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Range extensions and county records for vascular plants from Mills County, Texas.

Comprehensive floristic knowledge of species composition is fundamental to the preservation and management of ecosystems. The floristic knowledge of Mills County is incomplete, largely because there is little accessible public land. Most of the county is comprised of large, privately owned ranches and farms. We collected 59 noteworthy specimens from Mills County. Voucher specimens from the field work are deposited in the Tarleton State University (TSU) Herbarium (Thiers 2013; Index Herbariorum acronym, TAC). The purpose of this investigation is to report range extensions and new county records for the flora of Mills County.

Field work was conducted in Mills County at two farms near Mullin, Texas and a livestock ranch near Priddy, Texas. Specimens were processed at the TAC using standard herbarium procedures and identified using Shinners & Mahler's Illustrated Flora of North Central Texas (Diggs et al. 1999). Voucher specimens were compared to distributions of taxa reported in the Atlas of the Vascular Plants of Texas (Turner et al. 2003a; 2003b).

Based on data from the Atlas, major range extensions (taxa collected in Mills County but not known from adjacent counties) are discussed, followed by Mills County records that have been reported from adjacent counties listed in Table 1. Taxa are organized alphabetically by family and discussed individually within the species accounts.

Species Accounts

Major range extensions:

APOCYNACEAE

Vinca major L. (Big-leaf periwinkle; TAC 5163) is native to Europe and Asia and has become naturalized in the eastern half of Texas (Diggs et al. 1999). Turner et al. (2003a) report it from counties mostly in the eastern one-half of Texas with the closest localities to Mills County being Erath County to the northeast and McCullough County to the west.

ASTERACEAE

Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg. (Common dandelion; TAC 5137) is native to Europe and Asia but has been introduced throughout Texas (Diggs et al. 1999). Turner et al. (2003a) report it from numerous counties throughout the state with the closest to Mills County being Bell, Gillespie, Hill, Johnson, McLennan, Parker, and Tarrant counties.

CHENOPODIACEAE

Chenopodium leptophyllum (Moq.) Nutt. ex. S. Watson (Narrow-leaf goosefoot; TAC 5120) is a native goosefoot that occurs mainly in the western two-thirds of Texas east to the East Cross Timbers (Diggs et al. 1999). Turner et al. (2003a) reports it from Llano County in Texas. Our collection extends its known range northward into Mills County.

CUSCUTACEAE

Cuscuta cuspidata Engelm. (Cusp dodder; TAC 5123) is a native parasitic vine widespread in Texas (Diggs et al. 1999). Turner et al. (2003a) report it in the eastern one-third of Texas and the Texas Panhandle. Our specimen extends the range into Central Texas with Burnet County being the closest known locality to our specimen collected in Mills County.

EUPHORBIACEAE

Ditaxis mercurialina (Nutt.) J.M. Coult. (Tall wild mercury; TAC 5118) is a native spurge that occurs in North Central Texas west to the Rolling Plains and southwest to the Edwards Plateau and Trans-Pecos (Diggs et al. 1999). Turner et al. (2003a) report it in Erath County, which is the closest known locality to and northeast of Mills County.

FABACEAE

Medicago polymorpha L. (California bur-clover; TAC 5139) has become widespread in Texas after being introduced from Eurasia (Diggs et al. 1999). The closest locality to Mills County is Coryell County to the east (Turner et al. 2003a.).

Vicia sativa L. subsp. nigra (L.) Ehrend. (Narrow-leaf vetch; TAC 5147), native to Europe and the Mediterranean, occurs in southeast and east Texas cast of the Cross Timbers (Diggs et al. 1999). The closest known localities, which are southeast of Mills County, are Travis and Williamson counties (Turner et al. 2003a).

RANUNCULACEAE

Clematis drummondii Torr. & A. Gray (Texas Virgin's bower; TAC 5086/5104) is a climbing vine that occurs nearly throughout Texas except extreme eastern localities (Diggs et al. 1999). Turner et al. (2003a) report it mostly from the western two-thirds of the state excluding the Texas Panhandle. The closest known localities to Mills County reported by Turner et al. (2003a.) are Burnet and Llano counties.

VERBENACEAE

Lantana camara L. (West Indian lantana; TAC 5136), native to the West Indies, occurs mainly in south and central Texas (Diggs et al. 1999). Turner et al. (2003a) report it mainly in the eastern one-half of Texas. The closest known localities to Mills County reported by Turner et al. (2003a.) arc Llano and McCullough counties.

