Radon emissions in Harju County, North Estonia/Radooniemissioonid Harjumaal.
Radon (Rn) is a source of natural ionizing radiation, it is a toxic element causing mutations, especially lung cancer (Naturally ..., 2000; Mjones & Falk, 2005). Radon occurs in air and water as a colourless and odourless noble gas. It solidifies at -71[degrees]C and decays into seven highly radioactive metals.
In the Baltic States the first investigations of Rn were carried out in 1997-1998 by Valter Petersell at the Geological Survey of Estonia. More detailed investigations of Rn in soil were launched in 2000; in 2002-2008 they were continued in cooperation with Swedish geologists in 566 observation points (Petersell et al., 2005).
In Estonia Rn risk is among the highest in Europe. In the process of compiling the small-scale (1 : 500 000) Rn-risk map of Estonia (Petersell et al., 2005) it appeared that grounds with high and very high Rn content (50-250 kBq/[m.sup.3] and >250 kBq/[m.sup.3], respectively) are frequent in northern Estonia. Such areas cover several square kilometres, mostly in the klint zone. According to the Estonian Radiation Protection Centre (unpublished data), in areas of high and very high Rn risk the concentration of Rn in indoor air often exceeds the permissible level (200 Bq/[m.sup.3]), reaching 3000 Bq/[m.sup.3], sometimes even 10 000 Bq/[m.sup.3].
In Estonia the Rn level in soil air and its behaviour are highly variable, but at the same time the sources of Rn, its formation, reasons of Rn concentrations and dispersion, and regularities are still poorly investigated. The main source of Rn in indoor air is the soil beneath the buildings and the underlying loose sediments and bedrock of variable composition. Therefore, inappropriate assessment of Rn in soil air and its migration regularities may cause health disorders. On the other hand, uncertainty about Rn risk may generate emotional stress and cause unfounded material expenses. To at least partially find solutions to these problems, the authors chose for the study densely populated Harju County in northern Estonia, where the Rn risk level is high and all potential sources of Rn are present in the geological succession. In the klint escarpment radioactive graptolite argillite (Dictyonema shale) and obolus phosphorite crop out. Their clasts and smalls are scattered everywhere. Within the study area with high Rn risk several towns (Tallinn, Paldiski, Keila, Saue, Maardu, Kehra, Loksa), other settlements, and farmsteads are situated.
The factual material of the current paper originates from the databases of Rn risk-maps (Petersell et al., 2005, 2008), but includes also the new data collected by the authors in 2009 and 2010. The content of K, U, P, and Mo in the samples was determined in AcmeLabs, Canada, and that of eU, eTh, and K ([sup.40]K) in the laboratories of the Estonian Radiation Protection Centre and Geological Survey of Estonia.
MATERIAL AND METHOD
Harju County borders on the Gulf of Finland in the north (Fig. 1). With its area of 4333 [km.sup.2] and 522 252 residents (in 2003) it is the largest and most densely (120.8 inhabitants per [km.sup.2]) populated county in Estonia.
The topography is mostly flat. The North-Estonian Klint, a 10-30 m high west-east oriented escarpment, divides the county into two regions with different geological setting: the Fore-klint Lowland in the north and the Harju Limestone Plateau in the south. The geology is diversified by deep ancient valleys cutting into the sedimentary bedrock and filled with Quaternary deposits (Miidel & Tavast, 1978; Raukas & Tavast, 1987; Vaher et al., 2010).
In the succession three rock complexes overlying one another can be distinguished: Proterozoic crystalline basement is overlain by Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks and these in turn by loose Quaternary deposits (Raukas & Teedumae, 1997). Quaternary deposits contain to a greater or lesser extent crushed particles of the first two rock complexes. The radioactivity of all these rock types of different age and composition is variable.
Among the crystalline basement rocks, the granites of the rapakivi formation cropping out on the bottom of the Gulf of Finland and in southern Finland are noteworthy. These rocks contain 3-10 g/t of U, 10-50 g/t of Th, and 2.2-3.5% of K (Geological Survey of Finland, 1992). Their crushed varieties are found in till and other Quaternary deposits.
