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Range extensions and significant distributional records for eighty-two species of fishes in Alaskan marine waters.

ABSTRACT--Increased fisheries survey effort over the last decade by the US National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Alaska Fisheries Science Center (AFSC), through its Resource Assessment and Conservation Engineering (RACE) and Fisheries Monitoring and Analysis (FMA) Divisions, has allowed biologists to collect voucher specimens and document the geographic distribution of marine fishes in Alaskan waters, including commercially important species as well as those more rarely encountered. A vouchering system allows for confirmation of field identifications, and access to specimens is ensured by their deposition at the University of Washington Burke Museum Fish Collection (UWFC). Herein we report the 1st Alaskan records for 10 species, the 1st Bering Sea records for 10 species, the 2nd or 3rd Alaskan records for 13 species, significant range extensions in the Bering Sea for 17 species, 9 species in the Aleutian Islands, 11 species in the Gulf of Alaska, and 8 species for which new records fill the gap in distribution across the North Pacific region. We also document specimens for 4 Alaska species previously cited in the literature without vouchers. A total of 83 species are discussed and photos are provided for 17 of the rarely encountered and poorly documented species.

Key words: Alaska, Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, Gulf of Alaska, marine fishes, NMFS, range extensions, University of Washington Burke Museum Fish Collection, UWFC, voucher specimens

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The publication of Fishes of Alaska (Mecklenburg and others 2002) marked a significant milestone in our understanding of the ichthyofauna of Alaska, providing documentation for all species of fishes known from the marine and fresh waters of Alaska. Many of the records of marine species listed in Fishes of Alaska, as well as the subsequently published checklist of marine fishes of the west coast (Love and others 2005), were derived from specimens and data collected by the US National Marine Fisheries Service, Alaska Fisheries Science Center (AFSC), by its Resource Assessment and Conservation Engineering (RACE) Division, which conducts periodic surveys to assess fisheries resources, and by its Fisheries Monitoring and Analysis (FMA) Division, which deploys observers to monitor fishery catches. Since 2002, survey operations and commercial fisheries have supplied many new specimens now archived at the University of Washington Fish Collection (UWFC), some of which represent species new to Alaska or significant additional documentation of species previously known from the region.

Herein we report on 82 species of fishes for which significant new records are available based on vouchers cataloged at the UWFC. Records included here document species newly found in Alaska, provide significant extensions of known ranges within Alaska, and support previously questionable records or provide additional records of species that are rare in Alaska.

METHODS

The majority of the specimens described here were collected on resource assessment surveys conducted by the AFSC. The gear type in most cases was benthic otter trawl. A few of the specimens were collected by NMFS groundfish observers aboard commercial fishing vessels. All specimens were fixed in 10% formalin, preserved in 70% ethanol, and deposited at the University of Washington Burke Museum Fish Collection (UWFC). Whenever possible, a tissue sample was preserved in 95% ethanol and then transferred to a -86[degrees]C freezer housed at the UWFC. Identification and locality data for all specimens listed here were confirmed by the authors. When mentioned in the text, larval specimens cataloged at the UWFC were identified by personnel of the AFSC RACE Ichthyoplankton laboratory.

Family headings are presented in the order given by Mecklenburg and others (2002), which follows Nelson (1994). Genera and species are listed in alphabetical order within families. Scientific nomenclature (when different from Mecklenburg and others 2002) follows Eschmeyer (2012), and common names are those recognized by the American Fisheries Society (Nelson and others 2004). When not listed by Nelson and others (2004), common names follow those given by Mecklenburg and others (2002). In addition, 2 new common names are proposed. Known distributions are based on Mecklenburg and others (2002) and Love and others (2005), unless noted otherwise.

Each cataloged lot is documented as follows: UWFC catalog number, number of specimens, standard length (SL) in millimeters (except when indicated otherwise), latitude, longitude, depth in meters, date of capture, collector, vessel, cruise, haul. Complete data are given for the most significant records, followed by a list of catalog numbers of additional records that augment range extensions. Complete data for all voucher specimens are available at www. uwfishcollection.org. Photographs of 17 rare species are provided based on the availability of quality color images of fresh specimens (Fig. 1, Fig. 2). Localities for the 10 species recorded from Alaska for the 1st time are shown in Figure 3.

RESULTS

FAMILY NOTACANTHIDAE--SPINY EELS

Notacanthus chemnitzii Bloch 1788--Snubnosed Spiny Eel (Fig. 1A, Fig. 3A)

Notacanthus chemnitzii is known from the eastern North Pacific off Oregon and California, the western North Pacific off Japan, and from Greenland, but not previously known from Alaska. Love and others (2005:16) cite "near Alaska off Dixon Entrance, northern British Columbia" as a personal communication. The 2 specimens listed here are the 1st confirmed records for Alaska, both collected in the northern Bering Sea.

UW 118602, 390 mm, 59.361[degrees]N, 178.4662[degrees]W, 1082 m, 30 June 2008, NMFS/JW Orr, F/V Vesteraalen, cruise 2008-01, haul 84; UW 150120, 610 mm, 59.3534[degrees]N, 178.3608[degrees]W, 962 m, 13 June 2010, NMFS/DE Stevenson, F/V Vesteraalen, cruise 2010-01, haul 47.

Polyacanthonotus challengeri (Vaillant 1888)--Longnose Tapirfish

Polyacanthonotus challengeri is a circumglobal antitropical species known from the southern Bering Sea and throughout the North Pacific. The only Alaskan records are from Albatross stations 3308, 3604, and 3607 made in 1896 and 1897. This record extends the range approximately 625 km northwest into the Bering Sea.

UW 047859, 2 (420-435 mm), 60.16671[degrees]N, 179.6859[degrees]W, 1521 m, 30 June 2002, NMFS/JR Hoff, F/V Morning Star, cruise 2002-02, haul 88.

FAMILY NEMICHTHYIDAE--SNIPE EELS

Avocettina infans (Gunther 1878)--Blackline Snipe Eel

Avocettina infans is previously known from all oceans of the Northern Hemisphere, including the North Pacific, from the Aleutian Islands to central Mexico. The records presented here are the 1st confirmed records of A. infans from the Bering Sea.

UW 113890, 467 mm, 59.3341[degrees]N, 178.134[degrees]W, 615 m, 7 July 2004, NMFS/DE Stevenson, F/V Northwest Explorer, cruise 2004-01, haul 109; UW 119590, >405 mm, 59.361[degrees]N, 178.4662[degrees]W, 1082 m, 30 June 2008, NMFS/JW Orr, F/V Vesteraalen, cruise 2008-01, haul 84; UW 113541; UW 113785; UW 113899.

FAMILY MICROSTOMATIDAE--PENCILSMELTS

Nansenia candida Cohen 1958--Bluethroat Argentine

Nansenia candida is a midwater species ranging from the southern Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska to Baja California in the east, and to northern Japan in the west. Love and others (2005) listed 1 unvouchered record from off Kasatochi Island in the Aleutian Islands in 2003; this specimen was later re-examined and determined to be Leuroglossus schmidti (CW Mecklenburg, pers. comm.). The new records reported here are the 1st confirmed records of N. candida from the southeastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands.

UW 117209, >150 mm, 52.1767[degrees]N, 172.7229[degrees]W, 145 m, 20 June 2006, NMFS/JW Orr, F/V Gladiator, cruise 2006-01, haul 50; UW 150831, 205 mm, 55.3669[degrees]N, 168.2841[degrees]W, 847 m, 3 July 2010, NMFS/S Kotwicki, F/V Vesteraalen, cruise 2010-01, haul 131; UW 026991; UW 049518. UW 026989 is presumably the number for the record listed by Mecklenburg and others (2002), following Hughes (1981), from Surveyor Seamount.

FAMILY PLATYTROCTIDAE--TUBESHOULDERS

Sagamichthys abei Parr 1953--Shining Tubeshoulder

Sagamichthys abei is widely distributed, known from the Bering Sea and eastern Pacific Ocean to southern South America, across the North Pacific to Kamchatka and south to the Sea of Okhotsk and southern Japan. Raring and Stevenson (2010) mention this species in the catch composition of 2 mesopelagic research surveys in the northern Gulf of Alaska in 2007 and 2008, catching a total of 126 specimens, but do not cite the voucher specimen (UW 117161) housed at the UWFC. These records fill the gap in distribution in the northern Gulf of Alaska, southeastern Bering Sea, and eastern Aleutian Islands.

UW 117161, 135 mm, 59.1531[degrees]N, 146.0927[degrees]W, 500 m, 3 April 2007, NMFS/DE Stevenson, NOAA ship Miller Freeman, cruise 2007-05, haul 16; UW 150140, 70 mm, 54.6763[degrees]N, 167.0991[degrees]W, 419 m, 14 July 2010, NMFS/S Kotwicki, F/V Vesteraalen, cruise 2010-01, haul 177; UW 026996; UW 110009; UW 111910; UW 113152; UW 117063; UW 118587; UW 119570.

