Rare earths and strategic minerals: putting Quebec on the critical resources map.
The evolution of technologies in industries like electronics, energy, defense or the hybrid automotive sector, as well as the world's increasing population, means more commodities are needed and in larger volumes. The scarcities of some of them, or the unfriendliness of jurisdictions in which they are traditionally produced, are pushing explorers to look for new deposits; Quebec is appearing as an ideal alternative for many.
The rare earths, a group of elements essential for new technologies, are at the forefront of the discussion. China, the world's dominant producer and exporter, is cutting exports to allow for the reorganization of local producers (many of which have a bad environmental and safety record) and feed its strategic industries; the country is expected to become a net importer of heavy rare earths as soon as in 2015. "Those affected by the Chinese cutbacks are the western Economies with important high-tech and green-tech industries, such as Western Europe, the U.S., Japan and Korea. You have industries worth billions of dollars that would collapse if they saw their rare earths supply cut," said Peter Cashin, President and CEO of Quest Rare Minerals Ltd., the company advancing the Strange Lake project in northern Quebec.
The price of some of these earths has rocketed as a result. In September last year, Quest Rare Minerals announced the results of a preliminary economic assessment at Strange Lake, which provided for a pre-tax net present value of C$1.4 billion (12% discount rate) and a pay-back period of just four years for a mine life of 25 years yielding an average of 12,500 mt/y of total rare earth oxide (TREO). Capital expenditure would be C$563 million. "Strange Lake is a large, easily accessible, open-pitable deposit. We have undertaken metallurgical studies and we do not have the refractory issue; we have good recoveries with conventional acid leach," Cashin said.
The most important earths at Strange Lake are neodymium, europium, terbium, dysprosium and yttrium, as well as appreciable quantities of ytterbium, lutetium and holmium. Since there is no separation and refining capacity of rare earths in North America, the firm envisages finding a partner to build such a plant and add value instead of just produce concentrates. Quest's plan is to finish the pre-feasibility study by the end of this year and be in full production by 2016.
Cashin believes his company's position is greatly boosted by the fact that Strange Lake is rich in heavy rare earths: "China has a controlling position in the market of about 97% of the supply of rare earths. Approximately 99% of their supply is light rare earth dominant. We are talking of hundreds or thousands of dollars per kilogram for the heavies, versus tens of thousands of dollars for the lights."
Montreal-based Matamec Explorations is also working on the rare earths front with the idea of being into production in 2016 at the Zeus property in southern Quebec, containing the Kipawa deposit. Andre Gauthier, President of Matamec, provided more details about the company's flagship project. "Zeus has 60% of light rare earths and 40% of heavy rare earths like dysprosium, terbium and yttrium. Our idea is to produce 5,000 mt/y. Every car needs lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, praseodymium, dysprosium and terbium and we believe the automotive industry can absorb a good part of our production."
Zeus is easily accessible and close to power and rail infrastructure, amongst other advantages it offers. "Rare earths processing requires lots of acid and in Rouyn-Noranda we could be getting sulphuric acid from Xstrata's refinery. Our main mineral for rare earths is eudialyte and our metallurgical tests have shown very good recovery rates with acid magnetic separation, and with no need of flotation, of 82% TREO up to the purification and precipitation stage. This will make our deposit very competitive against Chinese producers and with a lower environmental footprint," said Gauthier.
The Kipawa deposit currently stands at 63,850 mt of TREO (indicated) and 17,780 mt TREO (inferred).
Another player that has received significant attention since its listing last year is GeoMegA Resources, which has just released its first 43-101 resource calculation at the Montviel carbonatite property, with 184 million mt at 1.45% TREO indicated plus 67 million mt at 1.46% inferred, using a cutoff grade of 1%. The resource includes 606,000 mt of neodymium and 5,840 mt of dysprosium. "This is one of the largest TREO indicated resource outside China. Both mines coming on stream in Australia are light rare earths. They have higher grades than us but they are smaller in size. Montviel is a world-class neodymium resource eligible for the Plan Nord, near surface (open-pittable), road-accessible and close to electricity and available labor," said Simon Britt, President and CEO of GeoMegA.
"The market for rare earths is set to grow between 8% and 11% annually just because of electric vehicles and wind turbines. These two sectors are booming and depend on permanent magnets. This is why we are very bullish on Montviel. Everyone is focused on the heavies like dysprosium, but neodymium is very important as well," said Britt.