The surface of the crystalline basement and the Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks have a southward inclination of ca 3 m/km. In the Fore-klint Lowland the Quaternary cover is underlain by Cambrian sandstones, siltstones, and clay, and on the limestone plateau, by Ordovician limestones, less frequently by marls and dolostones. Limestones are often karstified.
Between the Cambrian sand- and siltstones and Ordovician limestones occur the major sources of Rn: Lower-Ordovician obolus sandstone with P-rich layers of phosphorite that are overlain by graptolite argillite. Both these rocks are rich in U and have a background Th content. Alongside U, the two rock types contain also other environmentally hazardous elements (Table 1).
Between Narva and the Pakri Islands, in the klint and in the valleys cutting into the bedrock, graptolite argillite and phosphorite rich in U are exposed or spread beneath the Quaternary cover. Further to the west, these rocks crop out on the bottom of the Gulf of Finland. Their clasts and smalls are found in various glacial and marine deposits and serve as the main sources of Rn hazard and elevated natural radiation.
The position of the northern boundary of the distribution area of graptolite argillite and obolus sandstone (with phosphorite) prior to the continental glaciation is not known, but based on the palaeogeographic conclusions (Mannil, 1966), it was several kilometres or even tens of kilometres northward of their present-day outcrop line in the klint escarpment. Thus, several billions of tonnes of U-rich rock material crushed by glaciers have been carried southwards. As a result of the activity of the continental glacier, the U-rich material was mixed with the material with background U concentration, and when the continental glacier retreated, the mixed material mostly deposited on the bedrock surface as till of variable thickness (Petersell et al., 2005).
The investigation points were selected so that they would be characteristic of the major potential Rn risk areas and most important lithotypes of the Quaternary cover. Their coordinates were determined by Garmin GPS 76.
Field investigations were carried out in 31 points (Fig. 1). Their position was determined in detail within a circle ca 200 mm in diameter, considering that the ground surface should be flat, without any visible evidence of technogeneous contamination, and the gamma radiation level (determined with CPII-88H) should be typical for the area. The concentration on Rn in the investigation points was determined simultaneously by two methods: (1) calculated on the basis of the content of eU (ppm) or [sup.226]Ra (Bq/kg) measured with a portable gamma ray spectrometer (RnG) and (2) by direct measurements of Rn (kBq/[m.sup.3]) in soil air with a Markus-10 emanometer (RnM) (Petersell et al., 2005).
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
The eU concentration in soil was measured with a portable gamma ray spectrometer (Detector model GPX-21A) at the bottom of the excavations (depth 80 cm, cross-section area ca 20 cm x 20 cm). The concentration of Rn in soil air was determined directly with a Markus-10 emanometer at the same depth. Simultaneously, the genetic type of the Quaternary deposit was identified and soil samples were taken from the excavation bottom to determine in the laboratory the concentrations of elements accompanying eU.
Based on the eU concentration measured with the gamma ray spectrometer, the concentration of Rn in soil air balanced with Ra was calculated according to the following formula from Clavensjo & Akerblom (1994):
RnG = Ae[delta](1 - p)[p.sup.-1],
where RnG is Rn maximum content developed, kBq/[m.sup.3]; A is eU concentration, Bq/kg; e is Rn emanation factor; [delta] is compact volume weight (specific weight), kg/[m.sup.3]; and p is porosity (1 g/t eU = 12.35 Bq/kg ; Petersell et al., 2005).
Based on the depth, soil type, and Rn diffusion dependence graph (Clavensjo & Akerblom, 1994), the results of directly measured Rn concentrations were recalculated to the standard depth of 1 m.