FAMILY ALEPOCEPHALIDAE--SLICKHEADS

Alepocephalus tenebrosus Gilbert 1892--California Slickhead (Fig. 1B, Fig. 3A)

Alepocephalus tenebrosus is known in the eastern North Pacific Ocean from southern British Columbia to central Baja California, and has been reported from Chile. Mecklenburg and others (2002) noted an unconfirmed record from the Bering Sea reported in RACE catch data, but this is a coding error discovered from the recently available original datasheet. Thus, the 2 specimens reported here, both from the eastern Gulf of Alaska, represent the 1st confirmed records for Alaska.

UW 116942, 395 mm, 59.543[degrees]N, 144.2497[degrees]W, 736 m, 24 July 2007, NMFS/J Stark, F/V Vesteraalen, cruise 2007-01, haul 231; UW 119264, 260 mm, 55.7604[degrees]N, 135.2855[degrees]W, 711 m, 25 July 2009, NMFS, F/V Vesteraalen, cruise 2009-01, haul 286.

Bajacalifornia megalops (Lutken 1898)--Bigeye Smooth-head (Fig. 1C, Fig. 3A)

Bajacalifornia megalops is known from the North Atlantic (Markle and Quero 1984) and from the South Pacific Ocean off Chile (Pequeno 1989) but not previously reported from the North Pacific Ocean. Two specimens listed here are the 1st records for Alaska; the other 2 are the 1st records for the US west coast.

UW 113490, 240 mm, 54.3579[degrees]N, 167.8483[degrees]W, 917 m, 31 July 2004, NMFS/JW Orr, F/V Northwest Explorer, cruise 2004-01, haul 201; UW 118704, 320 mm, 54.3092[degrees]N, 166.5966[degrees]W, 815 m, 5 August 2008, NMFS/DE Stevenson, F/V Vesteraalen, cruise 2008-01, haul 204; UW 116925, 277 mm, 47.867[degrees]N, 125.867[degrees]W, 307 m, 6 June 2007, NMFS Observer/Beth Daudistel; UW 049111 collected off Oregon in 2001.

FAMILY OSMERIDAE--SMELTS

Spirinchus thaleichthys (Ayres 1860)--Longfin Smelt

Previously confirmed as far west as Prince William Sound in the Gulf of Alaska, and south to Monterey Bay, these records confirm an extension of known range for S. thaleichthys to the west side of Kodiak Island.

UW 117036, 8 (97-110 mm), 56.8661[degrees]N, 154.3676[degrees]W, 50 m, 26 June 2007, NMFS/NW Raring, F/V Sea Storm, cruise 2007-01, haul 130; UW 027546; UW 151241.

FAMILY GONOSTOMATIDAE--BRISTLEMOUTHS

Sigmops gracilis (Gunther 1878)--Slender Fangjaw

This widespread species was previously known from throughout the North Pacific Ocean, and from the southern rim of the Bering Sea, near the Aleutian Islands. Records cited here confirm its presence in the northern Gulf of Alaska and extend the known range farther north into the eastern Bering Sea, providing the 1st confirmed record from the eastern Bering Sea slope.

UW 046914, 126 mm, 57.7511[degrees]N, 173.9394[degrees]W, 859 m, 7 July 2000, NMFS/JW Orr, F/V Morning Star, cruise 2000-01, haul 58; UW 119613.

FAMILY SCOPELARCHIDAE--PEARLEYES

Benthalbella dentata (Chapman 1939)--Northern Pearleye

This broadly distributed species is known from the southern Bering Sea and the North Pacific Ocean from the Gulf of Alaska to Baja California and across to Japan, including mid-ocean and the seas of Okhotsk and Japan. The new records cited here extend the range farther north into the Bering Sea and provide the 1st confirmed records from the eastern Bering Sea slope.

UW 048513, 157 mm, 58.5064[degrees]N, 177.8722[degrees]W, 1143 m, 23 June 2002, NMFS/LL Britt, F/V Morning Star, cruise 2002-02, haul 58; UW 027844; UW 046061; UW 047860.

Benthalbella linguidens (Mead and Bohlke 1953)--Longfin Pearleye

Benthalbella linguidens ranges from the Gulf of Alaska and North Pacific Ocean to Oregon and northern Japan. We provide here the catalog number for the only known Alaskan record, cited by Mecklenburg and others (2002:231) after Peden and others (1985), who examined the "uncataloged specimen."

UW 110050, 186 mm, 56.0333[degrees]N, 144.3833[degrees]W, 603 m, 16 June 1979, NMFS/D Somerton, Surveyor Seamount.

FAMILY ALEPISAURIDAE--LANCETFISHES

Alepisaurus ferox Lowe 1833--Longnose Lancetfish

Alepisaurus ferox is distributed from the southern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands to Chile and to Japan and the Sea of Okhotsk, as well as the Atlantic Ocean. The records cited here confirm its presence well into the Bering Sea and provide the 1st record from the eastern Bering Sea slope.

UW 117706, n = 1, tissue and photo only, 58.356[degrees]N, 175.326[degrees]W, 264 m, 29 June 2004, NMFS/JW Orr, F/V Northwest Explorer, cruise 2004-01, haul 220; UW 027871; UW 041755; UW 113193; UW 113194; UW 113571.

FAMILY PARALEPIDIDAE--BARRACUDINAS

Arctozenus risso (Bonaparte 1840)--White Barracudina

Arctozenus risso is known from the western Bering Sea and the North Pacific Ocean south of the Aleutian Islands, off British Columbia to Baja California, Japan, and the Sea of Okhotsk; also worldwide in cold, temperate, and tropical waters. The new records provide vouchers for the mesopelagic research surveys cited by Raring and Stevenson (2010), confirming the presence of this species in the northern Gulf of Alaska, 321 km north of the seamount records given by Mecklenburg and others (2002) following Hughes (1981).

UW 117157, 235 mm, 59.1531[degrees]N, 146.0927[degrees]W, 500 m, 3 April 2007, NMFS/DE Stevenson, NOAA ship Miller Freeman, cruise 2007-05, haul 16; UW 110020 is presumably the record from Quinn seamount mentioned by Mecklenburg and others (2002) after Hughes (1981); UW 117153; UW 117572.

Magnisudis atlantica (Kroyer 1868)--Duckbill Barracudina

Magnisudis atlantica is distributed from the western Bering Sea to Japan and the Sea of Okhotsk, and in the eastern North Pacific from the Gulf of Alaska to Baja California. The specimen reported here is the 1st record from the eastern Bering Sea, nearly 700 km east of the only other Bering Sea record.

UW 027860, 430 mm, 52.5333[degrees]N, 179.8333[degrees]W, 445-490 m, 12 May 1983, NMFS Observer/Neal Safrin.

FAMILY MACROURIDAE--GRENADIERS

Coryphaenoides filifer (Gilbert 1896)--Threadfin Grenadier

Coryphaenoides filifer is known from the southeastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands to southern California, and from the Sea of Okhotsk. This new record extends the range almost 700 km north in the Bering Sea from the Albatross record that was previously the northernmost record, and extends the upper depth limit from 1285 to 909 m.

UW 113888, 130 mm PAL (pre-anal length), 58.6073[degrees]N, 177.9504[degrees]W, 909 m, 1 July 2004, NMFS/JR Hoff, F/V Northwest Explorer, cruise 2004-01, haul 97.

Coryphaenoides longifilis Gunther 1877--Longfin Grenadier

Coryphaenoides longifilis is known from the Bering Sea to the Sea of Okhotsk off the Kuril Islands and southern Japan. The records cited here extend the range into the central Bering Sea, 496 km north along the Bering Sea slope from the Bowers Bank records of the Albatross, and 584 km southeast of the northernmost Russian record. The range is also extended 100 km eastward from the Bogoslof Island Albatross records. The known depth range is extended from 700-2025 to 508-2025 m.

UW 151008, 200 mm PAL, 58.5306[degrees]N, 176.8440[degrees]W, 725 m, 16 June 2010, NMFS/DE Stevenson, F/V Vesteraalen, cruise 2010-01, haul 60; UW 047819; UW 047858; UW 047863; UW 048527; UW 113900; UW 113901; UW 119649; UW 119661; UW 150829.

FAMILY MERLUCCIDAE--MERLUCCIID HAKES

Merluccius productus (Ayres 1855)--Pacific Hake

Merluccius productus ranges from the western Aleutian Islands to Baja California, and the new records confirm that it extends farther north, into the eastern Bering Sea.

UW 047039, 430 mm, 54.7166[degrees]N, 165.7[degrees]W, 3 September 2002, NMFS Observer/Richard Fletcher; UW 150138, 560 mm, 54.5626[degrees]N, 166.5466[degrees]W, 416 m, 15 July 2010, NMFS/JR Hoff, F/V Vesteraalen, cruise 2010-01, haul 181; UW 049639.