Verbena neomexicana (A. Gray) Small var. neomexicana (Hillside vervain; TAC 5095) occurs mainly in the western two-thirds of Texas and is a native plant found in rocky areas (Diggs et al. 1999). Turner et al. (2003a) report it from Brewster, Jeff Davis, and Presidio counties in West Texas. Our collection extends the range eastward into Mills County.

Summary.--Fifty-nine county records are reported new for Mills County and ten are significant range extensions into the Central Texas region. Fifteen species reported in this study are introduced and 44 are native to Texas. Three of the native species are endemic to the state (Correll & Johnston 1970). None of the taxa collected are considered rare species (Poole et al. 2007). None of the 15 introduced species are listed as noxious weeds (USDA 2010). None of the species collected are listed at the state or federal level as threatened or endangered species (TPWD 2013).

Acknowledgments

We thank Barney Lipscomb for help with the determination of four species and two reviewers that improved the manuscript.

Literature Cited

Correll. D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Manual of the vascular plants of Texas. Texas Research Foundation. Renner, Texas. 1083 pp.

Diggs, G. M., Jr., B. L. Lipscomb, & R. J. O'Kennon. 1999. Shinners' & Mahler's illustrated flora of north central Texas. Fort Worth, Texas, USA: Center for Environmental Studies and Department of Biology, Austin College, Sherman and Botanical Research Institute of Texas, Fort Worth. 1626 pp.

Poole, J. M., W. R. Can-. D. M. Price. & J. R. Singhurst. 2007. Rare plants of Texas. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University Press. 640 pp.

Thiers, B. 2013. Index Herbariorum: A global directory of public herbaria and associated staff. New York Botanical Garden's Virtual Herbarium, http://sweetgum.nybg.org/ih/ (Accessed February 15, 2015).

Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. 2013. Nongame and Rare Species Program: Federal/State Threatened and Endangered Species. Austin, Texas. Available http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/huntwild/wild/species/endang/plants/index.phtml (Accessed: February 15, 2015).

Turner. B. L., H. Nichols. G. Denny, & O. Doron. 2003a. Atlas of the vascular plants of Texas. Volume I. Fort Worth. Texas: Botanical Research Institute of Texas. 648 pp.

Turner, B. L., H. Nichols, G. Denny, & O. Doron. 2003b. Atlas of the vascular plants of Texas, Volume II. Fort Worth, Texas: Botanical Research Institute of Texas. 240 pp.

United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resource Conservation Service. 2010. Texas Introduced, Invasive, and Noxious Plants. The PLANTS Database, National Plant Data Center. Baton Rouge, Louisiana .

Available http://plants.usda.gov/java/noxious?rptType=Stateastatefips=48 (Accessed February 15, 2015).

ADN at: nelson@tarleton.edu

Allan D. Nelson (1), Jim R. Goetze (2) and Kalee Smith (1)

(1) Department of Biological Sciences, Box T-0100 Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Texas 76402

(2) Natural Sciences and Kinesiology Department, Laredo Community College Laredo, Texas 48040
Table 1. Floral records for Mills County that have also been reported
from bordering counties (Turner et al. 2003a; 2003b) including Brown
(B), Comanche (C). Hamilton (11), Lampasas (L) and San Saba (S).
Common names are included in brackets. Plants that are native (N) to
Texas, endemic (E), or introduced (I) are indicated. Tarleton State
University Herbarium (TAC) accession numbers are included.

Family/Species/Common name                       Bordering      N/I/E
                                                 Counties
Asclepiadaceae

Asclepias asperula (Decne.)                      B, C, H, S       N
Woodson subsp. capricornu
(Woodson) Woodson [Trailing Milkweed]

Asteraceae

Ambrosia trifida L. var. texana Scheele          B, S             N
[Blood Ragweed]

Calyptocarpus vialis Less.                       B                N
[Horse Herb]

Helianthus annuus L.                             B, S             N
[Common Sunflower]

Lactuca floridana (L.) Gaertn.                   S                N
[Woodland Lettuce]

Lygodesmia texana (Torr. & A. Gray) Greene       B, C, L, S       N
[Texas Skeleton-Plant]

Parthenium hysterophorus L.                      B. H, L, S       N
[False Ragweed]

Ratibida columnifera (Nutt.) Wooton & Standl.    B, C, H, S       N
[Mexican Hat]