For Britt, who anticipates Quebec will become a major rare earths supplier in the future, metallurgy is key to rare earths deposits. "There is a track-record for a handful of carbonatites such as Bayan Obo in China being put into production, but recovering rare earths in an economic fashion for commercial production is not an easy thing," he said. This is why the company is already busy with metallurgical tests.
Together with Quest, Matamec and GeoMegA, other companies active in rare earths are Vancouver-based Commerce Resources with its Eldor property where an initial 43-101 resource of significant size is already in place at the Ashram deposit; Ditem Explorations, working at its Lac Henri property in the Otish mountains; Focus Metals, in partnership with Soquem at their Kwyjibo IOCG property; and Midland Exploration, who have Japan's JOGMEC as partners at their Ytterby project, located just a few km south of Quest's Strange Lake deposit.
JOGMEC can acquire 50% of Ytterby before March next year if it contributes $2.7 million in exploration expenditures. Immediately after signing the option agreement, Midland discovered two new alkaline REE systems. "We have found significant amounts of light rare earths, but also heavies including dysprosium. We are at an earlier stage than Quest and Matamec, however we believe that we can be sitting on a very large system which could benefit from good synergies with Quest's deposit. Japan is desperate to find new rare earth suppliers and the agreement with JOGMEC is very important for us because it gives us access to potential end users," said Gino Roger, President and CEO of Midland Exploration.
The lithium fever
The lithium market was affected by the 2009 crisis, but the long-term fundamentals of this commodity continue to be overtly optimistic. While reserves of brine-based lithium are concentrated in the South American triangle that hosts the salt flats in Chile, Argentina and Bolivia, the boom of lithium batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles is prompting end users to diversify their sources of supply. Quebec, already home to two companies developing lithium storage technologies, Phostech Lithium and Bathium, is now looking upstream with a number of hard-rock lithium projects under development.
The first one in line is the Quebec Lithium Project operated by Canada Lithium, an old lithium mine closed down in the 1960s located near Val-d'Or. It is still expected to be in full production by 2013 in spite of the setback suffered by the company earlier this year when it had to revise its mineral resource to a significantly lower figure than it had announced in 2010. The updated resource is 29.2 million mt with a lithium oxide grade of 1.19%, plus 20.9 million mt at 1.15% [Li.sub.2]O. The updated feasibility study, although incorporating higher production costs of C$3,164/mt due to a higher stripping ratio, maintains a mine-life of nearly 15 years and production of 20,000 mt of lithium carbonate per year, with initial capex of C$202 million.
Peter Secker, President and CEO of Canada Lithium, compared its hard rock asset to the brine operations in South America. "There is lots of lithium around, but the point is how to produce high-quality lithium. Because producing from brine is a complicated process, you tend to have lower recoveries and higher levels of chlorine, sodium and potassium. The hard rocks tend to be much purer, so more likely to give battery-grade lithium."
Canada Lithium has an agreement with Mitsui, which will act as a marketing agent in Asia. For Secker, China will be the key in the evolution of the lithium business. "China is at the forefront of electrification and they have two problems: carbon emissions and gasoline imports. China will soon be the largest car manufacturer in the world, with 20 million new cars every year from 2020, so the cost of gasoline would be significant, hence their impetus into urban electrification. Electric scooters are booming in China: 20 million were sold last year. Moreover, China is subsidizing electric vehicles," he said.
Another advanced lithium project is Whabouchi, operated by Nemaska Exploration. Located in the James Bay area, the project has measured and indicated in-pit resources of 25 million mt at 1.54% [Li.sub.2]O, plus 4.4 million mt at 1.51% inferred. Nemaska intends to start producing spodumene concentrate by 2013 that will be fed to Chinese processors (the Chengdu Tianqi Industry group are strategic partners and own a 10% stake in Nemaska); however a plan for a lithium carbonate plant on Quebec soil to target the North American and European markets is also on the table. "We could be sending 100,000 mt of concentrate to China and process the remaining 100,000 mt in Quebec, using the technical expertise of our partner," said Guy Bourassa, President and CEO of Nemaska Exploration.
