Rates and predictors of counseling center use among college students of color.
College student mental illness represents a significant public health issue in the United States. Almost half of college-age individuals have a psychiatric disorder, and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders is equally high among young adults who attend college and those who do not (Blanco et al., 2008). According to Hunt and Eisenberg (2010), the number of college students with mental illness is increasing. Eating disorders (Kurth, Krahn, Nairn, & Drewnowski, 1995), self-injurious behavior (Serras, Saules, Cranford, & Eisenberg, 2010), anxiety-related problems (Eisenberg, Gollust, Golberstein, & Hefner, 2007), and alcohol abuse (Cranford, Eisenberg, & Serras, 2009) are common among college students. In fact, evidence has suggested that alcohol use disorders are more prevalent among college students than among adults of similar ages who are not enrolled in college, although college students are less likely than their peers who do not attend college to receive treatment for alcohol use disorders (Blanco et al., 2008). Furthermore, each year 10% of college students seriously consider suicide; 1.5% attempt suicide; and 1,100 commit suicide, making it the second leading cause of death among college students (American College Health Association, 2008; Suicide Prevention Resource Center, 2004). Depression also is prevalent on college campuses. Approximately 10% of college students are diagnosed with or treated for depression on an annual basis, and more than 30% of students report feeling too depressed to function at least once during the past year (American College Health Association, 2008).
Because of the psychological distress they experience, approximately 1.8 million college students seek help from university counseling centers each year (American College Health Association, 2008). Research has indicated that the services provided by college counseling centers are effective at relieving students' psychological distress, facilitating academic functioning, and aiding campus retention efforts (Minami et al., 2009; Vonk & Thyer, 1999; Wilson, Mason, & Ewing, 1997). However, there is some evidence suggesting that utilization of university counseling center services is inconsistent across student racial/ethnic groups. For example, one study found that African American and Latino(a)/ Hispanic students tended to underutilize university counseling center services (Davidson, Yakushka, & Sanford-Martens, 2004). It should be noted, however, that data from this study were gathered only from a single university. Nonetheless, it is important to determine whether barriers exist for ethnic and racial minority students regarding the utilization of college counseling centers. One reason that university counseling center service utilization may be inconsistent across racial and ethnic groups is that some minority students prefer to seek treatment from racial/ethnic minority providers, who often are in short supply (Barksdale & Molock, 2009; Thompson, Bazile, & Akbar, 2004; Townes, Chavez-Korell, & Cunningham, 2009). Racial/ethnic minority students may be hesitant to seek treatment from European American providers because of factors such as cultural mistrust, peer norms related to self-reliance, family norms pertaining to privacy, "double stigma" related to racism and mental illness, and doubts about the availability of culturally sensitive services (Barksdale & Molock, 2009; Braithwaite, Taylor, & Treadwell, 2009; Whaley, 2001). When racial/ ethnic minority patients do seek services from European American treatment providers, some researchers have suggested that those patients are at increased risk for premature termination (Kearney, Draper, & Baron, 2005; Terrell & Terrell, 1984; Wade & Bernstein, 1991), although this finding has not been replicated uniformly (Maramba & Hall, 2002; Shin et al., 2005). Research to date on university counseling center service utilization among racial/ethnic minority students has been hampered by several factors. First, most studies on service utilization measure students' intentions to seek counseling or attitudes toward seeking counseling rather than actual help-seeking behavior (e.g., Duncan, 2003; Gim, Atkinson, & Whiteley, 1990; Gloria, Hird, & Navarro, 2001; Sheu & Sedlacek, 2004; Solberg, Ritsma, Davis, Tara, & Jolly, 1994; Tara & Leong, 1994). To clearly establish service utilization patterns among racial/ethnic minority students, researchers need to examine actual, rather than intended, behavior. Second, current knowledge regarding the extent to which university counseling centers meet the psychological needs of racial/ethnic minority students, both in terms of service utilization and actual treatment effectiveness, is built on studies that tend to have small, local samples whose findings are difficult to generalize. One solution to this problem is to utilize a large, nationally representative research network among university counseling centers to conduct research on service utilization patterns. The Center for Collegiate Mental Health (CCMH) provides just such a network.
