Rapid diagnosis and clinical management of canine parvo virus infection.
Canine parvovirus (CPV) is highly infectious and often fatal disease with worldwide prevalence and important population management consideration in animal shelters. Canine parvovirus is one of the most important viral agents affecting the gastrointestinal system of dogs younger than 6 months of age. The infection is caused by canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2). The canine parvo virus (CPV) infection is characterized by diarrhoea and vomition, with or without blood, inappetance, anaemia, fever and dehydration. A point-of-care, Immunochromatographic Assay kit is available to detect serum antibodies to CPV. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the test. The test kit yielded accurate results under field conditions.
Material and Methods
Dogs reported with the symptoms of haemorrhagic gastroenteritis (HGE), vomiting, bloody diarrhoea, dehydration, anorexia and pale mucous membrane and gastrointestinal disturbances were included under the present investigation. A total of 100 dogs were screened for HGE caused by Parvo virus, confirmative diagnosis was made by using standard immunochromatography assay kit (ScanVet Parvo (a)) irrespective of age, sex and breed, showing the symptoms of HGE For evaluation of drug regimens, total numbers of 8 dogs were used that were confirmed for parvoviral infection. Dogs were treated with fluids (inj RL, I/V), antibiotics (Inj. Ciprofloxacin@10 mg/kg BWt BID, OD I/V), Antiemetic (Inj. Prochlorperazine @ 0.5 mg/kg b.wt. BID I/M), antacid (Inj. Ranitidine @ 0.5 mg/kg b.wt. BID I/m), antispasmodic (Inj. Dicyclomine @ 0.1mg/kg b.wt. BID I/M), coagulant (Inj. Haemocoagulase @ 0.5-1ml (total dose) TID I/V) and Vit.C (Inj. Ascorbic acid@ 100 mg/day I/V) as antioxidants. Treatment was continued till recovery.
Results and Discussion
Out of 100 faecal samples from affected dogs, examined with standard ready kit, 53 samples were found positive for viral HGE, 44 showed negative results while, invalid results were shown by 3 samples, Pillai and Deepa (2010) and Litster et al. (2012) reported similar findings.
The reason for higher incidence of canine parvo viral infection could be either delay or failure of vaccination or lowered immunity level. The same observations were previously recorded by Zafar et al. (1999), Banja et al. (2002) and Sakulwira et al. (2003).
Because no specific treatment exists for CPV enteritis, management of this condition remains only symptomatic and supportive care. Best management requires aggressive treatment with crystalloid fluids, synthetic and natural colloids for correction of fluid and electrolytes disturbances, combination antibiotic, antiemetics, analgesics, antacids, systemic coagulant and fluid therapy to treat dehydration, reestablish effective circulating blood volume, as well as correct electrolyte and acid-base disturbances. The initial fluid of choice is balanced solution that may be blood or electrolyte solution isotonic to blood (i.e. Lactated Ringer solution). Commonly used antiemetic drug is prochlorperazine which is a phenothiazine derivative that limits stimulation of the chemoreceptor trigger zone. Antiemetics are definitely indicated in the management of this disease, Goddard and Leisewitz (2010).
Fluid therapy was maintained by inj. RL for next 7 days till recovery or death. The treated dogs again examined on day 3 and 7 after treatment, to confirm the prognosis of clinical signs and disease. After initiation of fluid and antibiotic with supportive therapy in dogs showed recovery within 3 days and between 4 to 7 days return towards the normal pathophysiological condition. The Ringers lactate replenishes fluid and electrolyte loss. it was found that out of 8 dogs, 3 dogs died while, 5 were recovered indicating the efficacy of drug is 62.5%. The above findings are inaccordance to those reported by Goddard and Leisewitz (2010). inj. RL may be of great value to circumvent the pathophysiology of CPV infection in dogs.
Three dogs died, respectively, might be because of hypovolemic cardiac failure and septic shock with high intensity damage to the liver and kidney. Which indicate the increased viremia with bacterial infection and accumulation of metabolic waste products in body which cause severe damage to the vital organs. Casualty recorded in the present investigation may be due to the direct impact of the disease and / or secondary bacterial infection.
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Goddard, A. and Leisewitz, A.L. (2010). Canine parvovirus. Vet. Clin. Small Anim. Pract. 40:1041-53.
Litster. A.L., Presseler, B., Volpe, A. and Dubovi, E. (2012). Accuracy of a point-of-care ELISA test kit for predicting the presence of protective canine parvovirus and canine distemper virus antibody concentrations in dogs. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl. 2012. 01.027.
Piilai, U.N. and Deepa, P.M. (2010). Rapid diagnosis and treatment of canine parvoviral enteritis. Intas Polivet 11: 348-49.
Sakulwira, K., Vanapongtipagorn, P., Theamboonlers, A., Oraveerakul, K. and Poovorawan, N. (2003). Prevalence of canine coronavirus and parvovirus infections in dogs with gastroenteritis in Thailand. Hum. Pathol. 48: 163-67.
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Jyoti Dongre (1), H.K. Mehta (2) and Pawan Maheshwari (1)
Department of Veterinary Medicine
College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry
Nanaji Deshmukh Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavidyalaya
Mhow--453446 (Madhya Pradesh)
(1.) Post Graduate Scholar
(2) Associate Professor and Corresponding Author
(a) - Brand of Intas Animal Health, Ahmedabad
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|Title Annotation:||Clinical Article|
|Author:||Dongre, Jyoti; Mehta, H.K.; Maheshwari, Pawan|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2013|
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