The preliminary economic assessment contemplates an investment of C$86 million and production of 202,000 mt of concentrate per year over a 15-year mine life. According to Bourassa, Whabouchi is the second richest spodumene deposit in the world in terms of grade. He also defended production from spodumene as opposed to production from brine, for its quality and because a competitive market requires it. "The brine players claim they have reserves for more than 1,000 years; if that were true, why should there be other producers? The world is not ready to go from a quasimonopoly of oil sources by certain countries to a similar situation in lithium as the world adopts electric vehicles," he said.
Bourassa emphasized that Quebec, being a safe jurisdiction, will become a significant lithium producer in the medium term. "Everybody speaks of the famous lithium triangle in Bolivia, Chile and Argentina. But if you look at the Quebec map with all the lithium projects, we do not have a triangle but a 600 km circle where we have over 100 million mt of spodumene with grades of at least 1.2%. That is unseen anywhere else in the world," he said.
Australia-based lithium producer Galaxy Resources has also entered Quebec's lithium market through an agreement with Lithium One, by which it can acquire 70% of the James Bay lithium pegmatite project. The property has 43-101 resources of 11.75 million mt at 1.3% [Li.sub.2]O (indicated) and 10.47 million mt at 1.2% [Li.sub.2]O (inferred). Galaxy will have to pay C$3 million to Lithium One, and deliver a feasibility study within two years.
"Galaxy is an excellent partner because they have already secured off-take agreements for their current production, which is mined in Australia and will be processed into lithium carbonate at their plant in China. Plus, they have announced they will enter the battery business themselves to serve China's explosive electric bike market," said Lithium One's President and COO Patrick Highsmith.
Lithium One is also present in the 'brine triangle' with a project in Argentina. Highsmith believes there is space in the market for both brine-based and hard rock-based lithium. "There is certainly an argument that brine operations will be cost leaders. However lithium really is a specialty industrial chemical. Its properties are unique, and in all our discussions with potential strategic partners, price has not been their primary concern. This is a commodity that battery makers must have to make the electric vehicles of the future. In this context, the stability of supply is key; stability of supply from Quebec cannot be doubted and there is excellent access to markets."
While there are other companies exploring for lithium in Quebec that are at earlier stages (such as Rock Tech Lithium at its Kapiwak and Lacorne projects, and Conway Resources at its LITCO-1 property), there is another project that stands out: Critical Elements Corp.'s Rose tantalum-lithium pegmatite project.
Rose has an indicated resource of 11.4 million mt at 165 parts per million of tantalum pentoxide and a lithium grade of 1.34%, plus 2 more million mt in inferred resources. The company assures the project would be easily put into production, as it is close to the surface in a terrain with a 12% inclination, but lithium and tantalum being industrial minerals the company is looking for a specialized buyer that will sustain the project economically.
Jean-Sebastien Lavallee, President and CEO of Critical Elements, declared that since the company (previously called First Gold) changed focus from gold to strategic minerals, it has advanced Rose rapidly with an efficient use of capital. "We have spent C$3 million since we acquired Rose, and now we are spending another million in drilling and 1 million extra for the pre-feasibility study. After a total investment of C$7 million, we will be in a position of taking a production decision. The capital expenditure to develop the project could be in the region of C$125-150 million. We are lucky because we are close to a road and have an electric line by the project, and a small airport 30 km from us, at Wemindji," he said.
The company is working on an updated resource calculation that will include some tantalum-only areas that were left out in the previous resource.
"The deposit value is approximately 60% lithium and 40% tantalum, but for the medium term it could get to a 50:50 scenario because the value of tantalum is increasing. An important share of tantalum comes from Rwanda and Congo, and since March 2011, users in the U.S. need to prove their tantalum does not come from conflict areas. Tantalum, which traded normally at about US$60/lb, went up to about US$160/lb," said Michel Robert, director of Critical Elements Corp.
Tantalum and niobium
The improved tantalum fundamentals will also benefit MDN Inc., a Montreal-based company with activities in Africa (it owns a 30% interest in a gold mine operated by African Barrick Gold in Tanzania) and its main assets in Quebec include a gold project optioned from Soquem (with a resource of 160,000 oz gold), and the Crevier niobium-tantalum project. The company currently owns 72.5% of Crevier and has an option to increase its share to 87.5%; the rest is with lamgold.