Senecio ampullaceus Hook.                        C, S             E
[Texas Groundsel]

Symphyotrichum ericoides (L.) G. L. Nesom        B, C             N
[Heath Aster]

Berberidaceae

Berberis trifoliolata Moric.                     B, S             N
[Agarito]

Commelinaceae

Tradescantia occidental is (Britton) Smyth       B, C, H, S       N
[Prairie Spiderwort]

Cucurbitaceae

Ibervillea lindheimeri (A. Gray) Greene          B, S             E
[Balsam Gourd]

Euphorbiaceae

Acalypha ostryifolia Riddell                     B, S             N
[Hop-Hornbeam Copperleat]

Fabaecae

Sophora affinis Torr. & A. Gray                  B, S             N
[Texas Sophora]

Iridaceae

Sisyrinchium minus Englem & A. Gray              S                N
[Least Blue-eyed-grass]

Lamiaceae

Lamium amplexicaule L.                           B, C             I
[Henbit]

Marrubium vulgare L.                             B, L, S          I
[Common Horehound]

Liliaceae

Cooperia drummondii Herb.                        B                N
[Rain-lily]

Muscari neglectum Guss ex Ten.                   C, L             I
[Starch Grape-hyacinth]

Nothoscordum bivalve (L.) Britton                B. C, H, S       N
[Yellow False Garlic]

Malvaceae

Malva neglecta Wallr.                            B, H             I
[Common Mallow]

Malva parviflora L.                              B                I
[Little Mallow]

Oleaceae

Fraxinus americana L.                            H, S             N
[White Ash]

Onagraceae

Gaura parviflora Douglas ex Lehm.                B, C, S          N
[Lizard-tail Gaura]

Oxaliadaceae

Oxalis drummondii A. Gray                        B, C, S          E
[Drummond's Oxalis]

Papaveraceae

Argemone albiflora Hornem.                       B                N
subsp. texana G. B. Ownbey
[White Prickly-poppy]

Phytolaccaceae

Rivina humilis L.                                S                N
[Pigeon-berry]

Poaceae

Avena sativa L.                                  B, L, S          I
[Cultivated Oats]

Bothriochloa laguroides (DC.) Herter. subsp.     B, C, L, S       N
torreyana (Steud.) Allred & Gould.
[Silver Bluestem]

Bouteloua rigidiseta (Steud.) Hitchc.            B, H, L, S       N
[Mesquite Grass]

Bromus catharticus Vahl                          B, C, L, S       I
[Rescue Grass]

Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.              B, C, L          N
[Buffalo Grass]

Cenchrus spinifex Cav.                           B, S             N
[Common Sandbur]

Elymus canadensis L.                             B, C, L, S       N
[Nodding Wild Rye]

Nassella leucotricha (Trin. & Rupr.)             B, H, S          N
Barkworth [Winter Grass]

Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.           B                I
[Yellow Bristle Grass]

Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.                     B, L             I
[Johnson Grass]

Pteridaceae

Pellaea atropurpurea (L.) Link                   B, H, S          N
[Purple Cliff-break]

Rhamnaceae

Condalia hookeri M. C. Johnst.                   B                N
[Bluewood]

Rosaceae

Prunus mexicana S. Watson                        C, L, S          N
[Wild Plum]

Prunus persica (L.) Batsch                       B, S             I
[Peach]

Rutaceae

Zanthoxylum hirsutum Buckley                     B, H, L, S       N
[Prickly-ash]

Scrophulariaceae

Nuttallanthus texanus (Scheele) D. A. Sutton     B, C, S          N
[Texas Toad-flax]

Solanaceae

Chamaesaracha coniodes (Moric. ex Dunal)         B, H, S          N
Britton [False Nightshade]

Verbenaceae

Glandularia pumila (Rydb.) Umber                 B, C, H, S       N
[Pink Vervain]

Lippia nodiflora (L.) Michx.                     B, S             N
[Frogfruit]

Verbena halei Small                              B, C, S          N
[Slender Vervain]

Vitaceae
Cissus incisa Des Moul. [Cowitch]                B, S             N

Family/Species/Common name                           TAC

Asclepiadaceae

Asclepias asperula (Decne.)                      5096
Woodson subsp. capricornu
(Woodson) Woodson [Trailing Milkweed]

Asteraceae

Ambrosia trifida L. var. texana Scheele          5109
[Blood Ragweed]