The soil samples collected at the bottom of excavations were dried, the < 2 mm fraction was separated and ground into powder by quartering. The powder was then sent to AcmeLabs in Canada where the concentrations of approximately 50 elements were determined, including U, Th, K, P, and Mo, which were of special interest for our investigation team. The concentration of F was determined at the laboratory of the Geological Survey of Estonia. In the investigation area the dispersion of the measured elements was very high and changeable (Table 2), therefore further the geometric mean concentrations and standard coefficients were used to assess the concentrations of elements.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Concentration of eU
Different authors have assessed the average concentration of eU in the Earth's crust to be 2.5-3 g/t (Wedephol, 1995). The average concentration of eU in Estonian Quaternary cover is 2.14 g/t, mostly (68%) 0.9-4.9 g/t (Petersell et al., 2005). Thus in the area under discussion the average eU concentration in soil--6.11 g/t--more than twice exceeded the average for the whole Estonian territory, the variation in concentrations was very high, and the maximum concentration reached 19 g/t (Fig. 2, Table 2).
The lateral distribution of eU concentrations was very changeable. Unambiguously, the highest eU concentrations occurred in the klint belt, both on its slope and in the Quaternary deposits in front of the escarpment, irrespective of the lithotype. Southwards, the eU concentration in Quaternary deposits gradually decreased. Near the klint escarpment in the till (investigation point No. 26) the eU concentration was 9.6 g/t, but in the carbonate-rich till in the southern part of the study area (investigation point No. 18) it was less than 1 g/t.
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
The highest eU concentrations, ranging from 5.5-19.0 g/t, were observed in the talus slope of the klint escarpment and in the deposits of its intermediate escarpments. As for lithotypes, the highest eU concentrations were related to fore-klint and klint slope deposits (Table 3). The concentration of eU in the talus deposit more than twice exceeded the average concentration of the area, characterizing the generally high but extremely variable share of the material originating from graptolite argillite and obolus phosphorite. Besides, the eU concentration was changeable and frequently high in the sand and silt of different Baltic Sea development stages (Table 3), reaching even 12.4 g/t in the sand in front of the klint escarpment (investigation point No. 11). It reflects wave erosion of the klint escarpment, but also an increased content of granitoid material of the rapakivi formation. Generally, the concentration of eU was lower in glaciolacustrine deposits and carbonate-rich till; however, patches with higher eU concentration occurred within these deposits as well.
Radon in soil air
The concentration of Rn in soil air was determined by two methods: calculated on the basis of the eU concentration in soil (RnG) and the Rn preserved in soil air was directly measured (RnM). As Rn is a direct decay product of eU, there is an unambiguous correlation between the soil's eU concentration and the generated Rn concentration (RnG), which is influenced only by the variable emanation capacity of lithotypes. Studies have shown that only 20-35% of the Rn formed as a result of Ra decay in grains of soils emanates into soil air (Petersell et al., 2005). The emanation coefficient of finer-grained lithotypes was higher, but in general the concentration of Rn formed in soil air followed the distribution and regularities of eU in soil.
Concentration of Rn formed in soil air by Ra decay
The concentration of Rn in soil air calculated from the eU concentration (RnG) characterizes the Rn concentration level that has developed in a closed system with no soil air aeration or additional Rn inflow from deeper soil or bedrock layers.
In Harju County the RnG concentration in soil air well correlated with the eU concentration in soil (Table 4). The highest concentrations (up to 280 kBq/[m.sup.3]) occurred on the Fore-klint Lowland and in the distribution area of talus deposits, and the lowest (RnG < 13 kBq/[m.sup.3]) in carbonate-rich till. Tables 2 and 3 present the concentrations of RnG in different lithotypes of the study area.
Figure 3 presents the areal distribution of RnG concentrations in the study area, which is close to the distribution of eU concentrations (Fig. 2).
The concentration of RnG varied considerably, from 13 to 280 kBq/[m.sup.3] with the average being 90 kBq/[m.sup.3], which exceeds threefold the average value for Estonian soils (27 kBq/[m.sup.3]; Petersell et al., 2005) and is 1.8 times higher than the maximum permissible concentration for construction activity without applying Rn protection measures (50 kBq/[m.sup.3]; Eesti Standardikeskus, 2009).
