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Rapid Isolation/Selection of Best Yeast Culture and Its Metabolic Control for the Biotransformation of Benzaldehyde to 1-Hydroxy-1- phenyl-2-propanone.

Byline: Naeem Akhtar, Muhammad Mohsin Javed, Sana Zahoor, Masroor Elahi Babar and Ikram-ul-Haq

: Abstract.- Present work describes the rapid isolation and selection of thirteen yeast culture having high resistance to acetaldehyde and benzaldehyde, directly added to the medium at isolation stage. All isolates had 100% similarity with type strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae during molecular characterization. S. cerevisiae APL-2 showed better kinetic parameters and ultimately lead to better production of 1-hydroxy-1-phenyl-2-propanone. This fermentation involved two phases, first phase to attain the suitable level of cell density while second phase is the biotransformation phase. Effect of temperature (15-30C) was studied during second phase (at the time of acetaldehyde and benzaldehyde dozing). The maximum level of biotransformation was achieved when temperature was maintained at 15-18C. Addition of benzyl alcohol also enhanced the biotransformation level.

Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, biotransformation, L-PAC, benzaldehydeINTRODUCTIONPhenylacetylcarbinol (L-PAC) or a-hydroxy-benzyl methyl ketone is an important intermediate for the production of L-ephedrine, norephedrine, pseudoephedrine, nor-pseudoephedrine, amphetamine, adrenaline, phenylpropanolamine methamphetamine and phenyl-amine (Abourashedet al., 2003). L-ephedrine is an ingredient ofpharmaceutical preparations used as antiasthmaticsand decongestants (Rogers et al., 1998).1-hydroxy-1-phenyl-2-propanone can beprepared by chemical synthesis from cyanohydrins (Brusse et al., 1988; Jackson et al., 1990) but it is prepared industrially by the biotransformation of benzaldehyde (Netrval and Vojtisek, 1982). The production of the 1-hydroxy-1-phenyl-2-propanoneis carried out by pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and is accompanied with the formation of by-productsi.e. benzyl alcohol, due to the action of an alcoholdehydrogenase (ADH) and oxidoreductases (Fig. 1).Benzoic acid in trace amounts as a by-product has also been reported (Khan and Daugulis, 2011).Various microorganisms such as bacteria likeZymomonas mobilis (Bringer-Meyer and Sahm1988; Cardillo et al., 1991), yeast like Hansenulaanomala, Saccharomyces carlsbergensis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces ellipsoideus, Candida utilis and Torula utilis (Gupta et al., 1979; Agarwal et al., 1987) and filamentous fungi like Polyporus eucalyptorum, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium sp., Neurospora sp., Rhizopus javanicus, Rhizopus oryzae etc. transform benzyldehyde into phenylacetylcarbinol (Cardillo et al., 1991).Several attempts have been made by differentworkers in order to produce economical and cost effective 1-hydroxy-1-phenyl-2-propanone by various cultures and cultural techniques such as optimization of growth and biotransformation conditions, control of cell metabolism and method of benzaldehyde addition but still there is a room for the search of potent culture (Becvarova et al., 1963; Netrval and Vojtisek, 1982, Miguez et al., 2012). This work described the rapid isolation/ selection of a good 1-hydroxy-1-phenyl-2-propanone producer and to increase its production by metabolic control.

METHODOLOGY

Yeast cultures producing 1-hydroxy-1-phenyl-2- propanoneYeast cultures were isolated from differentrotten fruit samples collected from local market. One gram sample was added to 100 mL sterile saline water (0.5%) and vortexed. An aliquot of 1.0 mL were transferred to 50 mL of Yeast extract Peptone Dextrose liquid medium (20 g peptone,20 g glucose and 10 g yeast extract dissolved per liter of distilled water) supplemented with 400 L benzaldehyde, one milliliter acetaldehyde and 10 mg/L ampicillin, then incubated at 30oC in a shaking incubator until the growth was visible. One hundred microliter from this culture was streaked on malt extract agar/YPD medium in the petri plates. These plates were incubated at 30oC for 3-4 days. Independent colonies were picked up and maintained on potato dextrose agar and YPD slants(Modified method reported by Shakoori et al., 2005; Rehman et al., 2007). Pure cultures were identified with morphological and biochemical characterization, then verified by molecular methods by amplification of the internal transcribed spacer region of the 18S rDNA. Following primer sequences were used for the amplification of ITS1 region of the 18S rDNA after White et al. (1990).

NS1 5'-GTAGTCATATGCTTGTCTC-3' ITS2 5'-GCTGCGTTCTTCATCGATGC-3'

PCR products were treated with two restriction endonucleases, MspI and HaeIII, and then subjected to electrophoresis and compared the results with type strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Redzepovic et al., 2002).