As discussed earlier, previous research has suggested that racial/ethnic minority students may underutilize university counseling center services because they mistrust European American treatment providers and because they have concerns about the availability of culturally sensitive services. Some studies have indicated that when racial/ethnic minority students do seek help at university counseling centers, they may prefer to seek services from racially or ethnically similar treatment providers. The availability of racial/ethnic minority treatment providers may, therefore, predict the utilization of counseling center services by racial/ethnic minority students. This possibility was examined in the studies described in this article. Also, by comparing institutional enrollment data for racial/ethnic minority students with data on service utilization by racial/ethnic minority students, we sought to determine whether students of various races and ethnicities tend to underutilize counseling center services.
Data from the CCMH pilot study conducted during the fall 2008 semester (see Hayes, Locke, & Castonguay, 2011; this issue) were used to examine university counseling center utilization rates for students of various racial/ ethnic groups. These groups were Whites/Caucasians, Blacks/African Americans, Asian Americans, Latino(a)s/Hispanics, and American Indians. Institutional enrollment data pertaining to student race/ethnicity were obtained from publicly available university websites. Chi-square tests of independence were conducted to assess whether there were differences between overall student body representation of ethnic groups and representation in counseling centers. Institution-level data and counseling-center-level data were used to conduct these analyses. Pairwise deletion was performed because missing data were sparse in the data set. Individual multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine whether ethnic composition of counseling center staff (i.e., the percentage of counselors of various ethnicities at each institution) predicted service utilization of students of specific ethnic groups, by themselves as well as relative to the general student body.
Data from the CCMH--Student Affairs Administrators in Higher Education (NASPA) survey of the general student bodies at 45 institutions (see Hayes, Locke, & Castonguay, 2011) were used to conduct exploratory analyses on possible variables that could differentiate help seekers from non-help seekers among students of various ethnic minority groups. These analyses consisted of pairwise chi-square tests of independence and t tests. Pairwise deletion was performed because missing data were sparse in the data set. To prevent alpha inflation, we applied a Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, so all effects are reported at a .003 level of significance.
The ethnic groups included in these analyses were Asian/Pacific Islander, Black/African American, Latino(a)/Hispanic, Middle Eastern, indigenous/ Native American, and multiracial. Help seekers were defined as students who reported currently receiving counseling or other therapeutic services on campus.
Service Utilization for Students of Various Ethnicities
The utilization rates of Whites/Caucasians, Blacks/African Americans, Asian Americans, Latino(a)s/Hispanics, American Indians, and others in counseling centers did not differ by institutional enrollment, [chi square] (5, N= 65) = 1.11, p = .95. In other words, the students of various ethnicities neither overutilized nor underutilized counseling center services. (See Figure 1 for a depiction of ethnic representation in the general student body of these institutions and in counseling centers.)
Predictors of Service Utilization
Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that the ethnicity of counseling center staff significantly predicted utilization rates of counseling center services for each group of ethnic students investigated (see Table 1). Specifically, the utilization of counseling services by White/Caucasian students was predicted by the percentage of White/Caucasian therapists on the counseling center staff. Similarly, the utilization rates of Black/African American, Asian American, and Latino(a)/Hispanic students were predicted by the percentage of staff of these particular ethnicities in the counseling centers. However, a second series of multiple regression analyses, in which service utilization was examined for clients of each ethnic group, showed that overall ethnic composition of the general student body was a much stronger predictor of service utilization than was the ethnic composition of counseling center staff, such that the latter was not a significant predictor when considered in conjunction with the former.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
In addition to the ethnic composition of counseling center staff, we investigated other factors that might predict service utilization among racial/ethnic minority students. As reflected in Table 2, racial/ethnic minority students who sought help from their university counseling centers had significantly higher scores than did racial/ethnic minority non-help seekers on the Depression, Eating Concerns, Generalized Anxiety, Hostility, Social Anxiety, Family Distress, and Academic Distress subscales of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms (CCAPS). However, the group members' scores did not differ significantly on the Substance Use subscale. As shown in Table 3, help seekers significantly differed from non-help seekers on several other aspects of mental health that were investigated, as measured by the Standardized Data Set (SDS). Of particular note, among students of color, help seekers were more than 3 times as likely than were non-help seekers to have been hospitalized for mental health concerns; more than one third of the help seekers engaged in nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior, which was more
than twice the rate of non-help seekers; 36% of the help seekers had seriously contemplated suicide, as compared with 17% of students who did not seek help; and one sixth had actually attempted suicide, whereas approximately 6% of students who did not seek help had previously attempted suicide. Help seekers also perceived that they received less family support than did students who did not seek help from the university counseling center. However, the two groups did not differ significantly on other issues pertaining to peer support, campus involvement, and other variables (see Table 3).