Residual concentration of Rn in soil air
Although the concentration of Rn formed from eU was stable in soil air, the natural soils are not a closed system and some Rn formed as a Ra decay product emanates into air. At he same time, Rn may accrue to soil air also from deeper soil/bedrock layers. Such so-called residual concentration of Rn (RnM) generally follows the same regularities as the concentrations formed from eU in soil. Although the average concentrations of RnG and RnM in soil air of the region were generally similar (Fig. 3), differences in their areal distribution are notable (Figs 3-6; Tables 2, 3).
[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]
Investigations carried out in Sweden (Clavensjo & Akerblom, 1994) showed that when a humus horizon has developed on the ground surface, at a depth of 1 m the concentration of RnM forms 50-90% of the Rn formed from eU. Figure 7 presents the concentrations of Rn in soil air calculated on the basis of eU (RnG) as well as those measured with a Markus-10 (RnM) in various lithotypes. In general, the observation points with high RnM values were located on the flat fore-klint area in front of the klint escarpment, as well as in talus deposits and on the slopes of ancient valleys. Some high RnM concentrations in soil air were found also outside these areas.
[FIGURE 6 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 7 OMITTED]
A characteristic feature was that in some investigation points the RnM concentration in the soil air was several times lower than could be assumed from the concentration of eU, while in others RnM concentrations many times exceeded those suggested by the concentrations of eU (Fig. 6). In the former case, the sandy soil with a high eU concentration was covered by a very poorly developed humus horizon (e.g. investigation point No. 6, RnG = 138 kBq/[m.sup.3]; RnM = 17 kBq/[m.sup.3]). The latter case (e.g. investigation point No. 14, RnG = 28 kBq/[m.sup.3]; RnM = 94 kBq/[m.sup.3]) was observed when the soil with a background eU concentration was overlain by a dense and thick (> 20 cm) humus horizon and there existed an additional inflow of Rn from graptolite argillite and obolus phosphorite lying at a depth of 65-75 m. Our investigation showed that in the soil air of the limestone fissures of the alvar areas on the limestone plateaus in Harju County the concentration of Rn reached up to 96 kBq/[m.sup.3].
As mentioned above, the Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks have a southward dipping of about 3 m/km. Consequently, in the distribution area of soils with a background eU concentration high concentrations of Rn of deep origin (investigation point No. 20, RnM = 73 kBq/[m.sup.3]) were observed even in areas where rocks with a high content of U lie at a depth of more than 100 m below ground surface. Such distribution of eU content by areas and lithotypes indicates its direct connection with the U-rich rocks exposed in the klint escarpment. Although it is obvious that continental glaciers carried their clasts and smalls to the south and sea abrasion and accumulation to the north, precise elucidation of their distribution in the Quaternary deposits can be done only by detailed geochemical mapping.
The reasons of the above-described phenomena are variable. Often graptolite argillite or phosphorite layers crop out beneath talus deposits in front of the klint as well as in the slopes of valleys and in fore-klint flat areas, or clasts or fines of graptolite argillite or phosphorite occur in deeper layers of deposits. Such areas present health hazards to residents. These are common in the intermediate klint plateaus (e.g. at Suurupi, Rannamoisa, Tiskre, Joelahtme, etc.). The Rn potential of graptolite argillite and obolus phosphorite can be high, depending on the concentration of eU in rocks, reaching up to 1400 kBq/[m.sup.3] in graptolite argillite and up to 400 kBq/[m.sup.3] in obolus phosphorite. In massive rock bodies as a maximum 10% of the Rn formed in them is mobile, but in fissured rocks or when crushed in the process of construction activity or when the varieties rich in clasts or fines of graptolite argillite and phosphorite are present, they may become hazardous sources of migrating Rn (e.g. observation point No. 22).
As was mentioned above, in the study area the main sources of high Rn concentrations in soil air are the Lower-Ordovician U-rich rocks, graptolite argillite, and obolus sandstone (phosphorite), and among the Quaternary deposits, clasts and fines of the above-mentioned rocks and to a lesser extent the Quaternary deposits enriched with erratic granitoid material of the rapakivi formation.
In addition to U, graptolite argillite is also rich in K and environmentally harmful elements Mo, V, As, etc. In phosphorite the content of these elements is small, but the content of F is high.