As per the scoping study published in January 2010, tantalum accounts for 35% of the value of Crevier, however that figure will be revised in the ongoing feasibility study that will incorporate the higher tantalum prices. Other highlights of the PEA are: capital expenditure of C$316 million; a mine-life of 18 years with a daily throughput of 4,000 mt; and annual production of 1.7 million kg of niobium and 178,000 kg of tantalum. This year the company has also been involved in a 215-mt pilot plant test to finish the details about the processing. "The niobium-tantalum deposit is more complex than a copper deposit or a gold deposit, so it makes sense to optimize the metallurgy before taking a production decision," said Serge Bureau, President and CEO, MDN.
The company's plan is to complete the feasibility study by the year-end, acquire a strategic partner to develop the project and probably spin-off Crevier with an IPO.
Bureau provided more details about the niobium and tantalum markets. "Tantalum is mainly used in capacitors, which are installed in computers, cell phones, and all the devices that are miniaturized. It is also used in the automotive industry for the manufacturing of airbags. These are all high-technology applications. Niobium is also used in high-specialty steels for airplanes, for example. While lamgold produces ferro-niobium, essentially dedicated to the steel industry, we are going to produce niobium oxide used in high-technology markets."
The lamgold niobium mine that Bureau is referring to is Niobec, a site employing 400 people in Quebec that is one of only three significant producers in the world (the other two are in Brazil). Processing an ore with an average niobium grade of 0.61%, it produced 4,400 mt of niobium last year, 7% of the world's total estimated at 63,000 mt by the U.S. Geological Survey.
Earlier this year lamgold announced a new resource estimate of 1.92 million mt of contained niobium (M + I, a 691% increase over the previous figure; grade is 0.42%) plus 1.24 million mt in the inferred category. The company plans to capitalize on this resource and the favorable niobium prices to increase production threefold and reach 15,000 mt/y of niobium, while expanding the minelife beyond a 40 year period.
"When we purchased Cambior in 2006, we had to explain that we would keep a niobium mine, even if we were a gold company. In the last couple of years niobium prices have been strong and we believe they should still increase in the medium term. The company is analyzing the possibility of spinning out the niobium production in order to unlock all the value of Niobec," said Renaud Adams, senior vice president operations for the Americas at lamgold.
The company is considering selling a 10%-20% stake to a minority partner, and is also evaluating the potential for rare earths within the site.
2011 has been a tough year for uranium. The devastating earthquake and tsunami that led to the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima I power plant in Japan have taken a toll in the market valuation of uranium companies. Although uranium price has not reached the US$40/lb bottom it touched during the financial crisis, raising funds for new projects has certainly become a more difficult task since March 11. As time passes by, the wounds of Fukushima should heal and the market, together with the politicians dictating energy policy worldwide, will probably support the idea that nuclear is an efficient source of energy moving forward. If that is the case, while other Canadian provinces like British Columbia are banning uranium-related activities, Quebec is ready to add its rich potential to Canada's uranium production, currently concentrated in Saskatchewan.
The province's most advanced uranium project is Matoush, located in the Otish Mountains and operated by Strateco. The resource, from 2009, is 7.46 million lbs of contained [U.sub.3][O.sub.8] in the indicated category (grade is 0.78%) and 12.77 million lbs [U.sub.3][O.sub.8] inferred, with a 0.50% grade, if developed, Matoush would become the first uranium mine in Quebec and the first to be licensed in more than 25 years in Canada.
"Grade is king in mining and Matoush has one of the highest grades outside the Athabasca basin, with 6,000-7,000 ppm. Mines in Africa have 400-600 ppm. In uranium mining the most important issue is not the radiation or the radon gas, but water treatment, which is expensive. In the 200,000 m of drilling we have done, we do not have any water. Saskatchewan has very high grades in uranium, but the water issue can make projects uneconomic. Cigar Lake is a good example; it was flooded with water," said Guy Hebert, President of Strateco Resources.
Current figures, as per the 2010's scoping study, are a capital expenditure of C$300 million and an operation of 750 mt/d to produce 2.6 million lbs of uranium annually for seven years; the company is confident the 70,000 m drilled between 2010 and 2011 will significantly boost the resource. In spite of Fukushima, Hebert is confident the fundamentals of the uranium market remain strong for the future. "Current demand for uranium is about 180 million lb, for about 440 operational reactors. Each reactor takes about 500,000 lb/y and the initial load is two million lbs. The supply from the mines last year was about 140 million lb, so there is a shortage. If there are 50 new reactors, just the initial load is another 100 million lb," he said.