Calyptocarpus vialis Less.                       5087/5093
[Horse Herb]

Helianthus annuus L.                             5127
[Common Sunflower]

Lactuca floridana (L.) Gaertn.                   5112
[Woodland Lettuce]

Lygodesmia texana (Torr. & A. Gray) Greene       5121
[Texas Skeleton-Plant]

Parthenium hysterophorus L.                      5134
[False Ragweed]

Ratibida columnifera (Nutt.) Wooton & Standl.    5122
[Mexican Hat]

Senecio ampullaceus Hook.                        5125
[Texas Groundsel]

Symphyotrichum ericoides (L.) G. L. Nesom        5108
[Heath Aster]

Berberidaceae

Berberis trifoliolata Moric.                     5092
[Agarito]

Commelinaceae

Tradescantia occidental is (Britton) Smyth       5099
[Prairie Spiderwort]

Cucurbitaceae

Ibervillea lindheimeri (A. Gray) Greene          5113
[Balsam Gourd]

Euphorbiaceae

Acalypha ostryifolia Riddell                     5111
[Hop-Hornbeam Copperleat]

Fabaecae

Sophora affinis Torr. & A. Gray                  5126
[Texas Sophora]

Iridaceae

Sisyrinchium minus Englem & A. Gray              5110
[Least Blue-eyed-grass]

Lamiaceae

Lamium amplexicaule L.                           5158
[Henbit]

Marrubium vulgare L.                             5101/5102
[Common Horehound]

Liliaceae

Cooperia drummondii Herb.                        5114
[Rain-lily]

Muscari neglectum Guss ex Ten.                   5145
[Starch Grape-hyacinth]

Nothoscordum bivalve (L.) Britton                5155
[Yellow False Garlic]

Malvaceae

Malva neglecta Wallr.                            5149
[Common Mallow]

Malva parviflora L.                              5129
[Little Mallow]

Oleaceae

Fraxinus americana L.                            5090/5130
[White Ash]

Onagraceae

Gaura parviflora Douglas ex Lehm.                5153
[Lizard-tail Gaura]

Oxaliadaceae

Oxalis drummondii A. Gray                        5131
[Drummond's Oxalis]

Papaveraceae

Argemone albiflora Hornem.                       5128
subsp. texana G. B. Ownbey
[White Prickly-poppy]

Phytolaccaceae

Rivina humilis L.                                5098
[Pigeon-berry]

Poaceae

Avena sativa L.                                  5103
[Cultivated Oats]

Bothriochloa laguroides (DC.) Herter. subsp.     5133
torreyana (Steud.) Allred & Gould.
[Silver Bluestem]

Bouteloua rigidiseta (Steud.) Hitchc.            5132
[Mesquite Grass]

Bromus catharticus Vahl                          5100
[Rescue Grass]

Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.              5135
[Buffalo Grass]

Cenchrus spinifex Cav.                           5097
[Common Sandbur]

Elymus canadensis L.                             5089
[Nodding Wild Rye]

Nassella leucotricha (Trin. & Rupr.)             5126
Barkworth [Winter Grass]

Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.           5124
[Yellow Bristle Grass]

Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.                     5105
[Johnson Grass]

Pteridaceae

Pellaea atropurpurea (L.) Link                   5088
[Purple Cliff-break]

Rhamnaceae

Condalia hookeri M. C. Johnst.                   5119
[Bluewood]

Rosaceae

Prunus mexicana S. Watson                        5156
[Wild Plum]

Prunus persica (L.) Batsch                       5157
[Peach]

Rutaceae

Zanthoxylum hirsutum Buckley                     5115
[Prickly-ash]

Scrophulariaceae

Nuttallanthus texanus (Scheele) D. A. Sutton     5106
[Texas Toad-flax]

Solanaceae

Chamaesaracha coniodes (Moric. ex Dunal)         5116
Britton [False Nightshade]

Verbenaceae

Glandularia pumila (Rydb.) Umber                 5107
[Pink Vervain]

Lippia nodiflora (L.) Michx.                     5094
[Frogfruit]

Verbena halei Small                              5117
[Slender Vervain]

Vitaceae
Cissus incisa Des Moul. [Cowitch]                5091
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Title Annotation:General Notes
Author:Nelson, Allan D.; Goetze, Jim R.; Smith, Kalee
Publication:The Texas Journal of Science
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Feb 1, 2016
Words:2144
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