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Randallophorus schuhi, a new neotropical genus and species of pilophorini (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Phylinae).

Abstract--The new pilophorine plant bug genus Randallophorus is described to accommodate the new species R. schuhi from Paraguay. Images of the holotype male and a paratype female, illustrations of male genitalia, and a key to the New World genera of Pilophorini (Miridae: Phylinae) are provided.

Key words: Heteroptera, Miridae, Phylinae, Pilophorini, new genus and species, Paraguay, key.

INTRODUCT1ON

Of the thirteen genera of Pilophorini known in the world, only three occur in the Western Hemisphere (Schuh and Schwartz, 1988; Schuh, 1995). Schuh and Schwartz (1988) revised the New World fauna, recognizing one species in Alepidiella Poppius, 44 in Pilophorus Hahn, and seven in Sthenaridea Reuter. Little specific information is known of the feeding habits of this phyline tribe. Most species of Pilophorus are considered predators of aphids and other Sternorrhyncha found on a wide range of conifers and deciduous trees and shrubs (Schuh and Schwartz, 1988; Wheeler, 2001), whereas members of the genus Sthenaridea are found primarily on grasses and sedges where they may be both predatory and phytophagous (Wheeler, 2001). Nothing is known of Alepidiella heidemanni Poppius, the only known species of the genus, other than it is found on Pinus spp. in the southeastern United States (Schuh and Schwartz, 1988).

While sorting undetermined Phylinae in the USNM collection, I discovered five specimens of a pilophorine collected at light in Paraguay that did not fit into any known genus. I take this occasion to establish a new genus and new species dedicated to my good friend and colleague, Dr. Randall Tobius Schuh, on the occasion of his 70th birthday and as a tribute to his many contributions to heteropterology, especially the Miridae.

METHODS

The male genital capsule was dissected and placed in room-temperature, 10% KOH solution until softened and cleared, after which it was rinsed in water and placed in a depression slide containing glycerol. The endosoma, right and left parameres, and phallotheca were dissected and pencil sketched using a Nikon E400 compound microscrope and drawing tube. Final illustrations were digitally rendered using Adobe Photoshop CS4.

Color images were captured using an EntoVision Imaging Suite that included a JVC KY-75 3CCD digital camera mounted to a Leica M16 zoom lens via a Leica z-step microscope stand. Multiple focal planes were merged using Cartograph 5.6.0 (Microvision Instruments, France) software. Plates of color habitus images, SEM photomicrographs, and male genitalia were created using Adobe Photoshop CS4 and striped and numbered in Adobe Illustrator CS4.

All specimens are deposited in the United States National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.

RANDALLOPHORUS, NEW GENUS

TYPE SPECIES: Randallophorus schuhi Henry, n. sp.

HOLOTYPE, Male: PARAGUAY: Departmento Neuva Asuncion: Nueva Asuncion, 20E48'S, 61E55'W, 23-25 March 1986, M. G. Pogue & M. A. Solis (USNM).

DIAGNOSIS: Randallophorus is distinguished from other Pilophorini by the broad impunctate head; the strongly campanulate or bell-shaped, impunctate pronotum, with a large quadrate velvety spot on each callus; the slender subparallel body; the slender antennae; the scattered whitish, scalelike setae on the dorsum, ventrally on the pro-, meso-, and metapleura areas, abdomen, and ar the bases of the coxae; the simple ostiolar auricle with a wide scent channel lacking a distinct knob dorsally; and the simple, S-shaped endosoma lacking an apparent secondary gonopore.