FAMILY GIGANTACTINIDAE--WHIPNOSES

Gigantactis vanhoeffeni Brauer 1902--Cosmopolitan Whipnose

Gigantactis vanhoeffeni is a rarely encountered but widespread meso- and bathypelagic species known from throughout the North Pacific, as well as the Indian and Atlantic oceans. Mecklenburg and others (2002) cite an unconfirmed record from south of Kodiak Island. The specimen cited here provides the voucher for the Bering Sea record cited by Pietsch (2009) and represents the 1st confirmed Alaskan record: 3300 km north of the nearest previously confirmed record off Oregon.

UW 045951, 295 mm TL (Total Length), 58.1547[degrees]N, 175.6075[degrees]W, 1010 m, 9 July 2000, NMFS/JW Orr, F/V Morning Star, cruise 2000-01, haul 72.

FAMILY BARBOURISIIDAE--VELVET WHALEFISHES

Barbourisia rufa Parr 1945--Red Whalefish

Another widespread but rarely encountered species, B. rufa is known from the southeastern Bering Sea north of Amlia Island and the Pacific Ocean south of Amukta Pass in the Aleutian Islands; the North Pacific Ocean off Washington, California, the Hawaiian Islands, the Emperor Seamounts, and Japan. It is known worldwide at low latitudes, but recorded as far north as Greenland. These records extend the range 480 km northeast from the only previously known Bering Sea specimen.

UW 114787, 250 mm, 55.9833[degrees]N, 168.75[degrees]W, 565 m, 5 March 2006, NMFS Observer/Virginia Gomez; UW 043827.

FAMILY ANOPLOGASTRIDAE--FANGTOOTHS

Anoplogaster cornuta (Valenciennes 1833)--Longhorn Fangtooth (Fig. 3A)

Anoplogaster cornuta is known in the eastern North Pacific from southern British Columbia to northern Chile and the Gulf of Panama, and in the western North Pacific from Hokkaido to the equator, as well as in the Sea of Okhotsk. The record presented here, from the western Gulf of Alaska, is the 1st known specimen from Alaskan waters.

UW 049272, 122 mm, 53.6225[degrees]N, 154.3222[degrees]W, 600 m, 1 June 1991, NMFS, NOAA ship Miller Freeman, cruise 1991-05.

FAMILY SCORPAENIDAE--SCORPIONFISHES OR ROCKFISHES

Adelosebastes latens Eschmeyer, Abe and Nakano 1979--Emperor Rockfish

Adelosebastes latens is known from the Aleutian Islands slope south of the Delarof Islands and from the Emperor Seamounts. This record extends the range 325 km east along the Aleutian Islands to just south of Amlia Island and extends its upper depth limit from 687 to 352 m.

UW 046590, 338 mm, 51.49[degrees]N, 173.49[degrees]W, 352 m, 1 October 2002, NMFS Observer/M Kahn.

Sebastes diploproa (Gilbert 1890)--Splitnose Rockfish

Reported previously from the western Gulf of Alaska off Sanak Islands to central Baja California off Cedros Island, our records provide the 1st voucher specimens of S. diploproa from the Gulf of Alaska. The similar species S. aurora was also recently recorded in the Gulf of Alaska (Laman and Orr 2011).

UW 116971, 220 mm, 54.3353[degrees]N, 159.9246[degrees]W, 313 m, 15 June 2007, NMFS/P Von Szalay, F/V Gladiator, cruise 2007-01, haul 78; UW 116966; UW 119684; UW 119766.

Sebastes glaucus Hilgendorf 1880--Gray Rockfish

Primarily a western Pacific species, S. glaucus has been recorded from the Aleutian Islands south of Atka Island, as well as the western Bering Sea and Commander Islands to Kamchatka and the northern parts of the Okhotsk and Japan seas. Our records extend the range into the eastern Bering Sea and provide additional confirmed records for the Aleutian Islands.

UW 116920, 338 mm, 60.3666[degrees]N, 177.75[degrees]W, 118 m, 9 August 2007, NMFS Observer/G Draheim; UW 113489; UW 116926; UW 118800.

Sebastes maliger (Jordan and Gilbert 1880)--Quillback Rockfish

Known from the western Gulf of Alaska at Kodiak Island to southern California off San Miguel Island, this record extends the range of S. maliger to the west of the Shumagin Islands, 514 km from the previously known westernmost locality.

UW 048606, 318 mm, 54.6[degrees]N, 161.5[degrees]W, 12 May 2003, NMFS Observer/J Eibner.

Sebastes nebulosus Ayres 1854--China Rockfish

The distinctive S. nebulosus was reported from the western Gulf of Alaska at Kodiak Island based on recorded catches at the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, and it is common south to southern California off Redondo Beach and San Nicholas Island. Our records confirm the range to Kodiak Island and provide voucher specimens.

UW 112320, 320 mm, 57.7358[degrees]N, 152.2513[degrees]W, 47 m, 13 October 2003, R Swanson, M/V Arctos; UW 112672, 320 mm, 57.8333[degrees]N, 153.1680[degrees]W, 25 m, 31 July 1996, R Macintosh.

Sebastes pinniger (Gill 1864)--Canary Rockfish

Sebastes pinniger was previously recorded from the eastern Gulf of Alaska south of Shelikof Strait to northern Baja California off Cape Colnett. The record cited here, from off the Pribilof Islands, is the 1st from the Bering Sea.

UW 047038, 505 mm, 56.7833[degrees]N, 170.3167[degrees]W, 94 m, 8 March 2002, NMFS Observer/Peter Lopes.

Sebastes variegatus Quast 1971--Harlequin Rockfish

Sebastes variegatus is distributed from the southeastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands at Bowers Bank to the North Pacific off Oregon. Our records confirm the presence of a Bering Sea population and extend the known distribution 412 km to the north. Taken from nearly the same position as the record of Snytko and Fedorov (1974), UW 111975 contains 4 specimens collected from a haul containing 67 individuals identified in the field as S. variegatus. The range is also extended to west of Buldir Island in the western Aleutian Islands.

UW 048326, 187 mm, 60.1333[degrees]N, 178.8667[degrees]W, 310 m, 2 March 1984, NMFS Observer/Tom Pearson; UW 111975, 4 (245-308 mm), 57.6887[degrees]N, 174.1498[degrees]W, 129 m, 17 July 2004, NMFS/DE Stevenson, F/V Northwest Explorer, cruise 2004-01, haul 153; UW 044141; UW 047774; UW 151019.

Sebastes wilsoni (Gilbert 1915)--Pygmy Rockfish

Sebastes wilsoni is known from the northern Gulf of Alaska off the Kenai Peninsula to southern California at Cortes Bank. The record cited here extends its range to western Kodiak Island and increases its reported size limit from ca. 20 cm SL (23 cm TL) to 24 cm SL.

UW 111515, 2 (232-243 mm), 57.1954[degrees]N, 154.8358[degrees]W, 75 m, 29 June 2003, NMFS/JW Orr, F/V Gladiator, cruise 2003-01, haul 144.

Sebastolobus altivelis Gilbert 1896--Longspine Thornyhead

Sebastolobus altivelis is common from the western Gulf of Alaska to southern Baja California off Cape San Lucas, where its range overlaps broadly with S. alascanus. Although early cooperative US-Japanese surveys reported capturing S. altivelis in the Bering Sea, the species is easily confused with S. alascanus and no specimens had been available for verification until now. Our specimens represent the 1st confirmed records from the Bering Sea.

UW 001858, 2 (90-198 mm), 54.6083[degrees]N, 166.9[degrees]W, 480 m, US Fish Commission, Albatross, station 3227; UW 044158, 2 (275-285 mm), 59.3333[degrees]N, 178.2833[degrees]W, 753 m depth, 15 May 1996, NMFS Observer/J Rinkleff; UW 047815; UW 048541; UW 150832.

Sebastolobus macrochir (Gtinther 1877)--Broadfin Thornyhead

Sebastolobus macrochir is common in the western North Pacific off the Kuril Islands and in the Okhotsk and Japan seas, becoming rarer north in the western Bering Sea to Cape Navarin, to southeastern Kamchatka and the Commander Islands. It is rare on the eastern Bering Sea slope and off the central and western Aleutian Islands. Our records extend the range along the eastern Aleutian Islands, 431 km southeast of the easternmost known record in the Bering Sea.

UW 113886, 255 mm, 54.3618[degrees]N, 166.3494[degrees]W, 643 m, 9 June 2004, NMFS/DE Stevenson, F/V Northwest Explorer, cruise 2004-01, haul 13; UW 048538; UW 049535.

FAMILY HEXAGRAMMIDAE--GREENLINGS

Hexagrammos decagrammus (Pallas 1810)--Kelp Greenling

Hexagrammos decagrammus is known from the Aleutian Islands off Attu Island to the coasts of the Gulf of Alaska and to southern California off La Jolla. The records cited here are the 1st from the Bering Sea. In addition, many larvae of this species from the Bering Sea are cataloged in the UWFC.