Culture conditions and biotransformationThe acetaldehyde and benzaldehyde resistant cultures were screened through submerged fermentation after Shukla et al. (2001). Fifty milliliters of molasses medium containing (g/L); over-limed molasses (20 brix), urea (10), KH2PO4 (1.0), MgSO4 (10), yeast extract (4.0), peptone (4.0), K2HPO4 (1.0) transferred to 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask and was inoculated with 15.0% (v/v) inoculum (2.40x108 cells/mL or OD595=0.4) of age 14 h. Theflask was incubated at 30oC to achieve a cell densityof 1.20x108cells/mL. At this stage, dosing ofacetaldehyde (420 L, 342 L, 285 L, 228 L and142 L) and benzaldehyde (210 L, 171 L, 142L, 114 L and 71 L) was completed in fiveintervals of 40 min. All the experiments were run parallel in triplicates. Fermented broth was utilized for the estimation of L-PAC. 1-hydroxy-1-phenyl-2- propanone formed was extracted from the fermentation broth using toluene (sample to volume ratio of 1:2) in a separating funnel. The sample was then used for the estimation of 1-hydroxy-1-phenyl-2-propanone. 1-hydroxy-1-phenyl-2-propanone was estimated with the help of polarimeter (Netraval and Vojtisek, 1982; Becvarova et al., 1963). Optical rotation (OR) was recorded and 1-hydroxy-1- phenyl-2-propanone (g/L) was calculated using the following formula.

g/L= 0R x 2 (dilution factor) x 1.11 (density of 1- hydroxy-1-phenyl-2-propanone)

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Thirteen yeast strains were isolated capable of growing in YPD medium supplemented with 400 L benzaldehyde, one milliliter acetaldehyde and 10 mg/L of ampicillin. These cultures were further screened for their biotransformation potential in shake flask. All of them had 100% similarity with type strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Table I shows the natural habitat from where they were isolated and their potential of benzaldehyde biotransformation to 1-hydroxy-1-phenyl-2- propanone. Thirteen S. cerevisiae strains were isolated from eight different sources such as apple, apricot, banana, guava, mango, peach, pomegranate and white grapes. Out of these, S. cerevisiae APL-2 isolated from apple gave the maximum production of 1-hydroxy-1-phenyl-2-propanone produced (3.07 g/L).Effect of different temperature (15-35oC) was studied on the production of 1-hydroxy-1-phenyl-2-propanone at the time acetaldehyde and benzaldehyde dosing (Fig. 2). Maximum production was obtained at 15-18oC. Further increase in temperature decreased the production of 1-hydroxy-1-phenyl-2-propanone. It may be due to the fact that the boiling point of acetaldehyde is 20oC. So at temperature higher than 18oC, the acetaldehyde might have converted in to vapors resulting in low yield of 1-hydroxy-1-phenyl-2-propanone. Shin and Rogers (1995) checked the effect of temperature on the formation of L-PAC and concluded that predominant production of L-PAC was obtained at4C.

Table I.-###Screening of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for the production of 1-hydroxy-1-phenyl-2-propanone produced.

Sr. ####Source/Habitat###IRNa###FSCb###c###td###pe

1###Apple###APL-1###S. cerevisiae APL-1###0.11###9.0###1.87

2###Apple###APL-2###S. cerevisiae APL-2###0.23###6.5###3.07

3###Apricot###APT-3###S. cerevisiae APT-3###0.08###12###0.57

4###Apricot###APT-4###S. cerevisiae APT-4###0.06###14###1.16

5###Apricot###APT-5###S. cerevisiae APT-5###0.16###7###2.21

6###Banana###BNN-6###S. cerevisiae BNN-6###0.11###9###2.08

7###Banana###BNN-7###S. cerevisiae BNN-7###0.12###8.5###1.65

8###Guava###GUA-8###S. cerevisiae GUA-8###0.06###14###1.12

9###Mango###MGO-9###S. cerevisiae MGO-9###0.02###16###0.50

10###Mango###MGO-10###S. cerevisiae MGO-10###0.09###11###0.60

11###Peach###PCH-11###S. cerevisiae PCH-11###0.10###10###1.12

12###Pomegranate###PGT-12###S. cerevisiae PGT-12###0.13###8###2.31

13###White Grapes###WGP-13###S. cerevisiae WGP-13###0.19###8###2.35

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Author:Akhtar, Naeem; Javed, Muhammad Mohsin; Zahoor, Sana; Babar, Masroor Elahi; Haq, Ikram ul-
Publication:Pakistan Journal of Zoology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Jun 30, 2014
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