Consequently, in high Rn-risk areas the concentrations of Mo, F, and other elements listed above exceed the safe limit for residence and can cause health problems. The connections between U and accompanying hazardous elements are reflected in their correlations (Table 4).
There is a distinct positive correlation between RnG, eU, U, P, F, and Mo. The correlation between RnM and RnG and other listed elements is mostly positive, but frequently also neutral, reflecting the discrepancies between RnM and RnG in observation points.
The content of the elements in graptolite argillite and phosphorite associations is closely entwined. Such entwinement, but a rather regular relationship with U, can be seen on the ABC diagrams of elements (Fig. 8).
In soil the characteristic high K content in graptolite argillite is supplemented with K from granite and other rocks. As a result, K is neutral towards the observed environmentally hazardous elements or is negatively correlated.
[FIGURE 8 OMITTED]
In Harju County the concentration of Rn in soil air was high (> 50 kBq/[m.sup.3]) or very high (> 250 kBq/[m.sup.3]), and its distribution was heterogeneous. The concentration of Rn several times exceeded the average values of Estonian soil and the Earth's crust. The reason is presence of U-rich graptolite argillite and obolus phosphorite in the geological sequence and distribution of their clasts and fines in Quaternary deposits. The concentration of Rn was especially high in the klint zone where graptolite argillite and phosphorite are exposed or directly underlie the Quaternary cover, or the Quaternary deposits rich in clasts and fines of these rocks are present.
The concentration of Rn calculated from eU in soil air was temporally stable and well correlated with the concentration of eU as well as U, and was somewhat variable by lithotypes.
The natural soil in the study area is not a closed system and therefore the Rn formed by Ra decay partly migrates to air. At the same time, an additional inflow of Rn into soil air occurs from lower graptolite argillite and phosphorite beds. Thus, the concentration of Rn measured with a Markus-10 is actually residual concentration. Although it generally followed the same regularities as the concentration of Rn formed from eU in soil, there were considerable discrepancies in the lateral distribution. Depending on the location of the investigation point, type of Rn source, aeration properties of soils, time of measuring, moisture content, and some other factors, the results obtained by the two methods used considerably differed. In case Rn sources are present, additional Rn may migrate into soil air from a depth of 100 m and even from greater depths.
The soils beneath dwellings and their nearest surroundings with a high concentration of Rn or Rn formed in the bedrock under the Quaternary deposits serve as the main sources of Rn in indoor air of dwellings.
The high and very high Rn-risk areas did not follow the distribution of genetic-lithologic types of Quaternary deposits. Outlining these and elucidating their Rn-risk level can be performed only by detailed measurements with applying two parallel methods: calculated from the eU concentration and directly measured with a Markus-10 in soil air.
In the high Rn-risk areas within the klint zone there were some investigation points where the content of U, F, Mo, and other elements exceeded the recommended and even permissible level for residential areas.
The authors are grateful to the reviewers for constructive comments and suggestions on the manuscript.