UW 026257, 3 (155-173 mm), 56.8333[degrees]N, 169.9[degrees]W, 70 m, 28 May 1979, NMFS/J Stadler, F/V Paragon II, cruise 1979-01, haul 30; UW 041585; UW 044428.

FAMILY RHAMPHOCOTTIDAE--GRUNT SCULPINS

Rhamphocottus richardsonii Gunther 1874--Grunt Sculpin

Known from Japan and well documented from the Gulf of Alaska to southern California at Santa Monica Bay, R. richardsonii is also known from scattered records in the western Gulf of Alaska near Unimak pass (UW 22721), Sanak Islands (UW 111429), and Semidi Islands (UAM 5078 from 2004 and UAM 4630 from 2006; CW Mecklenburg, pers. comm.). Our records extend the known range 262 km farther west to Unalaska Island in the Aleutian Islands.

UW 111995, 28 mm, 53.669[degrees]N, 167.3408[degrees]W, 81 m, 10 June 2004, NMFS/JW Orr, F/V Sea Storm, cruise 2004-01, haul 16; UW 046503; UW 048971.

FAMILY COTTIDAE--SCULPINS

Archistes biseriatus (Gilbert and Burke 1912)--Scaled Sculpin

Archistes biseriatus is known from the Kuril Islands, from Petrel Bank, Bering Sea, northeast of Semisopochnoi Island, and from Seguam Pass in the eastern Aleutian Islands at depths ranging from 75 to 145 m (Orlov and others 2001). Our records extend the known range 1104 km northeastward into the Bering Sea and 177 km to the western Aleutian Islands, as well as extend the maximum depth from 145 to 156 m.

UW 150633, 110 mm, 56.367[degrees]N, 164.45[degrees]W, 83 m, 20 January 2010, NMFS Observer/Adrian Segalla; UW 150836, 110 mm, 52.0695[degrees]N, 177.2389 E, 88 m, 28 July 2010, NMFS/KP Maslenikov, F/V Sea Storm, cruise 2010-01, haul 173; UW 045520 (cited as UW uncataloged by Orlov and others 2001); UW 111997; UW 112627; UW 117097; UW 150163; UW 150634.

Artediellus camchaticus Gilbert and Burke 1912--Clownfin Sculpin (Fig. 1D, Fig. 3B)

Not previously known from Alaska, A. camchaticus has been recorded from the western Bering Sea from Cape Navarin to the Commander Islands, and the Pacific Ocean off southeastern Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands to the coast of Hokkaido in the Okhotsk Sea. Our record from the western Aleutian Islands is the 1st confirmed from Alaskan waters.

UW 118012, 38 mm, 52.029[degrees]N, 177.6563[degrees]E, 76 m, 27 June 2000, NMFS/KE Pearson, F/V Dominator, cruise 2000-01, haul 148.

Icelinus burchami Evermann and Goldsborough 1907--Dusky Sculpin (Fig. 2A)

A southern species known from extreme southeastern Alaska at Behm Canal to southern California off La Jolla, I. burchami reported here represent the 1st Alaskan records of this species since collections made by the Albatross in 1903 and extend the range 240 km to the northwest.

UW 114711, 93 mm, 55.9264[degrees]N, 135.4279[degrees]W, 396 m, 27 July 2005, NMFS, F/V Sea Storm, cruise 2005-01, haul 283; UW 045144; UW 114707; UW 118507.

Icelus euryops Bean 1890--Wide-eye Sculpin

A deep-water species known from the Bering Sea in Navarin Canyon along the continental slope to Unimak Pass and the western Gulf of Alaska near Trinity Islands, I. euryops recorded here provide additional Gulf of Alaska specimens and extend the range 1519 km from Unimak Pass to the Near Islands in the western Aleutian Islands.

UW 118525, 2 (39-85 mm), 52.8186[degrees]N, 172.109[degrees]E, 359 m, 19 June 2002, NMFS/KE Pearson, F/V Sea Storm, cruise 2002-01, haul 37; UW 119219, 2 (75-95 mm), 57.946[degrees]N, 149.2943[degrees]W, 354 m, 6 July 2009, NMFS/JW Orr, F/V Pacific Explorer, cruise 2009-01, haul 197; UW 045595; UW 045615; UW 045771; UW 046631; UW 046638; UW 049317; UW 049555; UW 049557; UW 111514; UW 111959; UW 112031; UW 117205; UW 118517; UW 119184; UW 119416; UW 119469; UW 150636.

Paricelinus hopliticus Eigenmann and Eigenmann 1889--Thornback Sculpin (Fig. 3B)

Paricelinus hopliticus was previously known from northern British Columbia at Banks Island to southern California at Cortes Bank off San Diego. The specimen reported here, removed from the stomach of a specimen of Gadus macrocephalus, is the 1st record of this species from Alaska, taken in the Gulf of Alaska 360 km northwest of the Banks Island record reported by Mecklenburg and others (2002).

UW 151640, 145 mm, 55.4863[degrees]N, 134.1742[degrees]W, 119 m, 4 August 2011, NMFS, F/V Sea Storm, cruise 2011-01, haul 342.

Radulinus asprellus Gilbert 1890--Slim Sculpin

Previously known from a single record in the Aleutian Islands off Amchitka Island, and well documented from the western Gulf of Alaska off the Semidi Islands and off Kodiak Island to northern Baja California off the Coronado Islands, the specimens of R. asprellus cited here from near the Pribilof Islands provide the 1st confirmed records from the Bering Sea and extend the range to Unalaska Island. Several larval specimens from the southeastern Bering Sea are also cataloged in the UWFC.

UW 119510, 80 mm, 56.6714[degrees]N, 171.9845[degrees]W, 124 m, 12 July 2008, NMFS, F/V Arcturus, cruise 2008-01, haul 154; UW 046566; UW 112020.

Rastrinus scutiger (Bean 1890)--Roughskin Sculpin

Rastrinus scutiger was previously known only from the Commander Islands through the Aleutian Archipelago to the western Gulf of Alaska among the Trinity Islands. The specimens of UW 113495 cited here were collected west of the Pribilof Islands and represent the 1st confirmed records from the Bering Sea.

UW 113495, 5 (72-88 mm), 56.9288[degrees]N, 173.3718[degrees]W, 206 m, 24 July 2004, NMFS/JW Orr, F/V Northwest Explorer, cruise 2004-01, haul 170; UW 048439.

Ruscarius meanyi Jordan and Starks 1895--Puget Sound Sculpin

Adults of R. meanyi have been recorded from southeastern Alaska at Fillmore Island to northern California at Arena Cove. This new record extends the range for adults 2219 km northwestward to Unimak Pass. Love and others (2005) cited larvae collected from the eastern Aleutian Islands and western Gulf of Alaska, suggesting a wider distribution of adults (Matarese and others 2003). Many larvae cataloged in the UWFC have been taken from throughout the northern Gulf of Alaska into the Bering Sea.

UW 114920, 40 mm, 54.2052[degrees]N, 165.3746[degrees]W, 59 m, 28 May 2005, NMFS/NW Raring, F/V Gladiator, cruise 2005-01, haul 18.

Trichocottus brashnikovi Soldatov and Pavlenko 1915--Hairhead Sculpin

Primarily a western North Pacific species, T. brashnikovi has been recorded from the Chukchi and Beaufort seas (CW Mecklenburg, pers. comm.), northeastern Bering Sea between St. Lawrence Island and the Seward Peninsula, the western Bering Sea off Cape Navarin, the Sea of Okhotsk, and the northern Sea of Japan in Tatar Strait. Our records extend the range 335 km southward in the eastern Bering Sea to St. Matthew Island.

UW 119147, 87 mm, 60.6513[degrees]N, 172.7252[degrees]W, 42 m, 4 July 2009, NMFS/JR Hoff, F/V Aldebaran, cruise 2009-01, haul 138; UW 150262.

Triglops macellus (Bean 1884)--Roughspine Sculpin

Widespread and common in the eastern Bering Sea from north of St. Matthew and Nunivak islands and in the Aleutians from the Rat Islands south to off Washington State (Pietsch 1993), the record cited here extends the range of Triglops macellus 272 km west in the Aleutian Islands to the Near Islands.

UW 112688, 198 mm, 52.8159[degrees]N, 173.7375[degrees]E, 110 m, 28 July 2004, NMFS/M Dick, F/V Sea Storm, cruise 2004-01, haul 214.

Triglops nybelini Jensen 1944--Bigeye Sculpin (Fig. 2B)

Triglops nybelini is an Arctic species reported from northwest of Alaska in the international waters of the Chukchi Borderland (Mecklenburg and others 2011), the Beaufort Sea off Alaska (eastward to 71.2183[degrees]N, 149.9031[degrees]W by benthic trawl in 2011; CW Mecklenburg, pers. comm.), and from western Canada in Mackenzie Bay and Amundsen Gulf eastward around the Arctic to the Laptev Sea (Pietsch 1993). Captured in a midwater tow, the specimens reported here from the Beaufort Sea east of Point Barrow are vouchers for the 1st Alaskan records cited by Rand and Logerwell (2011).