College students experience considerable distress along a variety of dimensions, and a great many turn to their campus counseling centers for help. Although the services that counseling centers provide are effective at alleviating distress and improving functioning, to date, researchers have not been able to provide sufficient evidence about the extent to which counseling services are utilized by students of color. Thus, one goal of the present study was to examine counseling center utilization patterns among students of various ethnicities, particularly to determine whether services are underutilized by ethnic minority students. A second goal was to identify specific predictors of service utilization among students of color, most notably the ethnic composition of counseling center staff and students' current and previous mental health, social support, and campus involvement.
Implications for Practice
Findings from the study revealed good news in three areas. First, contrary to popular perception and previous research (Davidson et al., 2004), utilization of campus counseling services for African American, Asian American, European American, Latino(a)/Hispanic, and American Indian students was consistent with overall enrollments across 66 colleges. Despite sound theoretical reasons that students of color might hesitate to seek university counseling services (Barksdale & Molock, 2009; Braithwaite et al., 2009; Whaley, 2001), data from the present study indicated that counseling services were not significantly underutilized by racial/ethnic minority students. One reason for the discrepancy between findings from the present study and previous research is that this study was comprehensive, gathering data from more than five dozen institutions rather than relying on data from a single counseling center. Whereas counseling services may be underutilized by students of a particular ethnic group at any one school, on the basis of the current study, the general perception that campus counseling services are underutilized by students of color appears to be unfounded.
Second, not only was counseling service utilization for students of various ethnicities consistent with the ethnic composition of the general student body, it also was predicted by the ethnic composition of the professional staff at counseling centers. That is, the higher the percentage of African American therapists at a university counseling center, the greater the percentage of African American students who sought services. Similarly, higher percentages of Latino(a)/Hispanic therapists were associated with greater numbers of Latino(a)/Hispanic clients. Likewise, direct relationships were detected between help seeking among Asian American therapists and Asian American clients and between European American therapists and European American clients. Thus, on the surface, it appears that counseling centers arc responding to the service demands of the students they are intended to help. Larger numbers of clients of a particular ethnicity at a university counseling center tend to have more ethnically similar therapists with whom they might work. At the same time, it must be kept in mind that students of color generally experience greater distress related to depression, hostility, family concerns, social anxiety, and academic issues than European American students do (sec Hayes, Chun-Kennedy, Edens, & Locke, 2011; this issue). Therefore, it could be argued that, whereas students of color are utilizing counseling services at rates consistent with overall campus enrollments, they are underutilizing services relative to their psychological needs. Although causality cannot be inferred from the quasi-experimental data in this study, the data do suggest the possibility that if one increases the number of therapists of color on a counseling center staff, then more ethnically similar students will utilize counseling services.
A third piece of encouraging news from this study is that a number of variables were identified that predict service utilization among students of color. With the exception of Substance Use, all of the CCAPS subscales differentiated help seekers from non-help seekers. In other words, as shown in Table 2, students of color were more likely to seek help from the university counseling center when they had greater distress related to anxiety, depression, academic problems, hostility, social anxiety, family concerns, and eating concerns. In general, scores for students of color who sought help at university counseling centers were about half a standard deviation greater than for students of color who did not seek help at the university counseling center. In addition, students of color whose mental health histories were more severe also were more likely to seek help. Specifically, among students of color, those who had been hospitalized for psychological problems, had contemplated suicide, or had engaged in suicidal or other self-injurious behavior were more likely to seek help from their university counseling center. Perceived lack of support from family members also was associated with help-seeking behavior, although support from peers was not related to help seeking, nor were other variables related to support or campus involvement.
One way to understand this study's findings is through Andersen's (1995) theoretical model for predicting health service utilization. According to Andersen's model, help-seeking behavior for health problems is a function of three factors: predisposing characteristics, enabling variables, and need. Predisposing variables include one's cultural characteristics such as ethnicity, race, age, and gender. Enabling factors include the availability of services that are perceived to be helpful. Need pertains to health-related distress. Although utilization of university counseling center services does not seem to be a function of student ethnicity (a predisposing factor), the availability of an ethnically similar treatment provider (enabling factor) and students' psychological distress (need) do predict help-seeking behavior. Finer grained analyses may be required in future research to examine student ethnicity in conjunction with other predisposing factors, such as religiosity, gender, or socioeconomic status, to further test the applicability of Andersen's model to help-seeking behavior in relation to campus counseling services.