Received 23 May 2011, revised 8 July 2011
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Krista Juriado (a) ([mail]), Valter Petersell (b), and Anto Raukas (c)
(a) Tallinn University, Narva mnt 25, 10120 Tallinn, Estonia
(b) Geological Survey of Estonia, Kadaka tee 82, 12618 Tallinn, Estonia
(c) Institute of Ecology at Tallinn University, Uus-Sadama 5, 10120 Tallinn, Estonia
([mail]) Corresponding author, firstname.lastname@example.org
Table 1. Average concentration of radioactive and some other elements in graptolite argillite and phosphorite (Petersell et al., 2008) Regions Western Maardu Kuusalu Parent rock Harju of Estonian Element County soil (a) In graptolite argillite Uranium, g/t 86 36 84 2.1 Uranium (prevailing 30-170 20-90 30-160 content), g/t Thorium, g/t 10 8 12 5.8 Molybdenum, g/t 162 53 210 0.94 Potassium, % 5.9 6.2 5.1 1.86 In phosphorite Uranium (c), g/t 22 16 2.1 Thorium, g/t 7.4 12 5.8 Fluorine, g/t 12 600 8 400 284 Potassium, % <0.2 <0.2 1.86 [P.sub.2][O.sub.5], % 13 8.5 0.096 Earth crust Element average (b) In graptolite argillite Uranium, g/t 2.5 Uranium (prevailing content), g/t Thorium, g/t 10.3 Molybdenum, g/t 1.4 Potassium, % 2.86 In phosphorite Uraniumc, g/t Thorium, g/t Fluorine, g/t 611 Potassium, % [P.sub.2][O.sub.5], % 0.150 (a) In this paper, the generally non-weathered Quaternary deposit (horizon C) is considered as the parent rock of Estonian soil. (b) After Wedephol, 1995. (c) In deposits, the U content of phosphorites directly correlates with [P.sub.2][O.sub.5]. Table 2. Results of field measurements and laboratory analyses, arithmetical mean concentrations ([Mean.sub.A]), arithmetical standard deviations (Std [dev.sub.A]), geometrical mean concentrations ([Mean.sub.G]), and geometrical standard deviations (Std [dev.sub.G]) of the calculated activity and contents of elements in different lithotypes: Fore-klint Lowland and talus deposits (kla), glaciolacustrine deposits (lgl), Holocene marine deposits (b), and till (mp) eU content Rn, kBq/[m.sup.3] Point RnG/ number Lithotype g/t Bq/kg RnG RnM RnM 1 kla 10.10 124.74 149.00 15.00 9.93 2 lgl 3.70 45.70 56.00 11.00 5.09 3 lgl 4.20 51.87 64.00 5.00 12.80 4 lgl 2.90 35.82 44.00 108.00 0.41 5 kla 18.10 223.54 262.00 55.00 4.76 6 b 9.30 114.86 138.00 17.00 8.12 7 kla 8.10 100.04 119.00 98.00 1.21 8 kla 5.50 67.93 81.00 31.00 2.61 9 kla 12.70 156.85 187.00 86.00 2.17 10 lgl 2.10 25.94 32.00 24.00 1.33 11 b 12.40 153.14 184.00 195.00 0.94 12 lgl 2.00 24.70 30.00 66.00 0.45 13 b 5.10 62.99 76.00 53.00 1.43 14 mp 2.00 24.70 28.00 94.00 0.30 15 mp 4.90 60.52 69.00 38.00 1.82 16 lgl 3.00 37.05 46.00 35.00 1.31 17 mp 1.90 23.47 27.00 47.00 0.57 18 mp 0.90 11.12 13.00 12.00 1.08 19 mp 1.40 17.29 20.00 11.00 1.82 20 lgl 2.50 30.88 38.00 73.00 0.52 21 mp 4.10 50.64 58.00 90.00 