UW 118027, 2 (52-55 mm), 71.5204[degrees]N, 152.2492[degrees]W, 172 m, 11 August 2008, NMFS/E Acuna, F/V Ocean Explorer, cruise 2008-01, haul 10; UW 118787, 53 mm, 71.9788[degrees]N, 154.4212[degrees]W, 9 August 2008, NMFS, F/V Ocean Explorer, cruise 2008-01, midwater haul 2.

FAMILY HEMITRIPTERIDAE--SEA RAVENS

Nautichthys oculofasciatus (Girard 1858)--Sailfin Sculpin

A shallow-water species known from the western Gulf of Alaska to southern California at San Miguel Island, these new records extend the range 300 km west to the Shumagin Islands.

UW 116960, 150 mm, 54.9326[degrees]N, 160.3992[degrees]W, 65 m, 5 March 2001, NMFS/JW Orr, F/V Ocean Harvester, cruise 2001-02, haul 3; UW 116961.

Nautichthys pribilovius (Jordan and Gilbert 1898)--Eyeshade Sculpin

Known from the Chukchi Sea off Wainwright south through the western and eastern Bering Sea, Sea of Okhotsk, and Sea of Japan, and the Aleutian and Commander Islands to southeastern Alaska, the record cited here provides a voucher for the northern range extension of Nautichthys pribilovius into the Beaufort Sea cited by Rand and Logerwell (2011).

UW 118781, 70 mm, 71.7457[degrees]N, 153.9435[degrees]W, 63 m, 12 August 2008, NMFS/E Acuna, F/V Ocean Explorer, cruise 2008-01, haul 11.

FAMILY PSYCHROLUTIDAE--FATHEAD SCULPINS

Eurymen gyrinus Gilbert and Burke 1912--Smoothcheek Sculpin

An uncommonly encountered species, ranging from the Chukchi Sea to the Aleutian Islands and the western Gulf of Alaska at Kodiak Island and in the west through the Okhotsk and Japan seas to South Korea and the Pacific coast of Honshu Island, these new records confirm the presence of E. gyrinus at St. Matthew and the Pribilof Islands in the Bering Sea and extend the range east to Cook Inlet in the Gulf of Alaska.

UW 114948, 100 mm, 59.5694[degrees]N, 152.791[degrees]W, 43 m, 24 June 2005, NMFS/KP Maslenikov, F/V Gladiator, cruise 2005-01, haul 172; UW 028267; UW 028269; UW 040372; UW 041442; UW 041767; UW 045984; UW 113875; UW 116356; UW 116514; UW 117256; UW 150686; UW 150716.

Malacocottus aleuticus (Smith 1904)--Whitetail Sculpin

One of the only midwater sculpins in Alaska, Malacocottus aleuticus is known from a few scattered records in Prince William Sound, the Bering Sea north of the Rat Islands and northern British Columbia, as well as the Pacific Ocean off southeastern Kamchatka, and the Sea of Okhotsk off Kamchatka, eastern Sakhalin Island, and Hokkaido Island. Raring and Stevenson (2010) reported M. aleuticus in the catch composition of 2 mesopelagic research cruises in the northern Gulf of Alaska, the vouchers for which are UW 117144 and UW 117163. These new records extend the range along the entire Aleutian Island chain, and provide a voucher for the range extension to southeastern Alaska off Ketchikan.

UW 151249, 23 mm, 55.3033[degrees]N, 131.2505[degrees]W, midwater, 12 August 2011, NMFS/WC Flerx, F/V Sea Storm, cruise 2011-01, test haul; UW 047040; UW 047041; UW 112051; UW 115869; UW 117144; UW 117163; UW 117591; UW 117594; UW 119683; UW 151014.

Psychrolutes paradoxus GUnther 1861--Tadpole Sculpin

Psychrolutes paradoxus ranges from the eastern Bering Sea at Norton Sound and the Aleutian Islands to Puget Sound, Washington, in the east and from Cape Olyutorskiy to the Commander Islands and the Sea of Okhotsk and Sea of Japan in the west. Our records extend the range into the western Aleutian Islands and fill the gap between known Alaskan and Russian records.

UW 112019, 37 mm, 53.0687[degrees]N, 172.9541 E, 111 m, 18 July 2000, NMFS/ES Brown, F/V Vesteraalen, cruise 2000-01, haul 226; UW 049551.

Psychrolutes phrictus Stein and Bond 1978--Giant Blobsculpin

Psychrolutes phrictus has been recorded from the extreme southeastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands to southern California off San Diego, in the western Bering Sea from Cape Navarin to the Commander Islands, and to the Sea of Okhotsk and Sea of Japan, and the Pacific Ocean off northern Honshu. The records cited here extend the range northward along the eastern Bering Sea slope by 850 km, and represent only a few of the 92 hauls in which P. phrictus was recorded in the Bering Sea during RACE survey operations from 2000 to 2010 (RACEbase 2012). Easily identified, but previously unsupported by vouchers, included among these is the northernmost record of P. phrictus at 60[degrees]N.

UW 049157, 9 (67-99 mm), 59.3456[degrees]N, 178.343[degrees]W, 946 m, 15 July 2000, NMFS/JW Orr, F/V Morning Star, cruise 2000-01, haul 100; UW 020965; UW 021265; UW 021266; UW 021267; UW 022304; UW 048535; UW 049152; UW 049153; UW 049156; UW 113164; UW 113499; UW 113508; UW 113531; UW 114781; UW 119338; UW 119366.

FAMILY AGONIDAE--POACHERS

Bathyagonus alascanus (Gilbert 1896)--Gray Starsnout

Bathyagonus alascanus is known from the southeastern Bering Sea west of the Pribilof Islands to the Pacific Ocean off northern California. The new records cited here extend the range to the Andreanof Islands in the central Aleutians and to northwest of St. Matthew Island in the eastern Bering Sea.

UW 049488, 89 mm, 52.2497[degrees]N, 172.9827[degrees]W, 134 m, 29 July 2002, NMFS/RC Harrison, F/V Sea Storm, cruise 2002-01, haul 172; UW 113892, 135 mm, 60.495[degrees]N, 178.842[degrees]W, 286 m, 10 July 2004, NMFS/ DE Stevenson, F/V Northwest Explorer, cruise 2004-01, haul 122; UW 022232; UW 045693; UW 045721; UW 045882; UW 045895; UW 045901; UW 045908; UW 045911; UW 114766; UW 116477; UW 116478; UW 116518.

Bathyagonus pentacanthus (Gilbert 1890)--Bigeye Poacher

Bathyagonus pentacanthus is known from the western Gulf of Alaska near Chirikof Island to Cortes Bank near San Diego, California. The records cited below extend the range 2080 km west to the Near Islands in the western Aleutians.

UW 117110, 195 mm, 52.3878[degrees]N, 174.3169[degrees]E, 315 m, 14 July 2006, NMFS/B Knoth, F/V Sea Storm, cruise 2006-01, haul 155; UW 049568; UW 111355; UW 151367.

Hypsagonus quadricornis (Valenciennes 1829)--Fourhorn Poacher

Hypsagonus quadricornis is known from the northeastern Chukchi Sea (Mecklenburg and others 2011), Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands to Puget Sound, Washington, in the east, and from the Commander Islands, the Sea of Okhotsk, and the northern Sea of Japan in the west. The records cited here extend the range 600 km to Attu Island in the western Aleutians.

UW 111943, 2 (56-62 mm), 53.0776[degrees]N, 172.8215 E, 90 m, 18 July 2000, NMFS/ES Brown, F/V Vesteraalen, cruise 2000-01, haul 225; UW 049496; UW 049539; UW 111990; UW 117415; UW 117602.

Xeneretmus leiops Gilbert 1915--Smootheye Poacher

Xeneretmus leiops is known from west of Forrester Island off the southeastern Alaska border to southern California off Santa Catalina Island. Our records extend the range 645 km into the northern Gulf of Alaska.

UW 116957, 215 mm, 59.0268[degrees]N, 141.1156[degrees]W, 215 m, 25 July 2007, NMFS/JW Orr, F/V Gladiator, cruise 2007-01, haul 265; UW 112545; UW 112546.

FAMILY LIPARIDAE--SNAILFISHES

Acantholiparis opercularis Gilbert and Burke 1912 --Spiny Snailfish (Fig. 2C)

Acantholiparis opercularis was previously recorded from 4 specimens taken in the North Pacific Ocean: near the Shumagin Islands, off Oregon, off southeast Kamchatka, and in the western Bering Sea off northeastern Kamchatka. Only 1 Alaskan record was previously known; our records extend the range to the eastern Bering Sea, the minimum depth to 300 m, and the size range to 85 mm.

UW 118719, 82 mm, 56.7004[degrees]N, 173.2978[degrees]W, 300 m, 27 July 2008, NMFS/DE Stevenson, F/V Vesteraalen, cruise 2008-01, haul 165; UW 118624; UW 150874; UW 150875.

