Radiocarbon dates from the top end: a cultural chronology for the Northern Territory coastal plains.
As pointed out recently by Ulm (2006:5), 'establishing secure regional chronologies remains a fundamental key to building meaningful accounts on intra- and inter-regional sequences in Australia'. This paper reports a comprehensive summary of radiocarbon dates from early to late Holocene Aboriginal coastal sites in the Northern Territory. It includes both new and previously reported dates from the Reynolds River in the west to the southern coast of the Gulf of Carpentaria in the east. More than 300 radiocarbon dates are now available and these enable more comprehensive comparisons of human settlement and resource use on the coastal plains of the Top End, including identification of phases of cultural change within these landscapes that broadly correlate with environmental and climatic phases.
Coastal site types that have been dated include shell mounds, shell middens, earth mounds, artefact scatters, rock-shelters, and Macassan, European and Chinese contact sites. Here we differentiate between shell middens and shell mounds based on their morphology. Shell middens conform to low, horizontally spread shell deposits over or just below the ground surface (Bourke 2000), whereas shell mounds are larger shell deposits greater than 30 centimetres in height, often occurring as conical or steep-sided ridges (Bourke 2000:60, Hiscock 2008:175-6). The site types identified above are located in five broadly defined regions (Figure 1, Table 1)--the west coast (Reynolds River); the Darwin region (Darwin Harbour, Hope Inlet, Adelaide and Mary Rivers); western Arnhem Land (Alligator Rivers, Magela Creek, Coburg Peninsula); central Arnhem Land (Blyth River, Milingimbi); and eastern Arnhem Land (Cape Arnhem, Port Bradshaw, Blue Mud Bay, Groote Eylandt, Sir Edward Pellew Island Group).
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
Geomorphic evidence demonstrates that the north Australian coastal plains on which many of these sites are located are relatively recent formations, which have undergone dynamic evolutionary processes over the mid to late Holocene period. The evolutionary sequence of the coastal plains was similar right across the Territory, with variability related to regional topography and the timing of landscape change (Woodroffe 1995:80). Coastal progradation of this Top End low-energy coast is ongoing today in the context of a climate characterised by two major and clearly delineated seasons--an extended seven-month dry season from May to November, and a wet season from December to April featuring severe storms and cyclones that impact upon the coast.
Holocene evolution of the coastal plains
During the post-Pleistocene transgression, prior coastlines were flooded. Former peninsulas became islands; for example, Groote Eylandt and Vanderlin Island in the Sir Edward Pellew Island Group in the Gulf of Carpentaria were cut off from the mainland about 7000 years BP (Prebble et al. 2005:358). Down-cut river valleys of northern Australia were drowned. Some, like Darwin Harbour, became deep-water embayments. Others, through processes of sedimentation, formed vast mangrove swamps. This has been described as the 'Big Swamp Phase' and dates from about 7000 BP (Chappell 1988; Woodroffe 1988; Woodroffe et al. 1985, 1986). Following the cessation of sea-level rise about 6000 BP, sedimentation and coastal progradation resulted in vertical accretion of the floodplains, and caused the subsequent development of extensive coastal plains found across the north. The mangroves retreated seawards and towards the banks of the rivers and had mainly disappeared from the floodplains by 4000 years BP (Woodroffe et al. 1988:98). There followed a so-called 'Sinuous Phase', which describes the meandering nature of the rivers across the coastal plains. This was a transitional period, when palaeochannels were created and the floodplains contained a mosaic of estuarine, freshwater and mudflat areas. The 'Cuspate Phase', the next phase, refers to the development of wide reaches and pointed bends of the rivers, which occurred after 2500 years ago. Continued sedimentation and the slowing of coastal progradation during this phase led to a cut-off of tidal influence. Freshwater ponded behind the cheniers and in palaeochannels, and by 2000 BP had created the vast freshwater floodplains and wetlands that are a major feature of the northern coastal plains today (Chappell 1988; Woodroffe et al. 1988) (Figure 2).
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
Recent reviews of the climate history of the South Pacific region indicate a change from low seasonality in the early Holocene to increased seasonality in the late Holocene (Markgraf et al. 1992; Shulmeister 1999:86). There also appears to be a general trend towards increased aridity in the mid to late Holocene, as supported by data extracted from coral, foraminifera, varve, lake and sea-bottom sediments from sites in Australia and the circum-Pacific region (e.g. Hope and Golson 1995; Kershaw 1995; Kim et al. 2002; Koutavas et al. 2002; McGlone et al. 1992; McPhail and Hope 1985; Nott et al. 1999:233; Singh and Luly 1991). Evidence from pollen records on Groote Eylandt are also indicative of changes, from continuously increasing rainfall (effective precipitation) during the early Holocene, to a period of reduced rainfall and increased climatic variability after 4000 BP with the onset of the modern ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation)-dominated climatic regime (Lees 1992; Lees et al. 1990; Nott and Price 1999; Shulmeister and Lees 1995). Geomorphic data from cheniers and coastal dunefields indicate that some of the observed changes in these systems were synchronous across north Australia, and may represent coherent, broad-scale climatic signals (Lees 1992; Lees and Clements 1987; Lees et al. 1990, 1992, 1995; Prebble et al. 2005:367-9; Shulmeister 1999:82) (Figure 3).
[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]
All the dates discussed here have been calibrated in order to ensure a robust comparison of the conventional radiocarbon ages from different regions and site types. The radiocarbon ages were calibrated to 2 sigma using CALIB 5.0.1. Determinations based on terrestrially derived samples with ages less than 11 000 BP, such as charcoal, were calibrated using the SHCa104.14c calibration curve for the southern hemisphere. Dates on marine samples greater than 448 BP were calibrated using the marine 04.14c calibration curve. Those regions located within the Gulf of Carpentaria were calibrated with a [DELTA]R correction value of 12 [+ or -] 7, with the remainder of the radiocarbon ages from other regions of the Northern Territory calibrated with a AR correction value of 65 [+ or -] 24. This has been done to account for very broad differences in regional correction factors. Samples too young for the use of the calibration curves are presented in the Appendix as 'modern'. Once calibrated, the 1 and 2 sigma summed probabilities of each grouping of radiocarbon dates were graphed (excluding the modern dates). In this way, the probabilities are ranked and summed to find the 1 sigma (68.3 percent) and 2 sigma (95.4 percent) confidence intervals and the relative areas under the probability curve, with the total area under the probability curve normalised to one. This provides a base from which to compare broad regions and differences in site type (Figure 4).
[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]
Early Holocene: Transgressive Phase (~ 10 000-6000 BP)
As many of the archaeological sites for this period would be located on the now drowned sections of the north Australian coast, evidence of occupation dated to this period, encompassing the time of rising sea levels and the Big Swamp Phase, is scarce. Thus, information that is available for this period is represented mainly by data from deposits in rock-shelters, on the Arnhem Land escarpment and outliers of higher topography. Studies of these sites, listed in Table 1, complement geomorphic and palynological data, indicating that effective precipitation and temperature were gradually increasing during this phase.
