter Lantz Productions 11/30/36 222. Two in a Crowd Universal Pictures 09/13/36 223. The Umbrella (London Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 07/30/37 by Night) 224. The Uninvited Paramount Pictures 02/10/44 225. The Unpopular Mechanic Walter Lantz Productions 11/06/36 226. Valse a Diner Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1934 227. Valse Ariette Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1934 228. Valse Cecile Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1934 229. Valse Tzigane Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1934 230. Visinng Virginia Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 11/29/47 231. Voo Doo Dance Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1934 232. Wandering Through Wales Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 10/16/48 233. We Have Our Moments Universal Pictures 03/29/37 234. The Westland Case Crime Club Productions 10/31/37 235. What Do You Think?: Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 06/11/38 Tupapaoo 236. When Love is Young Universal Pictures 03/28/37 237. The White Horse Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1933 238. Wild West Days Universal Pictures 1937 239. The Wildcatter Universal Pictures 06/06/37 240. The Wily Weasel Walter Lantz Productions 06/07/37 241. Wings over Honolulu Universal Pictures 05/16/37 242. The Woods Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 1937 243. A Yank at Oxford Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 02/18/38 244. Yellow Jack Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 05/27/38 245. Yellowstone Universal Pictures 08/30/36 246. You Can't Have Twentieth Century-Fox 08/03/37 Everything 247. You'll Be Married by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 06/18/37 Noon (Married Before Breakfast) 248. You're a Sweetheart Universal Pictures 12/26/37 249. You're Only Young Once Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer 12/10/37 250. You're the Only One Paramount Pictures 04/17/36 (from Till We Meet Again)
Peter Graff is a Ph.D. candidate in musicology at Case Western Reserve University. This article is a revision of a presentation given at the Audio-Visual Archives conference in London, 18-19 July 2015; attendance at this event was made possible in part by the Film Music Foundation's Albert and Jeanne Woodbury Fund. The author also wishes to thank Daniel Goldmark, Warren Sherk, Katherine Spring, and Stephen Toombs for detailed comments on earlier versions of this project.
(1.) Turnover rate refers to the frequency at which a theater changes its film offerings. With more options on the market as a result of increased film production in the mid-1910s, theaters increased their turnover rates to entice theatergoers, and to remain competitive with neighboring venues. Some theaters featured a new film weekly or biweekly, while others changed titles as often as every' day. In upscale palace-type theaters of the 1920s, the latest blockbuster releases would often run indefinitely until the public lost interest and sales figures began to slump.
(2.) Gillian B. Anderson, Music for Silent Films 1894-1929: A Guide (Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 1988).
(3.) For information on the scoring practices in melodramatic theater, see Michael V. Pisani, Music for the Melodramatic Theatre in Nineteenth-Century London & New York, Studies in Theatre History and Culture (Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2014).
(4.) Kurt London, Film Music (London: Faber & Faber, 1936; reprint, New York: Arno Press, 1970); Charles Hofmann, Sounds for Silents, with foreword by Lillian Gish, and accompanying 10" LP sound-sheet (New York: DBS Publications, 1970).
(5.) For more on the history of silent-film accompaniment, see Rick Altman, Silent Film Sound, Film and Culture (New York: Columbia University Press, 2004).
(6.) On the development of motion-picture studio music libraries, see Katherine Spring, Saying It with Songs: Popular Music and the Coming of Sound to Hollywood Cinema, The Oxford Music/Media Series (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013).
(7.) Ascher's Incidental Themes for Organ: Ideal Background Music for Radio Sketches, compiled & arr. by Edward Hoffman (New York: Emil Ascher, Inc., 1938); Edward Truman, Broadcast Mood Music (Hollywood, CA: Van Brunt Publ. Co., 1943).
(8.) Paul Mandell, "Production Music in Television's Golden Age: An Overview," in Performing Arts: Broadcasting, ed. Iris Newsom, 148-69 (Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 2002).