DESCRIPTION: Length, males 2.75-2.90 rum (Fig. 1A, B), female 3.23 mm (Fig. 3A, B). Head: Slightly less than two rimes length, interocular width subequal to two rimes dorsal width of an eye; posterior area behind eyes narrowed, forming a short, indistinct neck in males; impunctate, shiny, frons with a few transverse rows of indistinct, dull spots; set with a few scattered, whitish scalelike setae on vertex, frons, and ventral surface. Labium: Extending to bases of metacoxae; segment I stoutest, slightly shorter than II, extending nearly to bases of procoxae; segment II longest, segment III shortest; segment ratios 25: 27: 17: 20. Antenna: Slender, clothed with short, recumbent setae, intermixed with a few scattered, more erect setae subequal to diameter of segment in males. Pronotum (Figs. 1C, 3C): Strongly campanulate (bell-shaped); impunctate, shiny, except for a rectangular velvety patch on each callus; anterior width subequal to median length and about half the width of the posterior margin; lateral margins strongly concave before widely flaring posteriorly; posterior margin weakly sinuate, nearly straight; set with scattered, whitish scalelike setae, especially anteriorly between calli, intermixed with a few semierect, pale, simple setae. Mesoseutum: Broadly exposed, with a few scattered scalelike setae. Seutellum: Equilateral, with scattered scalelike setae, intermixed with a few semierect simple setae. Hemelytra: Subparallel, impunctate, shiny, with scattered scalelike setae, intermixed with semi-erect, simple setae; basal width of cuneus about three fourths the length; membrane entire with two areoles, one large, one small and narrow. Ostiolar evaporative area (Fig. 1E): With only a narrow evaporative area bordering either side of smooth scent channel broadening from base to apex, without a distinct apical knob. Ventral Surface (Figs. 1B, D, 3B, D): Pro-, meso-, and metapleura, bases of coxae, and abdomen with scattered scalelike setae; abdomen intermixed with semi-erect, simple setae. Legs: Slender, tibiae with short slender spines, subequal to diameter of segments; claws slender, with convergent, fleshy or lamellate parempodia (Fig. 3E). GENITALIA: Male: Left paramere (Fig. 2A): typically phyline; distal lobes subequal in length. Right paramere (Fig. 2B): elongate oval. Endosoma (Fig. 2C): slender, S-shaped, lacking apparent secondary gonopore; and Phallotheca (Fig. 2D): cone-shaped, tapering apically.

ETYMOLOGY: The new generic name "Randallophorus" is derived from the first name of Dr. Randall T. Schuh and the suffix of the generic name Pilophorus, to indicate the broad relationship of these two genera within the tribe Pilophorini. The gender is masculine. DISCUSSION: Randallophorus keys roughly to Sthenaridea in Schuh (1984, as Paramixia; 1991) and Schuh and Schwartz (1988) based on the shared lack of scalelike setal patches and bands on the hemelytra, the simple slender antennal segment II, the scattered scalelike pleural setae, and the simple, tubelike endosoma lacking an apparent gonopore. It differs from Sthenaridea by the more elongate body, the strongly campanulate pronotum with a quadrate velvety patch on each callus, the shape of the ostiolar scent gland auricle lacking a distinct knob dorsally at the end of the scent channel, and the simple S-shaped endosoma.

KEY TO THE NEW WORLD PILOPHORINE GENERA

1. Scalelike setae scattered, never in parches or bands, and always present on thoracic pleural areas and, sometimes, on the dorsum and abdomen 2

--Scalelike setae on dorsum arranged in patches or bands on scutellum and usually on hemelytra; those on thoraeie areas forming elongate parches on the posterior margins of the mesoand metapleura Pilophorus Poppius

2. Antennal segment II distinctly swollen distally; length from apex of clypeus to base of cuneus 2.70 rum or greater; endosoma with a distinct gonopore and a large mesial spine Alepidiella Poppius

--Antennal segment I evenly slender: length from apex of clypeus to base of cuneus 2.40 mm or less; endosoma lacking a distinct gonopore and mesial spine 3

3. Oval species: head concave posteriorly, posterior margin of head concave, eyes touching anterior pronotal margin; pronotum trapeziform, lateral margins straight, surface of uniform texture, lacking a velvety patch on each callus; ostiolar auricle with a distinct knob dorsally at end of scent channel Sthenaridea Reuter

--More elongate species (Figs. 1A, 3A): head straight posteriorly, eyes protruding laterally, not touching anterior pronotal margin in male (inner half only in female); pronotum campanulate, lateral margins strongly concave before flaring at posterior angles, each callus with a quadrate velvety patch (Figs. 1C, 3C); ostiolar auricle lacking a distinct knob dorsally at end of scent channel (Fig. 1E) Randallophorus, n. gen.