With these numbers in mind, exploration companies continue to outline areas with potential for uranium mines. One of these juniors is Uracan Resources. "If you look at the basic supply-demand balance, I would not be surprised to see prices moving towards US$90-$100/lb over the next few years. The world needs green power. Thirty years ago uranium would have been last on the list of clean sources of energy, and now it is seen as one of the cleanest and most efficient sources," said Gregg Sedun, chairman and CEO of Uracan.
Uracan is working in north-eastern Quebec with the idea of looking for low-grade, bulk tonnage uranium deposits that can be developed as an open-pit, and uses some operations in Namibia as examples that these deposits can be very profitable. So far, Uracan already has a 43-101 resource of 6.9 million lb of [U.sub.3][O.sub.8] (indicated, grade 0.014%) plus 37 million lbs in the inferred category (grade 0.012%) from three zones at their Turgeon claim group, and is looking for higher-grade areas to complement the resource, mainly in the Costebelle area.
"We believe we should have about 60 million lb [U.sub.3][O.sub.8] in low-grade ore as a starting point. The resource area we have now is open in all directions, so we can grow the tonnage there with additional targets. If we get 15-20 million lbs in high-grade we can combine both resources and move forwards using that as a base. So far we have a resource based on a grade of 120-130 ppm and the areas we are looking at in Costebelle have around 250 ppm," said Marc Simpson, exploration manager, Uracan Resources.
Chairman and CEO Gregg Sedun emphasized the importance of working in a friendly jurisdiction in a sensitive business such as uranium. "It is ironic that Vancouver is seen as the center for junior companies worldwide, but yet British Columbia has banned uranium exploration. By contrast, the Quebec government has been fantastic. I have had meetings all the way to the Premier and we have got nothing but fantastic support. They are very strong on the consultation side."
Other companies exploring for uranium in Quebec include Azimut Exploration, Abitex Resources and Golden Valley Mines, which has spun out its uranium assets under a new company called Uranium Valley Mines. Jean-Marc Lulin, President and CEO of Azimut Exploration, compared Quebec and Saskatchewan for uranium exploration. "Within Canada, 25% of the uranium projects are in Saskatchewan and 25% in Quebec. The problem in Saskatchewan is that the region is already mature, whereas in Quebec that is not the case."
New technologies are increasingly demanding about the quality of the materials used. Together with the aforementioned lithium, rare earths, niobium and tantalum, Quebec can become an excellent source of graphite, a material that has gained the spotlight as the European Union and the U.S. have classed it as a critical mineral. Focus Metals is advancing its Lac Knife project near the town of Fermont, with a plan to be in production in 2014.
The project has a historic resource of 8 million mt and a grade of 16.7% graphite, which is very high for industry standards. According to the preliminary plan, Focus Metals would produce 20,000 mt/y of 95% graphite, and additionally 3,000 mt/y of 99.95% graphite, for a 40 year mine-life. Capex would be C$75 million.
"Our advantage is that we have a grade of 17%, therefore to get 1 mt of 95% graphite we just need to process six mt. Plus, 60% of our deposit is medium to large flake graphite. Our cost for 95% graphite is going to be around US$350/ mt, and being large-flake graphite it sells for US$2500/mt. When you get to the 99.95% graphite for the battery technologies, the prices go from US$10,000 to US$40,000/mt, while the incremental cost for us is perhaps US$1,000/mt. We are currently working on a partner that can provide the purification technologies," said Gary Economo, President and CEO, Focus Metals. The company is working to validate its historic resource under the 43-101 standard.
Graphite consumption will grow in parallel to lithium batteries consumption, while it is expected to increase its usage in other high-tech applications. "There is more graphite in a lithium battery than there is lithium. The demand for large quality, large-flake graphite is expected to grow like crazy, at rates of more than 20% annually."
"There is a lot more to graphite than meets the eye," said Economo. "Electronics thermal management is an application that did not exist 10 years ago. Then there is graphene, which is the single atomic layer of graphite flake. Graphene is extremely strong and is thermally and electrically conductive. Therefore, you could replace silicon and make solar cells with graphene to increase efficiency by 50 or 100 times. There are also many medical applications, because bacteria do not grow on graphite, but human cells do. A material so light and so strong also offers impressive applications in defense and aerospace. Graphene will change our lives completely."