Careproctus abbreviatus Burke 1930--Short Snailfish

Careproctus abbrevatius is a small rare species known from only I specimen south of the Alaska Peninsula and 2 specimens from the northern Sea of Okhotsk. The material listed here represents the 2nd and 3rd known specimens from Alaskan waters, and extends the range to the western Aleutian Islands off Rat Island.

UW 117359, 52 mm, 51.5636[degrees]N, 178.3331 E, 465 m, 30 June 2000, NMFS, F/V Dominator, cruise 2000-01, haul 159; UW 151411.

Careproctus canus Kido 1985--Gray Snailfish

Love and others (2005) cited records from the western and central Aleutian Islands from the Near Strait (between Medny and Attu islands; Kido 1985) to Tanaga Pass in the Delarof Islands (51[degrees]55'N, 178[degrees]25'W; UW 110293), but the Tanaga Pass record was re-identified as Crystal-lichthys cyclospilus by the authors. The records cited here extend the known range 670 km to the eastern Aleutian Islands and extend the size limit from 159 to 182 mm.

UW 116033, 175 mm, 52.5422[degrees]N, 169.688[degrees]W, 127 m, 24 May 2003, NMFS/JW Orr, F/V Northwest Explorer, cruise 2003-01, haul 1; UW 047852; UW 118589; UW 118599.

Careproctus comus Orr and Maslenikov 2007--Comic Snailfish

Recently described from the Aleutian Islands (Orr and Maslenikov 2007), C. comus is known from Stalemate Bank between the Commander and Near islands to just east of Unalaska Island. The records cited here extend its range well into the Bering Sea, north of the Pribilof Islands into Zhemchug Canyon.

UW 117410, 92 mm, 56.9237[degrees]N, 173.3735[degrees]W, 217 m, 31 July 2006, NMFS/JR Hoff, F/V Northwest Explorer, cruise 2006-02, haul 16; UW 119700, 80 mm, 57.7963[degrees]N, 174.1976[degrees]W, 331 m, 10 July 2008, NMFS/JW Orr, F/V Vesteraalen, cruise 2008-01, haul 129; UW 114906; UW 114907.

Careproctus ectenes Gilbert 1896--Shovelhead Snailfish (Fig. 2D)

Careproctus ectenes was known previously from only 5 specimens in 2 lots from the Bering Sea north of the Rat Islands and from Unalaska Island, but it is apparently common in the Aleutians. Our records extend the known range to the Near Islands in the western Aleutians and north into the Bering Sea. The minimum depth is extended from 494 to 380 m, and the maximum size limit is extended from 87 mm TL to 123 mm SL.

UW 117499, 90 mm, 53.0952[degrees]N, 171.6969[degrees]E, 465 m, 4 August 1997, NMFS/JW Orr, F/V Vesteraalen, cruise 1997-01, haul 220; UW 118635, 110 mm, 57.8156[degrees]N, 173.8598[degrees]W, 524 m, 26 June 2008, NMFS/JW Orr, F/V Vesteraalen, cruise 2008-01, haul 67; UW 113818; UW 116032; UW 116041; UW 116042; UW 116234; UW 117193; UW 117236; UW 117487; UW 117494; UW 117495; UW 117522; UW 150772; UW 150774.

Careproctus faunus Orr and Maslenikov 2007--Mischievous Snailfish

Recently described from the Aleutian Islands (Orr and Maslenikov 2007), C. faunus is known from the central and eastern Aleutian Islands, from Adak Island (176.3[degrees]W) to just east of Unalaska Island (166.3[degrees]W) at depths of 120-422 m. Specimens reported here are the 1st recorded from the Bering Sea, having been captured north of the Pribilof Islands in Pervenets Canyon. They extend the range 245 km farther west to Petrel Bank in the Aleutian Islands.

UW 117418, 92 mm, 59.3866[degrees]N, 177.6633[degrees]W, 323 m, 2 August 2006, NMFS/JR Hoff, F/V Northwest Explorer, cruise 2006-02, haul 27; UW 119402, 3 (65-78 mm), 52.0614[degrees]N, 179.7901[degrees]W, 247 m, 28 June 2006, NMFS/B Knoth, F/V Sea Storm, cruise 2006-01, haul 80; UW 119403.

Crystallichthys cyclospilus Gilbert and Burke 1912--Blotched Snailfish

Known previously from the Sea of Okhotsk, Bering Sea, and central and eastern Aleutian Islands to the Gulf of Alaska south of the Shumagin Islands, the records cited here extend the range east to Kodiak Island in the Gulf of Alaska, as well as into the western Aleutian Islands in the Near Islands, over 400 km from the nearest known records in the Commander or central Aleutian Islands.

UW 049636, 170 mm, 58.3095[degrees]N, 151.2028[degrees]W, 77 m, 12 July 2003, NMFS/P Von Szalay, F/V Gladiator, cruise 2003-01, haul 207; UW 117599, 115 mm, 52.4654[degrees]N, 174.2117[degrees]E, 113 m, 26 July 2004, NMFS/RN Clark, F/V Gladiator, cruise 2004-01, haul 200; UW 022516; UW 028365; UW 047181; UW 047853; UW 113829; UW 113837; UW 119224; UW 119236; UW 119255; UW 119256; UW 119261; UW 119572.

Gyrinichthys minytremus Gilbert 1896--Minigill Snailfish

Known previously only from the holotype taken in the Bering Sea north of Unalaska Island at Albatross station 3331, G. minytremus is readily identified by its pore-like gill opening. The 2nd known specimen recorded here extends the range 675 km to the west and extends the minimum depth to 344 m.

UW 151413, 60 mm, 52.0386[degrees]N, 176.364[degrees]W, 344 m, 17 July 2004, NMFS, F/V Sea Storm, cruise 2004-01, haul 175.

Lipariscus nanus Gilbert 1915--Pygmy Snailfish

Lipariscus nanus is a pelagic snailfish known from the North Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea, Commander Islands, and Sea of Okhotsk, through the Gulf of Alaska from near Unimak Pass to Monterey Bay, California. The records cited here document the range across the Aleutian Islands from Unimak Pass to the Rat Islands.

UW 117173, 58 mm, 51.6714[degrees]N, 177.9568[degrees]E, 379 m, 31 July 2006, NMFS/D Carrison-Stone, F/V Sea Storm, cruise 2006-01, haul 220; UW 049440; UW 117239; UW 118613.

Lopholiparis flerxi Orr 2004--Hardhead Snailfish (Fig. 2E)

The holotype and only known specimen of L. flerxi was captured at a bottom depth of 285 m off Ulak Island in the Delarof Island group of the Aleutians (Orr 2004). The additional specimens listed here extend the range 416 km to the western Aleutians near Buldir Island. The minimum depth is extended to 121 m and the size from 32.5 to 38 mm. Small white dots cover the body of the newly recorded specimens, a character not visible on the preserved holotype (Fig. 2E).

UW 119829, 32.5 mm, 51.3533[degrees]N, 178.9297[degrees] E, 166 m, 27 July 2010, NMFS/KP Maslenikov, F/V Sea Storm, cruise 2010-01, haul 172; UW 113820; UW 113885.

Paraliparis albeolus Schmidt 1950--White Snailfish (Fig. 1E, Fig. 3B)

Previously known only from 7 specimens from the Sea of Okhotsk (Schmidt 1950; Chernova and others 2004), these records from the eastern Aleutian Islands and northern Bering Sea are the 1st records for Alaska. We propose the new Standard English name White Snailfish for this species.

UW 115689, 90 mm, 53.6741[degrees]N, 167.5343[degrees]W, 303 m, 24 May 2000, NMFS/JW Orr, F/V Dominator, cruise 2000-01, haul 28; UW 151419, 2 (83-95 mm), 60.49807[degrees]N, 178.8443[degrees]W, 286 m, 2 July 2008, NMFS/JW Orr, F/V Vesteraalen, cruise 2008-01, haul 98; UW 115482; UW 115687; UW 115688; UW 151658.

Paraliparis cephalus Gilbert 1892--Swellhead Snail fish

Common from northern British Columbia to southern California, and recorded from the Commander Islands, but known from only 3 previous Alaskan records in the Bering Sea and Shelikof Strait, the new records cited here extend the range of P. cephalus to the western Aleutians near Buldir Island, and slightly farther north in the Bering Sea.

UW 117655, 72.1 mm, 59.4177[degrees]N, 178.1143[degrees]W, 530 m, 25 June 2002, NMFS/LL Britt, F/V Morning Star, cruise 2002-02, haul 70; UW 117794, 3 (80-85 mm), 52.3681[degrees]N, 175.5995[degrees]E, 622 m, 19 July 2000, NMFS/KE Pearson, F/V Dominator, cruise 2000-01, haul 225; UW 116017; UW 117641; UW 117642; UW 117649; UW 117652; UW 117657; UW 117665; UW 117666; UW 117668; UW 117683; UW 117684; UW 117784; UW 117788; UW 117793; UW 117796; UW 117797; UW 117801; UW 117803; UW 118628; UW 119615; UW 119680.