Mid Holocene: Terminal Big Swamp Phase (~ 6000-4000 BP)
Dramatic landscape change during this period, as sea levels stabilised and coastal plains began prograding seaward, with the decline of the Big Swamp Phase, was accompanied by important cultural changes. While archaeological data from this period continues to come mainly from rockshelters, the appearance of shell mounds and earth mounds around 4500 years BP (Appendix) represents significant modifications in cultural behaviour. Effective precipitation and temperature continued to increase until approximately 5000 BP, followed by the onset of an ENSO-dominated climate towards the end of this period (Shulmeister and Lees 1995). On Vanderlin Island in the Sir Edward Pellew Island Group, the archaeological record indicates a period of localised abandonment between about 6500 and 4200 years BP (Prebble et al. 2005:360; Sire and Wallis 2008).
Mid to Late Holocene: Transition Phase (~ 4000-2000 BP)
Studies on sites dated to the mid to late Holocene (References, Table 1), a period of climatic uncertainty and rapidly changing environments with increased resource patchiness, suggest flexible, varying and mobile foraging strategies. Researchers have interpreted the diversity of molluscan and other faunal species exploited and the scattered location of these open sites as suggesting varying and mobile foraging strategies in response to the mosaic and dynamic nature of the floodplains and coastal plains during the Transition Phase. Increased climatic variability after 4000 BP coincides with increasing numbers of shell mounds, earth mounds and shell middens recorded for this time period, along with continued occupation of rock-shelters (Appendix). However, Allen, H and Barton (1989:90-1) argue that several rock-shelter sites in western Arnhem Land were mostly abandoned by the end of the Transition Phase and only occupied sporadically afterwards. There was an increase in numbers of open coastal and sub-coastal sites towards the end of this period, around 2000 BP. Cultural changes are not confined to the Top End coast. New elements appeared throughout Australia in the mid-Holocene, such as dingos and plant detoxifying technologies, as well as changes in stone technology that some researchers have interpreted as responses to increased risks and uncertainty (Clarkson 2007; Hiscock 1994a, 1994b, 1996, 2006).
Late Holocene: Early Freshwater Phase (~ 2000-500 BP)
This period encompassed by the early Freshwater Phase and characterised by continuing decline in effective precipitation and increasing climatic variability, particularly from 1000 BP, is reflected in the upper levels of sites close to freshwater wetlands, which were dominated by freshwater fauna and flora. An increasing number of sites dated to this period are mainly represented by shell middens and mounds, but also include rock-shelter deposits and earth mounds. Allen, H and Barton (1989:90-1) argue that rockshelters along the Alligator Rivers in western Arnhem Land were reoccupied in this period after a period of abandonment of at least 2000 years. After 2000 BP, earth mounds proliferated along the margins of newly formed freshwater wetlands (Brockwell 2006). The main period of Anadara-dominated mound building falls within this phase, particularly from 1500-500 years BP in geographically distinct areas such as the Darwin region and northeast Arnhem Land (Bourke 2000:243-4, 2004, 2005b; Faulkner 2008, 2009), while the numerous shell middens of this period date predominantly to 1000-500 BP.
Late Holocene: Late Freshwater Phase (Post-500 BP)
The later Freshwater Phase saw not only continued climatic variability, but major cultural changes stimulated by Macassan contact from at least the 1700s until the early 1900s (Clarke 1994, 2000a, 2000b; Clarke and Frederick 2006; Mitchell 1994:56, 1996; Macknight 1976) and European and Chinese contact from 150 years ago (e.g. Allen, J 1980; Mitchell 2005). Material culture resulting from this contact appears in the few rock-shelters, shell mounds and earth mounds, but more middens are dated to this period. On Groote Eylandt, occupation of rock-shelters falls mainly within the past 500 years.
Discussion and conclusion
Given the large number of dates now available and despite the preliminary nature of the analysis, several interesting patterns begin to emerge. We can see variability in timing and nature of occupation relative to the geomorphic and climatic parameters outlined at both broad and regional scales (see Hiscock 2008:162, 179-81 for a similar argument). This is evident when considering the differential occurrence of open sites, and in particular the strong chronological correlation in the pattern of shell and earth mound formation across the north (Figure 5).
The pattern of settlement on the coastal plains of the Northern Territory pre-Macassan contact more or less followed the evolution of the landscape. With rising seas, evidence of occupation 10 000 years ago was confined mainly to rockshelters on the margins of the coastal plains, although, due to rising sea levels and floodplain accumulation as noted above, the relative absence of open sites during this period may relate more to differential preservation. Groote Eylandt and the Sir Edward Pellew Island Group were cut off from the mainland. As for other parts of the Australian coast, islands were only occupied after 4000 BP. Shortly after the spread of the mangroves in the Big Swamp Phase, people began foraging along the edges of the vast swamps of the northern floodplains from 7000 BP and the rock-shelters adjacent were occupied more intensively. With increasing sedimentation, the mangroves declined and after 4000 BP people began to move out onto the floodplains and onto the rapidly prograding coast, witnessed by the increasing number of open sites located within these particular geomorphic contexts in this period. People also began to travel further out to sea, re-inhabiting the Sir Edward Pellew Island Group, after having previously abandoned the islands as their cut-off became imminent with sea level rise. Between 4000 and 2000 BP there was a diversity of fresh and salt water environments being exploited on the floodplains, as reflected by the evidence from rock-shelters and open sites.
[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]
Following sea-level stabilisation, continued sedimentation in former shallow embayments built out intertidal mudflats suitable for optimum shellfish biomass. This saw the proliferation of shell mounds dominated by shell species from open beach habitats in a number of regions across the Territory between approximately 3000-500 BP. Figure 3 (grey shading) shows the chronology of the main mounding period relative to the environmental data. From 2000 BP, freshwater conditions were established on the sub-coastal plains and earth mounds and open sites proliferated along the floodplain margins. Apart from a few older examples from the Reynolds and Adelaide Rivers, the majority of earth mounds are less than 2000 years old. They tend to occur at the junction of a number of resource zones close to the coast, or on black soil plains that contain extensive freshwater wetland systems bordering open woodland. Shell middens that occur along the coast and adjacent to palaeochannels on the floodplains of major rivers across the Top End are mostly less than 2000 years old, with the majority being less than 1000 years old. A few older exceptions are in western Arnhem Land, where middens were found buried on the South Alligator River floodplains, and one site from the Blyth River. Between 800 and 500 years BP, environmental change in shoreline characteristics and climatic variability associated with ENSO activity led to a decline of sandy/mudflat shell beds and shell mounding behaviour ceased (Bourke et al. 2007). Subsequently, economies appear to have again diversified to utilise more extensively mangrove-lined shores and coastal wetlands, and middens with shell species harvested from varied habitats became more common after 500 years BP. There is a suggestion that there may have been some relocation from the coast to the seasonally abundant sub-coastal freshwater wetlands on the mainland during this period (Hiscock 1999).