Randallophorus schuhi, new species Figures 1-3

DIAGNOSIS: This new species can be distinguished by the generic characters: relatively broad head with prominent eyes; slender antennae; bell-shaped pronotum with a quadrate black velvety patch on each callus; slender, subparallel hemelytra; scattered whitish scalelike setae on the head, pronotum, scutellum, hemelytra, pleural areas of thorax, abdomen, and the bases of some coxae; and the simple, S-shaped endosoma lacking a secondary gonopore and mesial spine.

DESCRIPTION: Male (n = 2; plus holotype in parentheses) (Figs. 1A, B): Length to apex of membrane 2.80-2.90 mm (2.75 mm); length to base of cuneus 1.88-1.93 mm (1.78 mm); width across widest area of hemelytra 0.85-0.90 mm (0.85 mm). Head: Length 0.35-0.37 rum (0.37 mm); width across eyes 0.62-0.66 mm (0.62 mm), interocular width 0.30 mm (0.29 mm). Labium: Length 1.14-1.22 mm (1.10 mm). Antenna: Segment I length 0.30-0.32 mm (0.27 mm), II 1.30-1.31 mm (1.25 mm), III 0.72-0.90 mm (0.86 mm), IV 0.46-0.51 mm (0.26 mm, shriveled). Pronotum: Median length 0.38-0.42 mm (0.42 mm), anterior width 0.35-0.40 mm (0.37 mm), posterior width 0.800.83 mm (0.80 mm). COLORATION: Head: Dark brown to fuscous, sides (gena, lora) and clypeus paler brown, buccula pale brownish yellow; eyes brown to reddish brown. Labiurn: Pale yellowish brown, apical hall of segment IV dark brown. Antenna: Segment I pale brownish yellow, with basal third dark brown to fuscous; segment II pale brownish yellow, becoming dark brown to fuscous on distal half; segments III and IV dark brown, with only the base of III pale brownish yellow. Pronotum (Fig. 1C): Uniformly shiny dark brown to fuscous, with a large, quadrate, dull velvety black patch on each callus. Mesoscutum: Dark brown to fuscous. Scutellum: Dark brown to fuscous. Hemelytra: Clavus dark brown to fuscous, corium paler dark brown, cuneus dark brown with base across fracture and apex pale yellow; membrane and veins uniformly dark brown. Ostiolar evaporative area (Fig. 1E): Dark brown, scent channel dark brown to fuscous. Ventral surface: Thoracic areas dark brown to fuscous, narrow ventral edge of proacetabula pale brownish yellow; abdomen brown to dark yellowish brown, genital capsule dark brown to fuscous. Legs: Pale brownish yellow, femora slightly darker pale yellowish orange. TEXTURE, STRUCTURE, AND VESTITURE: Head: Shiny, impunctate, frons with four or five transverse rows of indistinct, small, fine, shiny, impressed spots; eyes somewhat coarsely faceted; with scattered, whitish scalelike setae especially on vertex and undersurface, intermixed with pale, semierect, simple setae on frons and clypeus. Labium: Extending to bases of hind coxae. Antenna: Segment I, set with black, sparsely set (each separated by the length of a seta), recumbent simple setae, with three longer, erect, black, bristlelike setae on inside near apex; segment II with numerous recumbent, black, simple setae, sparsely intermixed with relatively long, erect black setae; segments III and IV thickly set with recumbent pale setae. Pronotum: Shiny impunctate, campanulate; with numerous, scattered whitish, scalelike setae, especially anteriorly and between calli, intermixed with short, semierect simple setae. Mesoseutum: Shiny, impunctate, broadly exposed, equilateral; with scattered whitish scalelike setae and pale simple setae. Scutellum: Shiny, impunctate, equilateral; with scattered, whitish, scalelike setae and pale simple setae. Hemelytra: Shiny, impunctate; with scattered, whitish, scaleike setae, intermixed with short, semierect, simple setae. Ventral surfaee (Figs. 1B, D, 3B, D): Impunctate; thoracic areas dull, abdomen shiny; pro-, meso-, and metapleura, bases of coxae thickly set with whitish, scalelike setae, more sparsely so on abdomen. GENITALIA: Left paramere (Fig. 1E): Mitt-shaped, distal lobes subequal in length; Right paramere (Fig. 2A): Elongate oval, with numerous long setae on distal hall; Endosoma (Fig. 2B): slender, simple, S-shaped; and Phailotheea (Fig. 2C): Cone-shaped, tapering apically.