Limitations and Directions for Future Research
Another set of important questions that remain unanswered in convincing fashion pertains to the treatment benefits that students of color derive from services at university counseling centers. For instance, are dropout rates higher for students of color and are they ameliorated by seeing ethnically similar counselors? For students of color with particularly high levels of distress, both generally and in specific areas, is counseling effective, and if so, how much time in treatment is needed to decrease symptoms? Dose-response and treatment effectiveness studies may help counseling center directors plan proactively for the treatment needs of clients seen at their centers and provide an empirical basis to supplement their arguments about staffing needs.
One of the limitations to this study is that, although data were drawn from a large number and variety of institutions, most schools were predominantly White and few historically Black colleges and universities or urban colleges were included. Also, whereas the CCAPS and SDS are sound instruments that were developed specifically for college students, they do not capture every type of psychological problem with which college students may be dealing. Therefore, there are likely factors in addition to the ones identified in this study that predict service utilization patterns among students of color. Limitations notwithstanding, findings from this research suggest that ethnic minority students do not underutilize campus counseling services and that utilization of counseling center services for students of color is predicted by the ethnic composition of counseling center staff. Furthermore, among students of color, utilization of campus counseling services is predicted by greater psychological distress, less family support, and a history of previous psychological problems.
American College Health Association. (2008). American College Health Association--National College Health Assessment spring 2007 reference group data report. Journal of American College Health, 56, 469-479.
Andersen, R. M. (1995). Revisiting the behavioral health model and access to medical care: Does it matter? Journal of Health and Social Behavior; 36, 1-10.
Barksdale, C. L., & Molock, S. D. (2009). Perceived norms and mental health help seeking among African American college students. Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Research, 36, 285-299.
Blanco, C., Okuda, M., Wright, C., Hasin, D. S., Grant, B. F., Liu, S., & Olfson, M. (2008). Mental health of college students and their non-college-attending peers: Results from the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65, 1429-1437.
Braithwaite, R. L., Taylor, S. E., & Treadwell, H. M. (Eds.). (2009). Health issues in the Black community. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Cranford, J. A., Eisenberg, D., & Serras, A. M. (2009). Substance use behaviors, mental health problems, and use of mental health services in a probability sample of college students. Addictive Behaviors, 34, 134-145.
Davidson, M. M., Yakushka, O. F., & Sanford-Martens, T. C. (2004). Racial and ethnic minority clients' utilization of a university counseling center: An archival study. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 32, 259-271.
Duncan, L. E. (2003). Black male college students' attitudes toward seeking psychological help. Journal of Black Psychology, 29, 68-86.
Eisenberg, D., Gollust, S. E., Golberstein, E., & Hefuer, J. L. (2007). Prevalence and correlates of depression, anxiety and suicidality in a university student population. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 77, 534-542.
Gim, R. H., Atldnson, D. R., & Whiteley, S. (1990). Asian-American acculturation, severity of concerns, and willingness to see a counselor. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 37, 281-285.
Gloria, A. M., Hird, J. S., & Navarro, R. L. (2001). Relationships of cultural congruity and perceptions of the university environment to help-seeking attitudes by sociorace and gender. Journal of College Student Development, 42, 545-562.
Hayes, J. A., Chun-Kennedy, C., Edens, A., & Locke, B. D. (2011). Do double minority students face double jeopardy? Testing minority stress theory. Journal of College Counseling, 14, 117-126.
Hayes, J. A., Locke, B. D., & Castonguay, L. G. (2011). The Center for Collegiate Mental Health: Practice and research working together. Journal of College Counseling, 14, 101-104.
Hunt, J., & Eisenberg, D. (2010). Mental health problems and help-seeking behavior among college students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 46, 3-10.
Kearney, L. K., Draper, M., & Baron, A. (2005). Counseling utilization by ethnic minority college students. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 11, 272-285.
Kurth, C. L., Krahn, D. D., Nairn, K., & Drewnowski, A. (1995). The severity of dieting and bingeing behaviors in college women: Interview validation of survey data. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 29, 211-225.