0.64 22 kla 8.70 107.45 128.00 263.00 0.49 23 kla 6.90 85.22 102.00 93.00 1.10 24 kla 12.20 150.67 180.00 184.00 0.98 25 mp 8.20 101.27 116.00 40.00 2.90 26 mp 9.60 118.56 136.00 111.00 1.23 27 lgl 2.90 35.82 44.00 82.00 0.54 28 kla 19.00 234.65 280.00 198.00 1.41 29 b 2.00 24.70 30.00 54.00 0.56 30 b 2.10 25.94 31.00 35.00 0.89 31 mp 1.00 12.35 14.00 38.00 0.37 [Mean.sub.A] 6.11 75.49 89.74 72.97 2.25 Std [dev.sub.A] 4.90 60.49 71.63 62.86 2.97 Min 0.90 11.12 13.00 5.00 0.30 Max 19.00 234.65 280.00 263.00 12.80 [Mean.sub.G] 4.43 54.74 65.12 49.85 1.31 Std devG 2.32 2.32 2.33 2.61 2.67 Limit of safe ~3.6 ~45 50 50 concentration Content of elements Point number Lithotype U, P, F, Mo, K, g/t % g/t g/t % 1 kla 8.30 2.00 3710.00 0.70 0.35 2 lgl 2.90 0.13 250.00 0.10 1.60 3 lgl 3.10 0.46 880.00 0.30 0.86 4 lgl 2.50 0.58 310.00 1.90 1.47 5 kla 20.40 4.25 6780.00 1.90 0.16 6 b 7.80 2.20 4030.00 0.70 0.27 7 kla 7.60 0.57 104.00 1.80 1.91 8 kla 6.70 0.28 660.00 0.40 2.16 9 kla 11.10 1.54 3150.00 2.00 0.23 10 lgl 2.60 0.05 470.00 0.20 2.49 11 b 12.10 2.17 286.00 5.30 0.30 12 lgl 2.00 0.03 260.00 0.50 2.27 13 b 5.20 0.49 1030.00 0.20 0.85 14 mp 1.30 0.04 200.00 0.10 1.07 15 mp 3.00 0.11 270.00 1.00 1.67 16 lgl 2.50 0.14 260.00 0.60 2.08 17 mp 1.50 0.06 230.00 0.20 1.69 18 mp 1.50 0.06 240.00 0.40 1.69 19 mp 1.40 0.05 240.00 0.30 1.64 20 lgl 2.70 0.06 250.00 0.30 2.49 21 mp 3.20 0.21 510.00 0.50 2.08 22 kla 6.70 1.03 1730.00 3.20 1.13 23 kla 5.80 1.11 2430.00 0.80 0.59 24 kla 10.80 1.18 1120.00 7.70 0.96 25 mp 6.40 0.76 1490.00 1.90 0.94 26 mp 9.70 0.42 910.00 12.50 2.03 27 lgl 2.50 0.15 350.00 0.20 1.74 28 kla 16.80 1.01 2090.00 14.30 2.84 29 b 1.40 0.13 190.00 0.10 0.30 30 b 1.70 0.10 250.00 0.40 0.55 31 mp 1.20 0.03 300.00 1.10 1.98 [Mean.sub.A] 5.56 0.69 1128.39 1.99 1.37 Std [dev.sub.A] 4.79 0.93 1503.18 3.46 0.78 Min 1.20 0.03 104.00 0.10 0.16 Max 20.40 4.25 6780.00 14.30 2.84 [Mean.sub.G] 4.00 0.28 591.43 0.74 1.07 Std devG 2.28 4.29 3.01 3.91 2.26 Limit of safe 20 450 10 concentration Table 3. Arithmetical mean concentrations ([Mean.sub.A]), arithmetical standard deviations (Std [dev.sub.A]), geometrical mean concentrations ([Mean.sub.G]), and geometrical standard deviations (Std [dev.sub.G]) of the calculated activity and contents of elements in different lithotypes: Holocene marine deposits (b), glaciolacustrine deposits (lgll, till (mp), and Fore-klint Lowland and talus deposits (kla) Rn, kBq/ eU content [m.sup.3] Litho- Number Geochemical type of points parameter ppm Bq/kg RnG RnM b 5 [Mean.sub.A] 6.2 76.3 92 71 Std [dev.sub.A] 4.6 56.5 68 71 [Mean.sub.G] 4.8 58.9 71 51 Std [dev.sub.G] 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.4 lgl 8 [Mean.sub.A] 2.9 36.0 44 51 Std [dev.sub.A] 0.8 9.3 11 37 [Mean.sub.G] 2.8 35.0 43 34 Std [dev.sub.G] 