Female: (n = 1): Length to apex of membrane 3.23 mm; length to base of cuneus 2.40 mm, width across widest area of hemelytra 1.28 mm. Head: Length 0.40 mm, width across eyes 0.74 mm, interocular width 0.37 mm. Labium: Length 1.31 mm. Antenna: Segment I length 0.26 mm, II 1.01 mm, III 0.82 mm, IV 0.51 mm. Pronotum: Median length 0.46 mm, anterior width 0.48 mm, posterior width 0.98 mm. COLORATION: Similar to males, differing as follows: Head: Brown, more fuscous along frontal sutures and undersurface, buccula pale brownish yellow; eyes dark brown, tinged with red along margins. Labium: Reddish brown. Antenna: Segment I reddish brown, with basal third fuscous; segment II pale yellowish brown, apex dark brown; segment III pale brownish yellow; segment IV brown. Pronotum: Narrowly brown anteriorly and between calli; disc dark brown to fuscous; calli velvety black. Mesoscutum and scutellum dark yellowish to reddish brown, lateral margins of mesoscutum more fuscous. Hemelytra: Dark brown, pale along basal margin and apex of corium; cuneus reddish brown, with base, lateral margin, and apex pale yellow. Legs: Femora uniformly dark brown; tibiae pale brownish yellow; last tarsomere and claws fuscous. TEXTURE, STRUCTURE, AND VESTITURE: Similar to males, but differing in having a larger, broader body and much more dense scalelike setae on alls surfaces described for males (which might indicate that the female simply is in better condition and the setae are less rubbed).

ETYMOLOGY: This species is named "schuhi," after Dr. Randall T. Schuh for his extensive work on the tribe Pilophorini.

HOST: Unknown; taken at uv light (pers. comm., M. G. Pogue).

DISTRIBUTION: Paraguay.

SPECIMENS EXAMINED: PARATYPES: same data as for holotype, 3 [male][male], 1 [female] (USNM).

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I thank Michele Touchet (Systematic Entomology Laboratory [SEL], ARS, USDA, c/o National Museurn of Natural History, Washington, DC) for the color digital images of the adult male and female and Taina Litwak (SEL) for rendering the genitalic illustrations. I am grateful to Michael D. Schwartz (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, Ontario) and A. G. Wheeler, Jr. (Clemson University, Clemson, SC) for kindly reviewing the manuscript.

LITERATURE CITED

Schuh, R. T. 1989. Old World Pilophorini: Descriptions of nine new species with additional synonymic and taxonomic changes (Heteroptera: Miridae: Phylinae). American Museum Novitates. 2945:1 66.

Schuh, R. T. 1991. Phylogenetic, host and biogeographic analyses of the Pilophorini (Heteroptera: Miridae: Phylinae). Cladistics 7: 157-189.

Schuh, R. T. 1995. Plant Bugs of the World (Insecta: Heteroptera: Miridae). Systematic Catalog, Distributions, Host List, and Bibliography. New York Entomological Society, New York. 1329 pp. (http://research.amnh.org/pbi/catalog) [accessed May 2012].

Schuh, R. T. and M. D. Schwartz. 1988. Revision of the New World Pilophorini (Heteroptera: Miridae: Phylinae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 187(2): 101-201.

Wheeler, A. G., Jr. 2001. Biology of the Plant Bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae): Pests, Predators, Opportunists. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York. 506 pp.

THOMAS J HENRY

Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, c/o National Museum of Natural History, MRC-168, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20013-7013, email: thomas.henry@ars.usda.gov

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Author:Henry, Thomas J.
Publication:Entomologica Americana
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:3PARA
Date:Jan 1, 2012
Words:2445
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