Maramba, G. G., & Hall, G. C. N. (2002). Meta-analysis of ethnic match as a predictor of dropout, utilization, and level of functioning. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 8, 290-297.
Minami, T., Davies, D. R., Tierney, S. C., Bettman, J. E., McAward, S. M., Averill, L. A., ... Wampold, B. E. (2009). Preliminary evidence on the effectiveness of psychological treatments delivered at a university counseling center. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 56, 309-320.
Serras, A., Saules, K. K., Cranford, J. A., & Eisenberg, D. (2010). Self-injury, substance use, and associated risk factors in a multi-campus probability sample of college students. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 24, 119-128.
Shen, H.-B., & Sedlacek, W. E. (2004). An exploratory study of help-seeking attitudes and coping strategies among college students by race and gender. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 37, 130-143.
Shin, S., Chow, C., Camacho-Gonsalves, T., Levy, R., Allen, I. E., & Leff, H. S. (2005). A meta-analytic review of racial-ethnic matching for African American and Caucasian American clients and clinicians. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52, 45-56.
Solberg, V. S., Ritsma, S., Davis, B. J., Tata, S. P., & Jolly, A. (1994). Asian-American students' severity of problems and willingness to seek help from university counseling centers: Role of previous counseling experience, gender, and ethnicity. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 41, 275-279.
Suicide Prevention Resource Center. (2004). Promoting mental health and preventing suicide in college and university settings. Newton, MA: Education Development Center.
Tata, S. P., & Leong, F. T. L. (1994). Individualism-collectivism, social-network orientation, and acculturation as predictors toward seeking professional psychological help among Chinese Americans. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 41, 280-287.
Terrell, F., & Terrell, S. (1984). Race of counselor, client sex, cultural mistrust level, and premature termination from cotmseling among Black students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 31, 371-375.
Thompson, V. L. S., Bazile, A., & Akbar, M. (2004). African Americans' perceptions of psychotherapy and psychotherapists. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 35, 19-26.
Townes, D. L., Chavez-Korell, S., & Cunningham, N. J. (2009). Reexamining the relationships between racial identity, cultural mistrust, help-seeking attitudes, and preference for a Black counselor. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 56, 330-336.
Vonk, M. E., & Thyer, B. A. (1999). Evaluating the effectiveness of short-term treatment at a university counseling center. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 55, 1095-1106.
Wade, P., & Bernstein, B. L. (1991). Culture sensitivity training and counselor's race: Effects on Black clients' perceptions and attrition. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38, 9-15.
Whaley, A. L. (2001). Cultural mistrust and mental health services for African Americans: A review and meta-analysis. The Counseling Psychologist, 29, 513-531.
Wilson, S. B., Mason, T. W., & Ewing, M. J. M. (1997). Evaluating the impact of receiving university-based counseling services on student retention. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 44, 316-320.
Jeffrey A. Hayes, Counseling Psychology Program; Soo Jeong Youn, Louis G. Castonguay, Andrew A. McAleavey, and Sam Nordberg, Department of Psychology; and Benjamin D. Locke, Center for Counseling and Psychological Services, Pennsylvania State University. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Jeffrey A. Hayes, Counseling Psychology Program, Pennsylvania State University, 307 CEDAR Building, University Park, PA 16802 (e-mail: email@example.com).