While preliminary in nature, the data presented here suggest a reasonably strong accord between the timing and nature of Aboriginal occupation across the coastal plains of the Northern Territory and the dominant environmental and climatic phases occurring throughout the Holocene. The effects of sample or research bias, differential preservation and visibility of archaeological material in these areas aside, phases of cultural change within these landscapes can be identified, which highlights in very broad terms the complexity and diversity of human responses to environmental variability. That said, these are important elements that require further consideration to strengthen the preliminary interpretations presented here, and to more adequately address issues of human responses during the Holocene, as well as taphonomic processes. Studies elsewhere in Australia have highlighted the importance of these issues in evaluating evidence stemming from large samples of age determinations relative to environmental factors and human behaviour. For example, Ulm (2006) discusses for the Queensland coast inherent bias in samples of this type that cover a wide geographic area with a relatively long history of archaeological research, relating to the particular methodological and research focus of individual researchers. Further discussion of this data and the interpretation of human behaviour relative to environmental changes will need to build on and discuss the regional archaeological context to account for research bias. There is also the need to incorporate the finer-scale regional interpretations of human behaviour into a larger-scale discussion of this type. There has been some contextualisation, albeit briefly, of the age determination data by referring to the original archaeological interpretations, regional variability in occupation and use of these coastal landscapes that requires acknowledgment and incorporation into broader-scale interpretations (e.g. Bird, C and Frankel 1991:181; Ulm 2006:9).
It is also acknowledged here that the coastal landscapes of the Northern Territory are dynamic environments and, as such, can dramatically affect the preservation of archaeological sites through time and space. Evidence for the destruction of archaeological deposits in open sites (Bird, M 1992; Przywolnik 2002; Rowland 1989) and rock-shelters (e.g. Ward 2004) requires a strong consideration of whether the patterns we see reflect human behaviour and environmental interactions or natural processes of disturbance. For example, there is the differential representation of rock-shelters during the early Holocene and a predominance of open sites during the mid to late Holocene. These patterns may reflect the archaeological visibility of these different site types with taphonomic alteration of the record through time and space, as well as the particular research focus of different researchers. We cannot, therefore, assume that there is a simple one-to-one relationship between human behaviour and the structure of the archaeological record.
Even considering these important issues, the aim of this paper is to highlight the available chronological patterns across the coastal plains of the Northern Territory relative to both behavioural and environmental factors. With this in mind, and considering the scale of this research report, further discussion of differential preservation and the archaeological visibility of cultural material within these dynamic coastal landscapes are not appropriate. Following from this preliminary work, therefore, is the need to address these issues and questions at a finer geographic and temporal scale, which will form the subject of a future paper.
Appendix: Available dates (calibrated) from Northern Territory coastal plains sites Region Site name Site type Depth/ context Western Djagorda 2 shelter XU15 region West Ngarradj Warde sands near Jobkeng Arnhem (NWJ) shelter base midden base Nawamoyn shelter 42-48cm Malakanunja II shelter midden base Malakanunja II shelter 65-88cm Kapalga P midden Sub-surface Central Arnhem Muyu-ajirrapa midden East Arnhem Mushroom Rock shelter spit 10 (VB17) Wobuya Shelter shelter spit 21 (WS) WS shelter spit 19 WS shelter spit 14 WS shelter spit 12 W region Majar shelter XU11 Werat 1 mound XU14 Darwin region HD1 earth mound 62-69cm West midden base Arnhem Malangangerr Shelter 85-90cm Malakanunja II Shelter spit 1 sands below NWJ Shelter midden Field Island 1 shell mound surface Field Island 2 shell mound surface Field Island 2 shell mound surface Kapalga H2 Mound surface Kapalga H2 Mound 30cm East Arnhem Borngolo Shelter Shelter Top of unit 2 Worrungulumba Shelter spit 8 W region Walker Creek 6 Shelter XU14 Werat 14 mound surface Darwin region HD1 earth mound 49-56cm Scotch Creek 1 open site 39-43cm MA1 shell mound 25cm Scotch Creek 1 open site 39-43cm HI81 shell mound 140-142cm MP2 earth mound 42-47cm HD1 earth mound 10-19cm HI83 shell mound 16cm HI81 shell mound 103cm MP2 earth mound 53-59cm West Palaeochannel Arnhem Kapalga F midden surface NWJ Shelter midden base Paribari Shelter midden base Kapalga N Mound (deg) surface paleo midden Kapalga K shell scatter surface Kapalga D shell scatter surface Central Arnhem Maganbal Midden Mari-Maramay 1 shell mound 91cm Mari-Maramay 1 shell mound 91cm Mari-Maramay 1 shell mound 50cm Mari-Maramay 1 shell mound 50cm Mari-Maramay 1 shell mound 2cm Macassar Well shell mound 175-185cm Macassar Well shell mound 170-175cm East Arnhem WS shelter Spit 10 Babangi (VB1) shelter Sq B spit 6 Walala III shelter Spit 7 Victoria Bay III shelter Spit 12 Worrungulumba Shelter spit 6 Scissibar Creek shelter spit 13 (SC) Boinmarnda Johnnies shelter shelter Spit 8 Babangi shelter Sq B spit 4 Boinmarnda shelter Spit 4 Mushroom Rock shelter Spit 9 (VB17) BMB/018 Midden 11-17cm Malmudinga Midden TP1 unit 14 BMB/029 shell mound 75-81cm BMB/029 shell mound 58-62cm BMB/029 shell mound 49-53cm BMB/029 shell mound 41-45cm BMB/029 shell mound 23-28cm BMB/029 shell mound 8-llcm BMB/029 shell mound 0-3cm BMB/033 Midden surface Gaynada Midden 20cm BMB/082 shell mound surface Angwurrkburna Shelter C1 unit 9 BMB/093 shell mound surface TP2 27- BMB/067 Midden 31cm W region Pandyal 2 earth mound XU6 Djingur 2 earth mound XU8 Darwin region HI81 shell mound 140-142cm HI81 shell mound 103cm HI81 shell mound 5-9cm HI81 shell mound 5-9cm HI81 shell mound 5cm HI83 shell mound 67cm HI83 shell mound 67cm HI83 shell mound 19cm HI83 shell mound 16-20cm HI97 earth mound 46cm HI97 earth mound 14-16cm HI97 earth mound 14-16cm MA22-D shell mound 85cm MA22-C shell mound 35-40cm MA22-B shell mound 25-30cm MA22-A shell mound 5-lOcm MA21 shell mound 52cm MA21 shell mound 30cm MA21 shell mound 5cm BH3 shell midden basal BH3 shell midden basal BH3 shell midden surface BH3 shell midden surface MA1 shell mound 5cm MA54-C shell mound 40-45cm MA54-B shell mound 20-25cm MA54-A shell mound 5-7cm MA25-C shell mound 29-31cm MA25-B shell mound 21-22cm MA25-A shell mound 4-6cm MA51 TP2-C shell mound 33cm MA51 TP2-B shell mound 17-20cm MA51 TP2-A shell mound 5cm MA51 TP1-C shell mound 75-80cm MA51 TP1-B shell mound 60-65cm MA51 TP1-A shell mound 20cm MA26-C shell mound 34cm MA26-B shell mound 24cm MA26-A shell mound 4cm HR15 shell mound surface HR5 shell mound surface HR17 shell mound surface HR14 shell mound surface MA52a shell mound surface MA28 TP1-C shell mound 45-47cm MA28 TP1-B shell mound 25cm MA28 TP1-A shell mound 5-7cm MA28 TP2-C shell mound 40cm MA28 TP2-B shell mound 30-35cm MA28 TP2-A shell mound 10cm MA24-C shell mound 30cm MA24-B shell mound 21-22cm MA24-A shell mound 4cm MA46-D shell mound 80-85cm MA46-C shell mound 65cm MA46-B shell mound 45cm MA46-A shell mound 15cm MA19-B shell mound 18-20cm MA19-A shell mound 5cm MA16-B shell mound 17cm MA16-A shell mound 4cm MA7 shell mound 30-40cm MA7 shell mound 30-40cm MA7 shell mound 5-15cm MA7 shell mound 5-15cm HI80 shell mound 48-52cm HI80 shell mound 48cm HI80 shell mound 48cm HI80 shell mound 40cm HI80 shell mound 40cm HI80 shell mound 3cm HI80 shell mound 3cm subsurface HI66 midden 35cm MP6 earth mound 43-45cm MP6 earth mound 10-15cm MP5 earth mound 36-41cm MP2 earth mound 42-47cm MP2 earth mound 31-35cm MP2 earth mound 22-26cm Site 40 earth mound surface MA10 shell midden 4cm Mt Dum Shell scatter surface West degraded Arnhem Kapalga G mound surface Kapalga J Mound surface Site 14, Black Pt Midden 5cm Field Island 4 shell mound surface Field Island 3 shell mound surface Site V6, Vashon base auger Head (VH) Midden hole Site V12, VH shell mound base aug hole Stoneline 3 midden 58cm Stoneline 3 midden 58cm Stoneline 3 midden 63cm Stoneline 3 midden 71cm Stoneline 3 midden 81cm Stoneline 3 midden 85cm Stoneline 3 midden 85cm lower Site 19, Port midden midden layer Bremer (Pt B) Site 19, Pt B midden 150-200cm Kapalga C midden surface sterile sand NWJ shelter at top top of midden 8- Malangangerr shelter 10cm Central Arnhem Gupanga Diama shell mound Dreaming Muyu-ajirrapa midden Muyu-ajirrapa shell mound Jilan-gajerra midden Larrakun-ajirrapa West (Larra W) midden Ji-bena 1 earth mound 160-165cm Ji-bena 1 earth mound 148-160cm Ji-bena 1 earth mound 91-122cm Ji-bena 1 earth mound 86-100cm Ji-bena 1 earth mound 48-55cm Larra W midden Gulukula shell mound Ngalijibama shell mound Aningarra midden 2.5m over Garki shell mound base Garki shell mound basal Garki 18 shell mound 15cm Madanangum 96 shell mound basal Wallaby Mound shell mound basal Gadjaw 116 shell mound 100cm Macassar Well shell mound 125cm Rulku midden 55cm Balma 83 midden basal East Arnhem BMB/101 shell mound surface BMB/071 shell mound 42-46cm BMB/071 shell mound 19-24cm BMB/071 shell mound 0-3cm BMB/052 shell mound surface Malmudinga midden TP1 unit 10 Gaynada midden 70cm Gaynada midden 40cm BMB/061 midden 22cm BMB/061 midden 0-4cm TP2 27- BMB/067 midden 31cm BMB/067 midden TP2 0-2cm BMB/067 midden TP1 1-5cm Angwurrkburna shelter C1 unit 5 Base of unit Borngolo Shelter shelter 1 Dadirringka shelter C1 unit 15 Dadirringka shelter C1 unit 8 Komandarri-naboya shelter Spit 10 (KN) KN shelter Spit 2 KN shelter spit 5 Walala III shelter spit 1 Ararrkba shelter A1 unit 7 Worrungulumba Shelter spit 2 Aburrkbumanja midden TP2 unit 6 Boinmarnda shelter spit 1 BMB/017 midden 5-8cm KN shelter spit 1 BMB/116 shell mound 32-36cm TP3 29- BMB/084 midden 34cm TP1 14- BMB/084 midden 17cm East Neck Saddle midden spit 5 (ENII) Dirrangmurumanja midden TP1 unit 14 (Dirra) Dirra midden TP1 unit 10 Dirra midden TP1 unit 4 BMB/045 shell mound 91-95cm BMB/045 shell mound 43-46cm BMB/045 shell mound 0-2cm BMB/036 shell mound surface BMB/003 midden 0-5cm Marngkala Cave shelter F1 unit 4 Marngkala Cave shelter H2 unit 6 SC shelter split 5 SC shelter Spit 8 SC shelter spit 2 Turtle Shelter shelter spit 5 Turtle Shelter shelter spit 10 Turtle Shelter shelter spit 1 WS shelter spit 2 Investigator Bay scatter surface EN1 shelter spit 11 Barbara Cove Mound (BCM) shell mound base BCM shell mound spit 8 BCM shell mound spit 4 BCM shell mound spit 2 Victoria Bay III