Paraliparis grandis Schmidt 1950--Grand Snailfish (Fig. 1F, Fig. 3B)

Paraliparis grandis is common in the western Bering Sea, Sea of Okhotsk, and Kuril Islands (Orlov 1998; Tokranov 2000; Orlov and Tokranov 2011). The records cited here from the eastern Bering Sea are the 1st for Alaska. We propose the new Standard English name Grand Snailfish for this species.

UW 151637, 3 (130-220 mm), 58.5242[degrees]N, 176.8127[degrees]W, 830 m, 9 July 2008, NMFS, F/V Vesteraalen, cruise 2008-01, haul 127; UW 113730; UW 115681; UW 115690; UW 119304.

Paraliparis ulochir Gilbert 1896--Broadfin Snail fish

The records cited here of P. ulochir extend its range 480 km north into the Bering Sea, provide the 1st records from the Gulf of Alaska, expand the minimum depth from 715 to 182 m, and increase the maximum size from 102 to 123 mm. It had previously been reported from the southeastern Bering Sea, the Pacific Ocean off Oregon, and the Gulf of California.

UW 116868, 105 mm, 60.2859[degrees]N, 179.1835[degrees]W, 881 m, 28 June 2002, NMFS/LL Britt, F/V Morning Star, cruise 2002-02, haul 79; UW 117791, 59.5 mm, 58.8063[degrees]N, 148.1636[degrees]W, 440 m, 14 July 2001, NMFS/KP Maslenikov, F/V Morning Star, cruise 2001-01, haul 233; UW 114465; UW 116826; UW 116827; UW 116828; UW 116829; UW 116830; UW 116831; UW 116832; UW 116833; UW 116834; UW 116835; UW 116837; UW 116838; UW 116839; UW 116864; UW 116865; UW 116866; UW 116867; UW 116869; UW 117639; UW 117640; UW 117648; UW 117651; UW 117653; UW 117656; UW 117664; UW 117669; UW 117685; UW 117774; UW 117781; UW 117782; UW 117783; UW 117785; UW 117787; UW 117789; UW 117792; UW 117795; UW 117987; UW 118004; UW 118642; UW 118696; UW 118709; UW 118714; UW 118718; UW 118999; UW 119021; UW 119303; UW 119316; UW 119388; UW 119431; UW 119776; UW 119777.

Prognatholiparis ptychomandibularis Orr and Busby 2001--Wrinkle-jaw Snailfish (Fig. 2F)

Previously known only from the holotype taken in Seguam Pass in the Aleutian Islands, this is the 2nd known specimen of P. ptychomandibularis, collected very near the type locality.

UW 116036, 80 mm, 52.3405[degrees]N, 172.7455[degrees]W, 448 m, 31 May 2002, NMFS/JW Orr, F/V Morning Star, cruise 2002-01, haul 32.

Rhinoliparis attenuatus Burke 1912--Slim Snailfish

Rhinoliparis attenuatus is common in the eastern Bering Sea and south to the Pacific off British Columbia to Monterey Bay, California. It has also been recorded from the northern Kuril Islands and southeastern Kamchatka. The material listed here constitutes the 1st records from the Gulf of Alaska, filling a distributional gap of over 2000 km and extending the upper size limit from 110 to 145 mm.

UW 150877, 135 mm, 55.5849[degrees]N, 154.7308[degrees]W, 917 m, 10 June 1999, NMFS/JW Orr, F/V Morning Star, cruise 1999-01, haul 104; UW 150881, 120 mm, 55.693[degrees]N, 154.552[degrees]W, 925 m, 11 June 1999, NMFS/JW Orr, F/V Morning Star, cruise 1999-01, haul 107; UW 047404; UW 047405; UW 047413; UW 113509; UW 113535; UW 113543; UW 113736; UW 113742; UW 113814; UW 113904; UW 115871; UW 116039; UW 116423; UW 116430; UW 116431; UW 116434; UW 116441; UW 116455; UW 116457; UW 117365; UW 118637; UW 119019; UW 119022; UW 119034; UW 119037; UW 119038; UW 119332; UW 119375; UW 150905.

FAMILY ZOARCIDAE--EELPOUTS

Genus Lycodapus--This confusing genus of eelpouts contains several species in the region distinguished from each other by characters that are difficult to evaluate in the field. Specimens of the following species were identified in the laboratory using gill-raker and cephalic-sensory pore morphology, as well as dentition and vertebral counts. Many of the identifications were later confirmed by ME Anderson who last revised the genus (Peden and Anderson 1978, 1981).

Lycodapus endemoscotus Peden and Anderson 1978--Deepwater Eelpout

Previously known from the southeastern Bering Sea and eastern North Pacific Ocean south to Peru, the records listed here extend the range of L. endemoscotus northward along the eastern Bering Sea slope and extend the upper depth limit from 439 to 226 m.

UW 119330, 115 mm, 59.7247[degrees]N, 178.649[degrees]W, 616 m, 6 July 2008, NMFS/JW Orr, F/V Vesteraalen, cruise 2008-01, haul 116; UW 047559; UW 047563; UW 047569; UW 112465; UW 112472; UW 113181; UW 119017; UW 119029; UW 150936; UW 150943; UW 150950.

Lycodapus pachysoma Peden and Anderson 1978--Stout Eelpout (Fig. 1G, Fig. 3B)

An antitropical species previously known in the eastern North Pacific Ocean from British Columbia to Oregon, and from the Southern Ocean, the specimen documented below represents the 1st record of L. pachysoma from Alaska--a range extension of some 4000 km.

UW 112440, 157 mm, 56.043[degrees]N, 169.0854[degrees]W, 16 July 2002, NMFS/DE Stevenson, F/V Morning Star, cruise 2002-02, haul 121.

Lycodapus parviceps Gilbert 1896--Smallhead Eelpout (Fig. 2G)

Known from the southeastern Bering Sea to the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the only specimen of L. parviceps previously recorded from Alaska was the holotype (USNM 48631), taken in 1890 north of Unalaska Island. Our records extend the range farther north into the eastern Bering Sea, and extend the maximum size from 122 to 167 mm.

UW 113920, 122 mm, 57.7956[degrees]N, 174.194[degrees]W, 322 m, 23 July 2004, NMFS/JW Orr, F/V Northwest Explorer, cruise 2004-01, haul 164; UW 043799; UW 047768; UW 047786; UW 047787; UW 113753; UW 116385; UW 116414; UW 117145; UW 117151; UW 117520; UW 119767; UW 151134.

Lycodes cortezianus (Gilbert 1890)--Bigfin Eelpout (Fig. 2H)

Lycodes cortezianus was previously thought to occur only from British Columbia to southern California. As predicted by Mecklenburg and others (2002), UW 022039 from the eastern Bering Sea is based on a misidentification, subsequently reassigned by us to Lycodes concolor, but the 2 specimens listed below confirm Allen and Smith's (1988) extension into southeast Alaska, which was based on unvouchered NMFS survey records.

UW 112540, 300 mm, 55.507[degrees]N, 134.8821[degrees]W, 296 m, 30 July 1993, NMFS/DW Kessler, NOAA ship Milh'r Freeman, cruise 1993-09, haul 32; UW 117114.

Lycodes seminudus Reinhardt 1837--Longear Eelpout

Lycodes seminudus is an Arctic species known from the Beaufort Sea and the Chukchi slope north of Alaska (Mecklenburg and others 2011), as well as the Norwegian and Kara seas. The record cited here extends the range 200 km west in the Beaufort Sea and represents only the 2nd Alaskan record.

UW 118620, 5 (350-415 mm), 71.8907[degrees]N, 154.9465[degrees]W, 467 m, 6 August 2008, NMFS/E Acuna, F/V Ocean Explorer, cruise 2008-01, haul 2. Melanostigma pammelas Gilbert 1896--Midwater Eelpout (Fig. 1H, Fig. 3B)

Melanostigma pammelas is a small pelagic eelpout previously known in the eastern North Pacific Ocean from British Columbia to Mexico. The specimen cited here is the 1st confirmed record of the species from Alaska, a range extension of over 4000 km.

UW 119592, 80 mm, 53.413[degrees]N, 168.168[degrees]W, 150 m, 24 May 2009, NMFS/WC Flerx, JW Orr, F/V Pacific Explorer, cruise 2009-01, wire marking haul.

Nalbantichthys elongatus Schultz 1967--Thinskin Eelpout (Fig. 2I)

Nalbantichthys elongatus is a small, reclusive species of eelpout similar to the more common and widespread Puzanovia rubra, but readily distinguished from P. rubra by the significantly reduced pectoral fin and small gill slit. It was previously known from only 3 specimens collected from uncertain localities in the southern Bering Sea near the western Aleutian Islands. The specimens listed here extend the range to the eastern Aleutian Islands, and triple the known material for this species.