At Rio Tinto Fer et Titane (formerly QIT), Quebec has a significant producer of titanium dioxide. The company operates a mine at Havre St-Pierre described as the biggest solid ilmenite deposit in the world, and 800 km south of it at Sorel-Tracy, a large metal-lurgical complex employing 1,700 people, which is Rio Tinto's largest titanium dioxide smelter. Annual production is roughly 1 million mt of titanium dioxide, mostly for the paints industry; one million mt of iron products; and steel products.
"We have a plan to extend the life of our mine in Havre St-Pierre until 2050, at least. That means 100 years of mining, which is very impressive," said Dominique Bouchard, President of Rio Tinto Fer et Titane.
Running an enormous industrial operation, Bouchard praised the availability of power in Quebec. "Quebec offers a great advantage with the availability of low-cost green electricity. The rates are stable and predictable going forwards. We are one of the largest consumers of electricity in Quebec; our plant can take up to 600 MW."
Quebec could see a second titanium dioxide producer in junior company Argex Mining, who is advancing the La Blache project where it recently released a 43-101 resource estimate of 30.9 million mt at 18.8% Ti[O.sub.2] and 63.3% [Fe.sub.2][O.sub.3] (M + I) and additional 13 million mt inferred.
"La Blache is an ilmenite magnetite deposit with a lot of vanadium credit as well. It is not the same mineralogy as the sands, but it is similar to what has been mined in Ukraine, Finland and Norway. Approximately, two thirds of the value of the deposit is titanium oxide; the rest is more or less evenly distributed between iron and vanadium," said Michael Dehn, until recently President and CEO of Argex.
"Our great advantage is that out of every mt of rock, 90% to 95% is going to be payable material which is a massive difference to a gold mine. The capital cost should be C$2 billion for production of 600,000 mt of titanium dioxide per year. At full production we should be producing about 2.4 million mt/y of iron and 25 million lb/y of vanadium pentoxide as well, which would position us as the largest producer of vanadium in North America," Dehn said. Argex would like to reach full production by 2013.
Quebec hosts an interesting project that could take the baton from Kapuskasing (Ontario) as Canada's only phosphates mine. It is the Lac a Paul project operated by Arianne Resources (more specifically under its subsidiary Canada Phosphate), a company whose market valuation has trebled since the beginning of the year. Management at Arianne acknowledges that phosphate is seen as a less strategic mineral than potash, for instance, but they believe North America will soon be asking for more producers as there is a clear supply deficit.
"There are three important components in fertilizers: nitrogen, potash and phosphate. Potash is seen as more strategic because it is not widespread. Phosphate is more widespread, however in North America the demand is higher than the supply. There is a strong market close to us, also due to the fact that the Kapuskasing mine will soon close. We strongly believe the next big play will be phosphate," said Bernard Lapointe, CEO, Arianne Resources.
On top of having titanium contents whose value is still to be analyzed, Lac a Paul has indicated resources of 78.3 million mt at 7.24% [P.sub.2][O.sub.5], and inferred resources of 260.2 million mt at 5.7%. Assuming the sale price will be C$118/mt the scoping study establishes an internal rate of return of 20.8%. The capex is expected to be C$325 million for a 13-year mine life and annual production of 2 million mt of concentrate.
Another figure to be considered is the concentration rate, said Nadege Tollari, Arianne Resources' vice president of research and development. "We would have a final product with a concentration of 39% [P.sub.2][O.sub.5]. The market average now is 29%, probably increasing to 31% with new projects. Besides fertilizers, our concentrate could be used in human consumption applications, such as toothpaste, whitening products for food and also water treatment," she said.
Ideally, Lapointe would like to find an off-take partner in North America to mitigate transportation fees, however Asian players may also be interested. "Canada is the world's largest producer of potash and we have good production of nitrogen, but we also need to be self-sufficient in phosphate. Quebec is a stable jurisdiction, plus there is a lot of water which is highly needed in the processing," he said.
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|Title Annotation:||MINING IN QUEBEC|
|Publication:||E&MJ - Engineering & Mining Journal|
|Date:||Nov 1, 2011|
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