shelter spit 6 Vanderlin Crk 2 scatter surface Wobuya Creek scatter surface W Region Djingur 1 earth mound XU8 Darwin region MA52b scatter surface WIN10 scatter surface NP20 earth mound 5-7cm Site 38 earth mound surface West Arnhem Kapalga B midden surface Kapalga M1 pal midden surface Kapalga L pal midden surface Kapalga M2 pal midden surface Site Vl, VH midden surface top of Malakanunja II shelter midden Kapalga A midden surface Kina (FW) earth mound 45-60cm Kapalga E shell scatter surface Central Arnhem Aningarra midden Guna-jengga midden Ngalijibama shell mound Jilan-gajerra midden Guna-jengga midden Yuluk-adjirrapa shell mound East Arnhem BMB/116 shell mound 0-1cm BMB/015 midden 10-13cm BMB/016 midden 6-10cm BMB/022 midden 9-14cm BMB/084 midden TP1 0-lcm BMB/084 midden TP1 4-7cm BMB/084 midden TP1 7-llcm TP3 12- BMB/084 midden 15cm Walala Dunes scatter surface Babangi shelter B2 Babangi shelter A4 Walala III shelter Spit 3 VB17 shelter Spit 2 VB3 shelter Spit 2 Angwurrkburna shelter H1 unit 6 Dadirringka shelter C1 unit 3 Lerrumungumanja (Lerrumun) shelter B1 unit 2 Lerrumun shelter B1 unit 9 Marngkala Cave shelter H2 unit 3 Marngkala Cave shelter H2 unit 7 Mungwujirra shelter TP1 unit 7 Aburrkbumanja midden TP1 unit 4 Arumumanja midden TP1 unit 1 Lerrumun midden FF3 unit 8 Makbumanja midden TP1 unit 4 Malmudinga midden TP1 unit 2 Mamiyarrka midden TP1 unit 2 Milyipilyumanja midden TP1 unit 1 Murnerriburna midden TP1 unit 4 Murrumurrirrabi- nilangwa (Murru) midden TP1 unit 1 Murru midden TP4 unit 1 Murru midden TP5 unit 1 Old Peoples' midden surface Waterhole Yingilalyumanja midden TP1 unit 3 ENII midden spit 1 Kedge Pt (BB) midden spit 1 Kedge Pt (BB) midden spit 5 Sample Lab. code CRA Western charcoal Beta-98017 region 7960 West Arnhem charcoal SUA-165 8690 charcoal ANU-53 7110 shell SUA-264 6360 charcoal SUA-264 6355 marine shell ANU-4915 6240 Central Arnhem charcoal ANU-2014 4570 East Polymesoda Arnhem erosa Wk-9208" 7193 Terebralia palustris Wk-15277 7424 P. erosa Wk-14668 7550 P. erosa Wk-14667 6434 Saccostrea sp. Wk-15276 6264 W region charcoal Beta-98018 4750 Anadara sp. Wk-7432 4330 Darwin region P. erosa Wk-5796 4060 West Arnhem charcoal GaK-627 5980 marine shell SUA-2264 4050 charcoal SUA-225 3990 marine shell Beta-58405 4570 marine shell Beta-53304 4280 marine shell Beta-58406 4250 marine shell ANU-3992 4600 marine shell ANU-3991 4170 East Arnhem charcoal ANU-399 4200 A. granosa Wk-9211 4131 W region charcoal Beta-98016 2690 Anadara sp. Wk-7170 3480 Darwin region P. erosa Wk-5957 3880 collagen ANU-9070B 3000 A. granosa Beta-76831 2430 apatite ANU-9070 2360 A. granosa Wk-6523 2220 turtle carapace Wk-6374 2040 turtle carapace Wk-6373 2027 A. granosa Wk-8252 2020 A. granosa Wk-16609 2005 charcoal Wk-5582 1880 West Arnhem marine shell ANU-3993 3790 charcoal SUA-164 3450 charcoal ANU-17 3120 marine shell ANU-4045 3050 marine shell ANU-4067 2680 marine shell ANU-4041 2480 Central Arnhem A. granosa Wk-17746 3625 marine shell Beta-44836 3450 charcoal Beta-65997 2900 marine shell Beta-47223 2900 charcoal Beta-47222 2590 marine shell Beta-44835 2470 charcoal V-60 2445 charcoal V-59 2370 East Arnhem Chiton sp. Wk-14666 3884 A. granosa Wk-9206 3700 charcoal Wk-14739 3390 charcoal Wk-14569 3311 M. hiantina Wk-9210 3238 Saccostrea sp. Wk-14664 3091 ANU - A. granosa 12172 3000 A. granosa Wk-9205 2780 ANU- A. granosa 12171 2130 A. granosa Wk-14570 2055 Septifer bilocularis ANU-11503 3200 marine shell ANU-8994 3040 A. granosa ANU-11495 2660 A. granosa ANU-11504 2630 A. granosa ANU-11494 2460 A. granosa ANU-11505 2420 A. granosa ANU-11502 2360 A. granosa ANU-11499 2350 A. granosa ANU-11496 2410 A. granosa ANU-12017 2540 Marcia sp. Wk-9642 2346 A. granosa ANU-11892 2340 charcoal ANU-8985 2260 A. granosa ANU-11893 2240 A. granosa ANU-11714 2010 W region charcoal Wk-7263 626 charcoal Wk-7431 400 Darwin region charcoal OZH-890 1835 charcoal Wk-16610 1635 otolith OZH-892 1820 charcoal OZH-891 1570 A. granosa Wk-6524 1900 A. granosa Wk-6526 1910 charcoal Wk-6527 1850 otolith OZI-287 1995 charcoal OZH-893 1705 A. granosa Wk-6525 1830 A. granosa OZI-286 1800 charcoal OZH-896 1345 A. granosa Wk-17652 1885 A. granosa Wk-17651 1348 A. granosa Wk-17650 1345 A. granosa Wk-17649 1223 A. granosa Wk-10962 1982 charcoal Wk-10961 1496 A. granosa Wk-10960 1050 A. granosa Beta-72155 1870 A. granosa Beta-72152 1310 A. granosa Beta-72154 1520 A. granosa Beta-72153 1370 A. granosa Beta-76830 1780 A. granosa Wk-17680 1751 A. granosa Wk-17679 1648 A. granosa Wk-17678 1612 A. granosa Wk-17658 1820 A. granosa Wk-17657 1299 A. granosa Wk-17656 1255 A. granosa Wk-17677 1782 A. granosa Wk-17676 1767 A. granosa Wk-17675 1604 A. granosa Wk-17674 1697 A. granosa Wk-17673 1239 A. granosa Wk-17672 1177 A. granosa Wk-17661 1667 A. granosa Wk-17660 1632 A. granosa Wk-17659 1594 A. granosa Beta-55465 1500 A. granosa Beta-55467 1429 A. granosa Beta-55466 1380 A. granosa Beta-55464 1150 A. granosa Wk-14391 1298 A. granosa Wk-17664 1389 A. granosa Wk-17663 1266 A. granosa Wk-17662 1274 A. granosa Wk-17667 1283 A. granosa Wk-17666 1293 A. granosa Wk-17665 1309 A. granosa Wk-17655 1289 A. granosa Wk-17654 1222 A. granosa Wk-17653 1145 A. granosa Wk-17671 1184 A. granosa Wk-17670 1209 A. granosa Wk-17669 1256 A. granosa Wk-17668 1325 A. granosa Wk-10959 1202 A. granosa Wk-10958 1185 A. granosa Wk-17648 1178 A. granosa Wk-17647 1198 A. granosa Beta-87872 1220 charcoal Beta-87873 1070 A. granosa Beta-95257 1870 charcoal Beta-95256 850 otolith OZH-889 1165 A. granosa OZC-960 1060 