TABLE 1 Hierarchical Multiple Regression Analyses for Counseling Center Staff Ethnicity Predicting Service Use by Students of the Same Ethnicity Variable B SE B [beta] [R.sup.2] p White/Caucasian .56 .11 .56 .32 <.001 Black/African American .62 .11 .58 .34 <.001 Asian American .44 .06 .70 .48 <.001 Latino(a)/Hispanic .50 .08 .64 .41 <.001 TABLE 2 Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms (CCAPS) Scores Among Racial/Ethnic Minority Students Who Did and Did Not Seek Help From University Counseling Centers Non-Help Help Seekers Seekers CCAPS Subscale M SD M SD F p Depression 1.41 0.91 0.85 0.76 515.79 <.001 Eating Concerns 1.22 0.93 1.01 0.82 62.20 <.001 Substance Use 0.71 0.85 0.70 0.84 0.15 .702 Generalized Anxiety 1.53 0.90 1.03 0.76 403.74 <.001 Hostility 1.01 0.84 0.68 0.70 212.13 <.001 Social Anxiety 1.89 0.89 1.53 0.85 164.58 <.001 Family Distress 1.22 0.95 0.80 0.78 269.81 <.001 Academic Distress 1.65 0.97 1.24 0.85 210.84 <.001 TABLE 3 Comparison on Select Standardized Data Set Items Between Students of Color Who Did and Did Not Seek Help From Campus Counseling Centers Non-Help Seekers Variable % M SD Mental Health Ever attended counseling for 23.2 mental health concerns Ever been hospitalized for 3.2 mental health concerns Ever purposely injured self without suicidal intent (e.g., 14.3 cutting, hitting, burning, hair pulling) Ever seriously considered 17.0 attempting suicide Ever made a suicide attempt 5.9 Receiving emotional help and support needed from families Support 3.96 1.19 Receiving emotional help and support needed from social 3.95 1.1 network (e.g., friends and acquaintances) Importance of religious or spiritual preferences in the 2.70 1.13 student's life Stressors Student's current level of 3.29 1.14 financial stress Level of financial stress 2.72 1.26 experienced while growing up Campus Involvement Member of at least one student 60.9 club or organization during the current semester/quarter Involved in at least one 28.1 intramural group, club sport, or organized fitness activity on campus during the current semester/quarter Member of an intercollegiate 5.5 athletic team Other International student status 11.3 First in family to attend 22.8 college Hours typically spent a week 4.29 2.16 studying Hours during academic year 3.48 2.79 Help Seekers Variable % M SD n Ever attended counseling for 72.9 4,027 mental health concerns Ever been hospitalized for 11.4 3,991 mental health concerns Ever purposely injured self without suicidal intent (e.g., 36.7 4,005 cutting, hitting, burning, hair pulling) Ever seriously considered 36.2 4,018 attempting suicide Ever made a suicide attempt 16.0 4,013 Receiving emotional help and support needed from families 3.64 1.34 4,016 Receiving emotional help and support needed from social 3.90 1.08 4,010 network (e.g., friends and acquaintances) Importance of religious or spiritual preferences in the 2.76 1.08 3,992 student's life Student's current level of 3.54 1.18 4,013 financial stress Level of financial stress 2.92 1.32 4,009 experienced while growing up Member of at least one student 62.7 4,019 club or organization during the current semester/quarter Involved in at least one 25.8 4,014 intramural group, club sport, or organized fitness activity on campus during the current semester/quarter Member of an intercollegiate 5.4 4,010 athletic team International student status 10.7 4,009 First in family to attend 29.0 4,012 college Hours typically spent a week 4.11 2.16 4,022 studying Hours during academic year 3.33 2.33 3,962 Test Variable [chi square] t df p Ever attended counseling for 273.25 1 <.001 mental health concerns Ever been hospitalized for 39.74 1 <.001 mental health concerns Ever purposely injured self without suicidal intent (e.g., 79.25 1 <.001 cutting, hitting, burning, hair pulling) Ever seriously considered 52.65 1 <.001 attempting suicide Ever made a suicide attempt 35.67 1 <.001 Receiving emotional help and support needed from families 3.94 4,014 <.001 Receiving emotional help and support needed from social 0.63 4,008 0.530 network (e.g., friends and acquaintances) Importance of religious or spiritual preferences in the -0.73 3,990 0.463 student's life Student's current level of -3.17 4,011 0.002 financial stress Level of financial stress -2.29 4,007 0.022 experienced while growing up Member of at least one student 0.28 1 0.600 club or organization during the current semester/quarter Involved in at least one 0.53 1 0.467 intramural group, club sport, or organized fitness activity on campus during the current semester/quarter Member of an intercollegiate 0.01 1 0.930 athletic team International student status 0.08 1 0.776 First in family to attend 4.63 1 0.032 college Hours typically spent a week 1.18 4,020 0.240 studying Hours during academic year 0.80 3,960 0.423 spent working for pay Note. A Bonferroni correction was applied, so effects are considered significant at a .003 level.
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Author:||Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Youn, Soo Jeong; Castonguay, Louis G.; Locke, Benjamin D.; McAleavey, Andrew A.;|
|Publication:||Journal of College Counseling|
|Date:||Sep 22, 2011|
|Previous Article:||The Center for Collegiate Mental Health: practice and research working together.|
|Next Article:||Do double minority students face double jeopardy? Testing minority stress theory.|