1.3 1.3 1.3 3.0 mp 9 [Mean.sub.A] 3.8 46.7 53 53 Std [dev.sub.A] 3.2 39.8 46 36 [Mean.sub.G] 2.7 33.3 38 41 Std [dev.sub.G] 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.3 kla 9 [Mean.sub.A] 11.3 139.0 165 114 Std [dev.sub.A] 4.7 58.5 69 84 [Mean.sub.G] 10.4 128.6 153 83 Std [dev.sub.G] 1.5 1.5 1.5 2.5 All 31 [Mean.sub.A] 6.1 75.5 106 90 Std [dev.sub.A] 4.9 60.5 72 72 [Mean.sub.G] 4.4 54.7 83 65 Std [dev.sub.G] 2.32 2.32 2.33 2.61 Litho- Number Geochemical RnG/ Content of elements type of points parameter RnM U, P, F, g/t % g/t b 5 [Mean.sub.A] 2.39 5.6 1.02 1157 Std [dev.sub.A] 3.22 4.5 1.08 1642 [Mean.sub.G] 1.40 4.1 0.50 563 Std [dev.sub.G] 2.82 2.6 4.4 3.6 lgl 8 [Mean.sub.A] 2.81 2.6 0.20 379 Std [dev.sub.A] 4.33 0.3 0.20 216 [Mean.sub.G] 1.25 2.6 0.13 343 Std [dev.sub.G] 3.53 1.1 2.8 1.6 mp 9 [Mean.sub.A] 1.19 3.2 0.19 488 Std [dev.sub.A] 0.86 2.9 0.25 438 [Mean.sub.G] 0.93 2.4 0.11 376 Std [dev.sub.G] 2.17 2.1 3.1 2.0 kla 9 [Mean.sub.A] 2.74 10.5 1.44 2419 Std [dev.sub.A] 2.98 5.0 1.16 1998 [Mean.sub.G] 1.84 9.6 1.12 1556 Std [dev.sub.G] 2.48 1.5 2.1 3.4 All 31 [Mean.sub.A] 2.25 5.6 0.69 1128 Std [dev.sub.A] 2.97 4.8 0.93 1503 [Mean.sub.G] 1.31 4.0 0.28 591 Std [dev.sub.G] 2.67 2.28 4.29 3.0 Content of elements Litho- Number Geochemical Mo, K, type of points parameter g/t % b 5 [Mean.sub.A] 1.34 0.45 Std [dev.sub.A] 2.23 0.25 [Mean.sub.G] 0.49 0.41 Std [dev.sub.G] 4.5 1.6 lgl 8 [Mean.sub.A] 0.51 1.88 Std [dev.sub.A] 0.58 0.57 [Mean.sub.G] 0.35 1.78 Std [dev.sub.G] 2.4 1.4 mp 9 [Mean.sub.A] 2.00 1.64 Std [dev.sub.A] 3.98 0.40 [Mean.sub.G] 0.68 1.59 Std [dev.sub.G] 4.1 1.3 kla 9 [Mean.sub.A] 3.64 1.15 Std [dev.sub.A] 4.56 0.95 [Mean.sub.G] 2.01 0.77 Std [dev.sub.G] 3.1 2.8 All 31 [Mean.sub.A] 1.99 1.37 Std [dev.sub.A] 3.46 0.78 [Mean.sub.G] 0.74 1.07 Std [dev.sub.G] 3.91 2.26 Table 4. Correlation of U with main accompanying contaminants All eU RnG RM U P F Mo K eU 1 RnG 1 1 RnM 0.510 0.514 1 U 0.979 0.978 0.454 1 P 0.803 0.803 0.221 0.834 1 F 0.719 0.716 0.023 0.738 0.895 1 Mo 0.663 0.660 0.634 0.629 0.212 0.129 1 K -0.299 -0.301 0.016 -0.273 -0.609 -0.526 0.199 1 Fig. 5. Maximum, minimum, and mean values of RnG and RnM in different lithotypes: Fore-klint Lowland and talus deposits (kla), glaciolacustrine deposits (lgl), Holocene marine deposits (b), and till (mp). Rn, kBq/[m.sup.3] RnM, RnG, and lithotype kla lgl b mp All RnM RnG RnM RnG RnM RnG RnM RnG RnM RnG max 263 280 108 64 195 184 111 136 263 280 min 114 165 51 44 71 92 53 53 73 90 meanA 15 81 5 30 17 30 11 13 5 13 Note: Table made from line graph.
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|Author:||Juriado, Krista; Petersell, Valter; Raukas, Anto|
|Publication:||Estonian Journal of Ecology|
|Date:||Dec 1, 2011|
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