charcoal OZC-961 1020 A. granosa OZC-958 1190 charcoal OZC-959 860 A. granosa OZC-956 960 charcoal OZC-957 590 A. granosa Wk-6528 1190 bone Wk-6669 1432 bone Wk-6668 434 charcoal Wk-7400 630 charcoal Wk-6235 360 charcoal Wk-8452 460 charcoal Wk-5581 350 shell ANU-2888 920 A. granosa Beta-94184 750 A. granosa Wk-14393 722 West Arnhem marine shell ANU-3994 2080 marine shell ANU-4047 1950 marine shell Beta-65996 1840 marine shell Beta-53306 1680 marine shell Beta-53305 1290 marine shell Beta-49885 1950 marine shell Beta-49886 1220 charcoal Beta-40391 980 marine shell Beta-47219 860 charcoal Beta-41416 1110 marine shell Beta-47220 1110 marine shell Beta-47218 890 charcoal Beta-40392 610 marine shell Beta-47221 870 marine shell Beta-56973 860 charcoal Beta-56975 800 marine shell ANU-4042 800 charcoal SUA-163 545 charcoal GaK-626 370 Central Arnhem Dosinia sp. ANU-2024 1890 Dosinia sp. ANU-2014 1670 Dosinia sp. ANU-2816 1580 Dosinia sp. ANU-2022 1430 Dosinia sp. ANU-2012 1440 Dosinia sp. ANU-2817 1510 Dosinia sp. ANU-3417 1360 Dosinia sp. ANU-3414 1250 Dosinia sp. ANU-3416 1260 Dosinia sp. ANU-3415 970 charcoal ANU-2012 1190 Dosinia sp. ANU-2021 1100 Dosinia sp. ANU-2023 830 charcoal ANU-2013 310 charcoal V-62 1170 charcoal V-61 1305 marine shell Wk-1905 1210 marine shell Wk-1918 1000 charcoal ANU-1265 1220 marine shell Wk-1925 880 marine shell Wk-1903 2210 marine shell Wk-1904 2060 marine shell Wk-1917 1480 East Arnhem A. granosa ANU-11894 2010 A. granosa ANU-11724 1980 A. granosa ANU-11723 1810 A. granosa ANU-11722 1700 A. granosa Wk-17744 1763 marine shell ANU-8988 1760 Marcia sp. Wk-9640 1733 Marcia sp. Wk-9641 1598 A. granosa ANU-11721 1720 A. granosa ANU-11720 1510 A. granosa ANU-11714 2010 A. granosa Wk-17745 1063 A. granosa ANU-11715 1620 charcoal ANU-8986 1650 charcoal ANU-400 1220 charcoal ANU-8983 1700 charcoal ANU-8984 930 M. hiantina Wk-14556 1731 A. granosa Wk-14554 1607 A. granosa Wk-14555 1404 A. granosa Wk-14740 1301 charcoal ANU-8316 1230 charcoal Wk-9209 1170 marine shell ANU-8324 1160 A. granosa ANU-12170 1160 Ga frarium tumidum ANU-11500 1160 A. granosa Wk-14553 1148 A. antiquata ANU-12020 1120 M. hiantina ANU-12094 1170 M. hiantina ANU-11913 860 A. granosa Wk-14552 1083 marine shell ANU-8315 1100 marine shell ANU-8322 1070 charcoal ANU-8329 690 A. granosa ANU-11719 1050 A. granosa ANU-11718 1040 A. granosa ANU-11717 990 A. granosa ANU-12018 980 Marcia hiantina ANU-11501 900 marine shell ANU-8320 940 marine shell ANU-8323 880 G. tumidum Wk-14562 1388 charcoal Wk-14563 1126 charcoal Wk-14561 461 A. granosa Wk-14566 1355 charcoal ANU-11886 510 A. granosa Wk-14565 722 charcoal Wk-14665 817 P.erosa Wk-14743 808 charcoal ANU-11887 630 charcoal ANU-12030 570 charcoal ANU-12031 640 charcoal ANU-12033 620 charcoal ANU-12032 660 charcoal Wk-14568 595 P. erosa Wk-14741 519 A. granosa ANU-12173 510 W Region charcoal Wk-7431 197 Darwin Telescopium region telescopium Wk-14394 344 T. telescopium Wk-14392 197 P. erosa Wk-5580 shell ANU-2887 West Arnhem marine shell ANU-4048 690 marine shell ANU-4046 650 marine shell ANU-3914 570 marine shell ANU-4044 520 marine shell Beta-49884 510 marine shell SUA-263 450 marine shell ANU-4043 430 charcoal ANU-3212 280 marine shell ANU-3987 280 Central Arnhem Dosinia sp. ANU-2013 740 Dosinia sp. ANU-2020 600 Mactra abbreviata Wk-17747 555 charcoal ANU-2022 270 charcoal ANU-2020 290 charcoal ANU-2023 131.7 East Anadara Arnhem antiquata ANU-12019 650 Isognomon Isognomon ANU-11498 640 M. hiantina ANU-11497 580 S. bilocularis ANU-11716 630 M. hiantina ANU-11911 122.3 M. hiantina ANU-11914 360 M. hiantina ANU-11912 360 M. hiantina ANU-12093 470 P. erosa Wk-14742 483 charcoal Wk-9203 480 charcoal Wk-9204 220 charcoal Wk-14738 294 charcoal Wk-9207 280 charcoal Wk-14567 modern * charcoal ANU-8987 98.7 charcoal ANU-8993 99.3 charcoal ANU-8325 102.6 charcoal ANU-8318 330 charcoal ANU-8326 350 marine shell ANU-8314 770 marine shell ANU-8317 530 marine shell ANU-8328 420 marine shell ANU-8332 680 marine shell ANU-8319 640 marine shell ANU-8321 710 marine shell ANU-8989 720 marine shell ANU-8990 98.8 marine shell ANU-8333 600 marine shell ANU-8991 530 marine shell ANU-8331 310 marine shell ANU-8327 400 marine shell ANU-8330 340 marine shell ANU-8982 310 marine shell ANU-8992 470 A. granosa Wk-14551 397 A. granosa Wk-14546 456 A. ranosa Wk-14547 427 [+ or -] 2 [delta] 95.4% cal. age range Western region 100 9012 - 8463 West Arnhem 165 10,152 - 942 130 8163 - 7656 100 7032 - 6485 250 7661 - 6574 100 6740 - 6483 Central Arnhem 920 7241 - 2853 East Arnhem 60 7786 - 7541 63 7998 - 7726 48 8134 - 7907 98 7151 - 6672 100 6946 - 6455 W region 120 4576 - 4153 60 5657 - 4986 Darwin region 60 4226 - 3818 West Arnhem 140 7157 - 6442 50 4189 - 3821 195 4862 - 3837 80 4900 - 4436 80 4564 - 4059 70 4505 - 4052 80 4966 - 4488 100 4442 - 3856 East Arnhem 160 5262 - 4156 48 4348 - 4015 W region 80 2945 - 2468 50 3446 - 3120 Darwin region 60 3964 - 3575 300 3828 - 2354 90 2281 - 1782 90 2703 - 2068 70 1938 - 1544 260 2696 - 1358 77 2119 - 1727 90 1745 - 1299 33 1632 - 1356 210 2303 - 1313 West Arnhem 70 3773 - 3553 125 3826 - 3480 100 3386 - 3081 70 2859 - 2691 70 2400 - 2171 70 2156 - 1940 3604 - 3332 Central Arnhem 40 80 3460 - 2997 80 3209 - 2778 60 2738 - 2366 70 2756 - 2363 70 2280 - 1865 80 2695 - 2338 90 2466 - 2156 East Arnhem 55 3996 - 3670 50 3750 - 3452 43 3688 - 3454 40 3580 - 3380 62 3225 - 2860 41 2958 - 2745 60 2924 2617 53 2670 - 2342 70 1866 - 1528 38 1716 - 1509 70 3198 - 2802 70 2987 - 2677 60 2527 - 2147 60 