(9.) For more information on the construction of the Music Division at the Library of Congress, see Gillian B. Anderson, "Putting the Experience of the World at the Nation's Command: Music at the Library of Congress, 1800-1917," Journal of the American Musicological Society 42, no. 1 (Spring 1989): 108-49; and Gillian B. Anderson, " 'Perfuming the Air with Music': The Need for Film Music Bibliography," in Foundations in Music Bibliography, ed. Richard D. Green, 59-103 (New York: Haworth Press, 1993), papers presented at a conference held October 1986 at Northwestern University, published simultaneously as Music Reference Services Quarterly 2 (1993).
(10.) British publishers make up 18 percent of M1357 and only 4 percent of M176, while French publishers contribute 20.8 percent of M1357 and 2.6 percent of M176.
(11.) There are 115 unique score titles between M176 and M1357, not including the eight published after 1930. Thirty-five were published between 1898 and 1914, seventy-four between 1915 and 1929, and six have no date of publication.
(12.) One may be curious as to how I arrived at 168 scores, especially since Gillian Anderson's Music for Silent Films lists close to 250. For these statistics I did not consider duplicate titles, nor did I consider items created after 1930. Of the items on permanent loan from the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), Anderson states (p. ix), "The scores by [Mortimer] Browning, [Theodore] Huff, [Arthur] Kleiner, and [Jay] Leyda were composed or compiled well after the silent-film era ended, as were a number of the MoMA scores." I include only scores with a definite date of publication or a copyright before 1930.
(13.) Martin Miller Marks, Music and the Silent Film: Contexts and Case Studies, 1895-1924 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 84, 262 n. 68.
(14.) Herbert Reynolds, "Aural Gratification with Kalem Films: A Case History of Music, Lectures and Sound Effects, 1907-1917," Film History 12, no. 4 (2000): 432.
(15.) Altman, Silent Film Sound, 254-55.
(16.) For more on photoplay music, see Rodney Sauer, "Photoplay Music: A Reusable Repertory for Silent Film Scoring, 1914-1929," American Music Research Center Journal 8 (January 1998): 55-76.
(17.) Altman, Silent Film Sound, 257.
(18.) "Chronological Index of Film Titles," in The American Film Institute Catalog of Motion Pictures Produced in the United States: Feature Films, 1911-1920, ed. Patricia King Hanson and Alan Gevinson (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), 3-17.
(19.) Marks, Music and the Silent Film, 88.
(20.) Altman, Silent Film Sound, 258.
(21.) Donald Crafton, The Talkies: American Cinema's Transition to Sound, 1926-1931, History of the American Cinema, 4 (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1997), 4.
(22.) "Varied Features on Brooklyn Strand Music Programme This Week," The Brooklyn Standard Union, 22 June 1924.
(23.) This data is undoubtedly skewed and biased, as most radio owners in 1923 were wealthy, middle-aged, and white. See "Sing Them Again" [advertisement], Motion Picture Nexos, 5 April 1924, p. 1491.
(24.) Other programs include (1) Long Ago, featuring "Annie Laurie," "Old Cabin Home," and "Love's Old Sweet Song;" (2) Old Friends, featuring "She Was Bred in Old Kentucky," "Two Little Girls in Blue," and "Star Spangled Banner"; and (3) Home Again, featuring "Old Black Joe," "Little Annie Rooney," and "Home, Sweet Home." See ibid.
(25.) For more information on sing-alongs in motion picture theaters, see Esther Morgan-Ellis, "Organist-Led Community Singing in the American Picture Palace, 1925-1933" (Ph.D. diss., Yale University, 2013).
(26.) "Charlie Chaplin Shines as Musician and Composer," Music Trade Review, 18 July 1925, p. 45.
(27.) From the total seventy-one silent-film scores in M1357, eight are duplicates, leaving sixty-three unique titles.