UW 151409, 3 (65-100 mm), 52.958[degrees]N, 169.435[degrees]W, 429 m, 12 June 2004, NMFS/KP Maslenikov, F/V Gladiator, cruise 2004-01, haul 26; UW 151404; UW 151406; UW 151410; UW 151412.

FAMILY STICHAEIDAE--PRICKLEBACKS

Bryozoichthys lysimus (Jordan and Snyder 1902)--Nutcracker Prickleback

Bryozoichthys lysimus is known from a few records in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands, as well as the Sea of Okhotsk, northern Sea of Japan, and the western Pacific as far south as Hokkaido. Mecklenburg and others (2002) noted a specimen (UW 027457) from the Bering Sea, but that specimen has been re-identified as B. marjorius (see below). This and other records listed here confirm that B. lysimus is common throughout the Aleutian Islands.

UW 112682, 222 mm, 52.912[degrees]N, 170.8131 E, 182 m, 30 July 2004, NMFS/P Von Szalay, F/V Sea Storm, cruise 2004-01, haul 224; UW 046534; UW 046548; UW 046550; UW 046552; UW 046554; UW 046567; UW 046643; UW 046649; UW 046921; UW 048495; UW 048496; UW 048507; UW 111248; UW 111257; UW 111476; UW 112625; UW 112693; UW 117100; UW 117111; UW 119177; UW 150170; UW 150624; UW 150630; UW 151387; UW 151427.

Bryozoichthys marjorius McPhail 1970--Pearly Prickleback

The distribution of B. marjorius extends from the Aleutian Islands to southern British Columbia. The records listed here extend the range into the Bering Sea near the Pribilof Islands and confirm its presence along the entire Aleutian Island chain as far west as Stalemate Bank. Thus, the Aleutian Islands and Bering Sea appear to be an area of extensive overlap in the distributions of B. lysimus, a predominantly western Pacific species, and B. marjorius, a predominantly eastern Pacific species.

UW 119370, 110 mm, 56.0377[degrees]N, 169.3529[degrees]W, 327 m, 17 June 2008, NMFS/LL Britt, F/V Vesteraalen, cruise 2008-01, haul 54; UW 151004, 230 mm, 52.2849[degrees]N, 170.6797[degrees]W, 149 m, 19 June 2010, NMFS, F/V Ocean Explorer, cruise 2010-01, haul 41; UW 042726; UW 046626; UW 046627; UW 046633; UW 046639; UW 048531; UW 049480; UW 110060; UW 111258; UW 111435; UW 112691; UW 114964; UW 150619; UW 151428.

FAMILY PHOLIDAE--GUNNELS

Pholis clemensi Rosenblatt 1964--Longfin Gunnel

Previously known from southeastern Alaska to northern California, and from 1 unconfirmed specimen reported from the east side of Kodiak Island (Mecklenburg and others 2002), this record confirms the presence of P. clemensi in the northern Gulf of Alaska as far west as Prince William Sound.

UW 110495, 98.5 mm, 60.5[degrees]N, 147.7833[degrees]W, 18 m, 29 July 1989, C Eaton, R/V Discovery.

FAMILY PTILICHTHYIDAE--QUILLFISHES

Ptilichthys goodei Bean 1881--Quillfish

Known from the Aleutian Islands to Oregon in the eastern North Pacific Ocean, and to the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan in the west, the only previous record of P. goodei from the Bering Sea is UW 027011, taken from the mouth of a Pacific Cod (Gadus macrocephalus). Here we provide 2 additional records extending the range of P. goodei farther north in the Bering Sea: 1 from the stomach of an Arrowtooth Flounder (Atheresthes stomias) and the other a transforming larva.

UW 117968, 350 mm TL, 56.9869[degrees]N, 173.2438[degrees]W, 139 m, 12 July 2008, NMFS/T Buckley, F/V Arcturus, cruise 2008-01, haul 157, from the stomach of Atheresthes stomias; UW 083272, transforming larva, 57.9008[degrees]N, 169.6678[degrees]W, depth 0-15 m, 12 July 1979, NMFS/AFSC, NOAA ship Miller Freeman, cruise 3MF79, haul G087A.

FAMILY PLEURONECTIDAE--RIGHTEYE FLOUNDERS

Lepidopsetta bilineata (Ayres 1855)--Southern Rock Sole

Previously known from the southeastern Bering Sea and central Aleutian Islands to Baja California, the records cited here extend the range of L. bilineata in the Bering Sea north to the Pribilof Islands and into the western Aleutian Islands near Buldir Island. Many larval specimens of this species from the southeastern Bering Sea are cataloged in the UWFC.

UW 025728, 152 mm, 56.0333[degrees]N, 169.8833[degrees]W, 130 m, 13 November 1980, NMFS Observer/J Howe; UW 111341, 330 mm, 51.9725[degrees]N, 176.0841[degrees]E, 78 m, 11 July 2002, NMFS/AA Abookire, F/V Vesteraalen, cruise 2002-01, haul 172; UW 041695; UW 041696; UW 111942; UW 112098; UW 112138; UW 112178; UW 112344; UW 116279; UW 150623; UW 150840.

Lyopsetta exilis (Jordan and Gilbert 1880)--Slender Sole

Lyopsetta exilis is known from the Gulf of Alaska east of Kodiak Island to Baja California. Love (2011) extended the range to the eastern Bering Sea but did not cite voucher specimens. The records reported here provide a voucher from the eastern Bering Sea and extend the range of L. exilis through the western Gulf of Alaska to Unalaska Island.

UW 113853, 192 mm, 55.3296[degrees]N, 166.9669[degrees]W, 137 m, 20 June 2003, NMFS/S Kotwicki, F/V Aldebaran, cruise 2003-01, haul 68; UW 111438; UW 114447; UW 117619; UW 151391.

DISCUSSION

The records cited here represent 10 species reported from Alaskan waters for the 1st time, 13 for the 2nd or 3rd time, 10 species reported from the Bering Sea for the 1st time, and 17 species with significant range extensions in the Bering Sea. Nine species have significant extensions across the Aleutian Islands, 11 have significant records from the Gulf of Alaska, and records for 8 species fill gaps in distribution east to west. We also document specimens for 4 previously unvouchered species reported from Alaska in the literature.

The specimens collected by the AFSC RACE Division and reported here were made possible primarily by the establishment of a voucher collection process. Since 1995, field biologists have routinely collected fishes, as well as invertebrates, of uncertain identification or of biological significance, such as specimens outside of known geographic or depth ranges. Nearly all vouchers have been curated and archived at the UWFC, where they are readily available for examination.

Along with a renewed focus on collections of significant specimens, deep-water sampling has increased over the past decade in long-term surveys that had previously been conducted only to 500 m. In particular, the Bering Sea survey of the upper continental slope at depths of 200 to 1200 m was reinitiated in 2000 (Hoff and Britt 2003). It was previously conducted on a limited basis prior to 1992, although very few collections were made during those early surveys. Since 2000, the slope survey has been conducted every 2 y, with the exception of 2006 because of funding limitations (Hoff and Britt 2003, 2005, 2009, 2011). Other deep-water sampling expanded the standard Gulf of Alaska survey depths to 1000 m starting in 1999, although these deep tows have comprised a small proportion of survey effort (Britt and Martin 2001).

As a result of these collections, in addition to the range extensions documented above, several previously unknown species have been discovered and named in our survey areas (for example, Orr 2004; Stevenson and others 2004; Stevenson and Anderson 2005; Orr and Busby 2006; Stevenson and Orr 2006; Orr and Maslenikov 2007; Busby and Cartwright 2009; Baldwin and Orr 2010; Orr and others 2011; Orr 2012); others have been resurrected from synonymy (for example, Orr and Blackburn 2004; Orr and Hawkins 2008; Stevenson and Sheiko 2009) or recognized as junior synonyms (Stevenson 2006); and still others have been recognized as misidentifications (Anderson and others 2009). Additional undescribed species have been collected and are in the process of being formally described and named.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We thank NMFS personnel and fishery observers who took the time to collect and properly document the voucher specimens cited here; the captains and crews of fishing vessels (too numerous to name here, but cited throughout the text) who supported the fisheries surveys that made these collections possible; JR Hoff for confirming macrourid identifications; TW Pietsch and MS Love for reviewing an early version of the manuscript; and CW Mecklenburg for her helpful review and additions to the distributional information throughout the manuscript.

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Submitted 7 August 2012, accepted 2 December 2012. Corresponding Editor: Robert Hoffman.

KATHERINE P MASLENIKOV

University of Washington, School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences and Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture, Box 355100, Seattle, WA 98105; pearsonk@u.washington.edu

JAMES W ORR AND DUANE E STEVENSON

Resource Assessment and Conservation Engineering Division, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle, WA 98115-6349
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Author:Maslenikov, Katherine P.; Orr, James W.; Stevenson, Duane E.
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Date:Mar 22, 2013
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