2465 - 2126 50 2272 - 1958 50 2185 - 1889 60 2124 - 1821 60 2116 - 1814 50 2162 - 1882 60 2330 - 2036 102 2235 - 1708 70 2132 - 1776 140 2698 - 1872 80 1762 - 1365 80 1762 - 1365 W region 77 669 - 502 60 505 - 309 Darwin region 35 1819 - 1573 38 1550 - 1378 40 1434 - 1183 35 1518 - 1328 70 1570 - l240 70 1583 - 1252 70 1876 - 1550 40 1628 - 1339 40 1691 - 1415 100 1554 - 1086 40 1403 - 1170 45 1297 - 1087 50 1516 - 1260 36 937 - 709 36 933 - 706 35 841 - 625 63 1654 - 1306 122 1603 - 1071 46 663 - 493 60 1522 - 1231 60 927 - 662 70 1211 - 840 50 980 - 705 80 1472 - 1074 37 1354 - 1126 39 1267 - 1013 36 1237 - 975 40 1434 - 1183 35 899 - 677 35 872 - 652 36 1382 - 1164 36 1369 - 1148 38 1232 - 965 36 1291 - 1065 38 863 - 639 35 774 - 562 36 1277 - 1045 35 1254 - 1000 50 1235 - 946 60 1165 - 827 60 1071 - 738 60 1021 - 703 50 765 - 534 40 901 - 674 34 979 - 737 36 880 - 658 36 885 - 663 36 890 - 668 36 896 - 673 35 905 - 683 38 895 - 670 35 840 - 625 35 737 - 541 35 783 - 565 35 826 - 613 38 875 - 651 39 918 - 690 69 871 - 554 50 811 - 551 39 779 - 558 36 818 - 597 60 889 - 597 80 1165 - 741 70 1541 - 1209 80 909 - 639 35 761 - 554 90 752 - 438 90 1059 - 692 90 886 - 530 80 916 - 574 80 652 - 333 110 718 - 326 75 868 - 541 56 1384 - 1178 56 518 - 321 60 659 - 517 190 629 - - 3 * 130 664 - 144 70 502 - 153 90 633 - 298 90 506 - 99 45 446 - 145 West 1790 - 139 Arnhem 70 100 1697 - 124 70 1510 - 117 60 1306 - 100 60 915 - 655 80 1654 - 1270 70 890 - 565 80 967 - 685 60 532 - 289 90 1176 - 773 50 720 - 515 70 596 - 293 80 673 - 491 50 530 - 302 50 522 - 299 60 789 - 565 70 518 - 242 90 660 - 327 80 517 - 153 Central Arnhem 90 1602 - 1182 70 1307 - 976 100 1288 - 857 110 1164 - 682 70 1112 - 740 100 1236 - 775 70 1003 - 675 80 922 - 569 70 915 - 625 80 660 - 336 155 1311 - 743 90 789 - 467 105 607 - 146 130 506 - - 1 * 85 1262 - 823 80 1300 - 982 50 870 - 599 50 646 - 457 90 1274 - 931 50 538 - 305 50 1828 - 1663 50 1661 - 1492 50 1131 - 819 East Arnhem 80 1762 - 1365 60 1683 - 1375 60 1495 - 1242 60 1361 - 1105 37 1380 - 1230 70 1469 - 1159 66 1407 - 1125 117 1360 - 901 50 1363 - 1157 50 1168 - 929 80 1762 - 1365 35 675 - 543 80 1303 - 974 70 1691 - 1339 75 1265 - 938 190 1992 - 1179 60 921 - 686 33 1342 - 1188 33 1245 - 1061 36 1044 - 851 35 914 - 740 60 1258 - 964 50 1170 - 933 70 863 - 590 70 863 - 565 80 875 - 557 36 762 - 629 60 777 - 547 60 864 - 615 70 597 - 313 43 708 - 545 50 734 - 545 60 721 - 522 50 671 - 550 60 700 - 512 60 688 - 506 60 657 - 488 130 776 - 311 50 607 - 427 60 637 - 451 50 598 - 403 33 1021 - 821 39 1058 - 926 41 535 - 328 36 965 - 782 180 735 - - 1 * 32 434 - 281 39 761 - 688 34 498 - 333 180 920 - 156 100 674 - 327 150 897 - 312 80 672 - 496 160 904 - 315 74 664 - 492 35 244 - 1 * 60 247 - 1 * W Region 57 300 - - 1 * Darwin region 34 modern 36 modern modern modern West Arnhem 70 450 - - 1 * 70 398 - - 1 * 60 265 - - 1 * 60 241 - - 1 * 50 modern 80 modern 70 modern 40 425 - 153 60 modern Central Arnhem 70 481 - 135 105 384 - -1 * 34 241 - -1 * 60 453 - -1 * 105 495 - -1 * 3.4 241 - -2 * East Arnhem 60 432 - 123 50 408 - 132 60 306 - -1 * 70 426 - -1 * 1.0 modern 60 modern 70 132 - -1 * 60 129 - -1 * 33 226 - 1 * 70 554 - 322 50 312 - 1 * 38 447 - 152 50 457 - 0 * 0.9 132 - -3 * 0.8 132 - -3 * 0.8 133 - -3 * 80 508 - -0 * 60 500 - 155 50 485 - 294 50 255 - -1 * 60 modern 60 454 - 146 50 408 - 132 60 475 - 244 70 496 - 153 1.1 modern 60 370 - -1 * 70 268 - -1 * 60 modern 60 modern 60 modern 70 modern 70 238 - -1 * 31 modern 35 modern 41 modern
Allen, Harry and Gerry Barton 1989 'Ngarradj Warde Djobkeng: White Cockatoo Dreaming and the prehistory of Kakadu', The University of Sydney, Sydney (Oceania Monograph 37).
Allen, Jim 1980 'Head on: The early nineteenth century British colonization of the Top End' in D Wade-Marshall and P Loveday (eds), Floodplains Research. Northern Australia: Progress and prospects, North Australia Research Unit, The Australian National University (vol. 2), pp.33-9.
Baker, Richard 1981 The Aboriginal environmental history of the Chambers Bay coastal plains, unpublished honours thesis, Department of Prehistory and Anthropology, The Australian National University.
Bird, Caroline FM and David Frankel 1991 'Problems in constructing a prehistoric regional sequence: Holocene southeast Australia', World Archaeology 23(2):179-92.
Bird, Michelle K 1992 'The impact of tropical cyclones on the archaeological record: An Australian example', Archaeology in Oceania 20:1-20.
Bourke, Patricia 2000 Late Holocene Indigenous economies of the tropical Australian coast: An archaeological study of the Darwin region, unpublished doctoral thesis, Northern Territory University.
--2001 A report on archaeological data from Gaynada, Manydjarrarrnga-Nanydjaka (Cape Arnhem), unpublished report to Heritage Conservation Branch, Department of Lands Planning and Environment, Northern Territory Government, Darwin.
--2004 'Three Aboriginal shell mounds at Hope Inlet: Evidence for coastal not maritime late Holocene economies on the Beagle Gulf mainland, northern Australia', Australian Archaeology 59:10-22.
--2005a 'Identifying Aboriginal "contact period" sites around Darwin: Long past due for Native Title?', Australian Aboriginal Studies 2005/1:54-65.
--2005b 'Archaeology of shell mounds of the Darwin coast: Totems of an ancestral landscape' in P Bourke, S Brockwell and C Fredericksen (eds), Darwin Archaeology: Aboriginal, Asian and European Heritage of Australia's Top End, Charles Darwin University Press, Darwin, pp.29-48.