(28.) In the early 2000s, Roy Export Co. published orchestral scores to these five Chaplin films, all of which credit Timothy Brock with the restoration of Chaplin's original compositions. While not full film scores, M176 contains five additional song excerpts from Chaplin films that Koos Mark arranged and orchestrated for a jazz ensemble in 1997. These include "Overture: Gold Rush, and Boiled Boot, and Dance of the Rolls" from The Gold Rush, "Fox-Trot" from The Idle Class, "Bound for Texas" from The Pilgrim, "Song Triste" from The Kid, and "Dancing on Board" from A Day's Pleasure.
(29.) Altman, Silent Film Sound, 346.
(30.) The seven photoplay series titles that overlap between M176 and M1357 are: (1) Bosworth's Loose Leaf Film Play Music, (2) Carl Fischer's Loose Leaf Motion Picture Collection, (3) Filmelodies: Photo Play Music, (4) Hawkes Photo-Play Series, (5) Sam Fox Photoplay Edition, (6) Silver Screen Series of Photo Play Music, and (7) The Synchronizer.
(31.) The other Fox music subsidiary was Sam Fox, who joined the Fox Films family in 1931 and remained with the studio until August 1937, at which time Fox transferred its publishing alliance from Sam Fox to Robbins Music. Movietone's role, according to a Film Daily report, was to "publish, distribute, and exploit" music for early Fox Movietone sound pictures. See "Songs to be Offered in Five Fox Features," The Film Daily, 14 December 1932, p. 2; and "20th Century-Fox, Loew's Deny Music Suit Charges," Motion Picture Herald, 23 April 1938, p. 51. I am personally grateful for Katherine Spring's insights on the Movietone Music Corporation and its tie-up with Twentieth Century-Fox.
(32.) McCarty includes three more names at Fox that contributed a fair number of titles: Arthur Kay (14 items), George Lipschulz (22), and Charles Maxwell (26). Clifford McCarty, Film Composers in America: A Filmography, 1911-1970, 2d ed. (Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2000), 13.
(33.) Based on the items found at the Librar)' of Congress, the S. S. Library series appears to contain at least 104 compositions.
(34.) "Score for 'LT Reel," Motion Picture Daily, 30 April 1936, p. 4.
(35.) Charles Alicoate, "Short Shots from Eastern Studios," The Film Daily, 13 May 1936, p. 15.
(36.) While "Loew's Inc." appears stamped on many of the MGM scores--as it was the parent company of MGM--it was not the primary production company for any of the films in this class series.
(37.) Of the 250 items, I have successfully identified 186 with the aid of the American Film Institute catalog and the International Movie Database. For these productions, I have appended titles, production companies, and premiere dates in appendix 5.
(38.) "About APM Music and Vision," A PM Music, http://www.apmmusic.com/about-apm-music-and-vision (accessed 18 May 2016).
Table 1. M176 places of publication COUNTRY TOTAL United States 1,313 New York City (1,268) Cleveland (17) Chicago (6) Los Angeles (6) Toledo, OH (4) Boston (3) El Paso, TX (2) "U.S.A." (2) Cincinnati (1) Culver City, CA (1) Lafayette, IN (1) Philadelphia (1) Upper Nyack, NY (1) England (London) 79 France (Paris) 49 Germany 10 Berlin (8) Frankfurt (1) Mainz (1) Czechoslovakia (Prague) 3 Austria (Vienna) 1 Denmark (Copenhagen) 1 Netherlands (Amsterdam) 1 Poland (Warsaw) 1 Russia (Moscow) 1 Serbia (Belgrade) 1 "International" 1 No Place of Publication 391 Table 2. M1357 places of publication COUNTRY TOTAL United States 593 New York City (484) Boston (72) Cleveland (22) Chicago (15) England (London) 251 France 283 Paris (250) Marseille (22) Cannes (11) Germany 174 Berlin (62) Magdeburg (56) Mainz (40) Leipzig (15) "Germany" (1) Italy 38 Milan (21) San Remo (17) Denmark (Copenhagen) 4 Sweden (Stockholm) 4 Belgium (Brussels) 1 Monaco (Monte Carlo) 1 No Place of Publication 8
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|Date:||Aug 19, 2016|
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