--Sally Brockwell, Patrick Faulkner and Betty Meehan 2007 'Climate variability in the mid to late Holocene Arnhem Land region, north Australia: Archaeological archives of environment and cultural change', Archaeology in Oceania 42(3):91-101.
--and Christine Crassweller 2006 'Radiocarbon dates from middens around Darwin Harbour: Cultural chronology of a pre-European landscape', Australian Aboriginal Studies 2006/2:116-18.
Brockwell, Celia J [Sally] 2001 Archaeological settlement patterns and mobility strategies on the lower Adelaide River, Northern Australia, unpublished doctoral thesis, Northern Territory University.
--2006 'Radiocarbon dates for earth mounds on the Adelaide River, northern Australia', Archaeology in Oceania 41(3):118-22.
Brockwell, Sally, Betty Meehan and Betty Ngurrabangurraba 2005 'An-barra Archaeological Project: A progress report', Australian Aboriginal Studies 2005/1:84-89.
Chappell, John 1988 'Geomorphological dynamics and evolution of tidal river and floodplain systems in northern Australia' in D Wade-Marshall and P Loveday (eds), Floodplains Research. Northern Australia: Progress and prospects, North Australia Research Unit, The Australian National University (vol. 2), pp.34-57.
Clarke, Anne 1994 The winds of change: An archaeology of contact in the Groote Eylandt archipelago, northern Australia, unpublished doctoral thesis, The Australian National University.
--2000a 'Time, tradition and transformation: The archaeology of intercultural encounters on Groote Eylandt, Northern Australia' in R Torrence and A Clarke (eds), The Archaeology of Difference: Negotiating cross-cultural engagements in Oceania, One World Archaeology (vol. 38), Routledge, Oxford, pp.142-81.
--2000b '"The Moorman's Trowsers": Aboriginal and Macassan interactions and the changing fabric of Indigenous social life' in S O'Connor and P Veth (eds), East of Wallace's Line: Modern Quaternary research in South-East Asia, AA Balkema, Rotterdam, pp.315-35.
--and Ursula Frederick 2006 'Closing the Distance: Interpreting cross-cultural engagements through Indigenous rock art' in I Lilley (ed.), The Archaeology of Oceania: Australia and the Pacific Islands, Blackwell, Melbourne, pp.116-33.
Clarkson, Christopher 2007 Lithics in the land of the Lightning Brothers: The archaeology of Wardaman country, Northern Territory, ANU E Press, Canberra (Terra Australis 25).
Crassweller, Christine 1996 Chronological changes in the archaeological material at Scotch Creek I, an open site near the Adelaide River, Northern Territory, unpublished honours thesis, Department of Anthropology, Northern Territory University.
--2002 The excavation of two shell middens at Wickham Point, Darwin Harbour, Northern Territory, a report to URS (Australia) Pty Ltd on behalf of Phillips Petroleum Company Australia Pty Ltd.
--2006 The archaeological salvage of the shell middens on Wickham Point, Darwin Harbour, Northern Territory, a report to URS (Australia) Pty Ltd on behalf of ConocoPhillips Australia Pty Ltd.
Faulkner, Patrick 2006 The ebb and flow: An archaeological investigation of late Holocene economic variability on the coastal margin of Blue Mud Bay, northern Australia, unpublished doctoral thesis, The Australian National University.
--2008 'Pattern of chronological variability in occupation on the coastal margin of Blue Mud Bay', Archaeology in Oceania 43 (2): 81-8.
--2009 'Focused, intense and long-term: Evidence for granular ark (Anadara granosa) exploitation from late Holocene shell mounds of Blue Mud Bay, northern Australia', Journal of Archaeological Science 36:821-34.
--and Anne Clarke 2004 'Late Holocene occupation and coastal economy in Blue Mud Bay, northeast Arnhem Land: Preliminary archaeological findings', Australian Archaeology 59:23-30.
Guse, Daryl 2005 Our home, our country: A case study of law, land and Indigenous cultural heritage in the Northern Territory, unpublished master's thesis, Faculty of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, Charles Darwin University.
Guse, Daryl and Daisy Majar 2000 Investigations of archaeological sites in the Finniss/Reynolds/Daly Rivers coastal bio-geographic region, unpublished report of the 1996-97 National Estates Grants Programme, Australian Heritage Commission, Canberra.
Hiscock, Peter 1994a 'The end of points' in M Sullivan, S Brockwell and A Webb (eds), Archaeology in the North: Proceedings of the 1993 Australian Archaeological Association Conference, North Australia Research Unit, The Australian National University, pp.72-83.
--1994b 'Technological responses to risk in Holocene Australia', Journal of World Prehistory 8(3):267-92.
--1996 'Mobility and technology in the Kakadu coastal wetlands', Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 15:151-7.
--1997 'Archaeological evidence for environmental change in Darwin Harbour' in J R Hanley, G Caswell, D Megirian and HK Larson (eds), The Marine Flora and Fauna of Darwin Harbour, Northern Territory, Australia: Proceedings of the Sixth International Marine Biological Workshop, Museum and Art Galleries of the Northern Territory, and the Marine Sciences Association, Darwin, pp.445-9.
--1999 'Holocene coastal occupation of western Arnhem Land' in J Hall and I McNiven (eds), Australian Coastal Archaeology, ANH Publications, Department of Archaeology and Natural History, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, The Australian National University, Canberra (Research Papers in Archaeology and Natural History 31), pp.91-103.
--2006 'Blunt and to the point: Changing technological strategies in Holocene Australia' in I Lilley (ed.), Archaeology in Oceania: Australia and the Pacific Islands, Blackwell, Melbourne, pp.69-95.
--2008 Archaeology of Ancient Australia, Routledge, London.
--and Philip Hughes 2001 'Prehistoric and World War II use of shell mounds in Darwin Harbour, Northern Territory, Australia', Australian Archaeology 52: 41-5.
Hope, Geoffrey and Jack Golson 1995 'Late Quaternary change in the mountains of New Guinea', Antiquity 69:818-30.
Jones, R and I Johnson 1985 'Rockshelter excavations: Nourlangie and Mt Brockman massifs' in R Jones (ed.), Archaeological Research in Kakadu National Park, Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, Canberra (Special Publication No. 13), pp.39-76.
Kamminga, Johan and Harry Allen 1973 Report of the Archaeological Survey: Alligator Rivers Environmental Fact-finding Study, unpublished report, Canberra.
Kershaw, A Peter 1995 'Environmental change in greater Australia', Antiquity 69:656-75.
Kim, Jung-Hyun, Ralph R Schneider, Dierk Hebbeln, Peter J Muller and Gerold Wefer 2002 'Last deglacial sea-surface temperature evolution in the southeast Pacific compared to climate changes on the South American continent', Quaternary Science Reviews 21:2085-97.
Koutavas, Anthanasios, Jean Lynch-Steiglitz, Thomas MJ Marchitto and Julian P Sachs 2002 'El Nino-like pattern in Ice Age tropical Pacific sea surface temperature', Science 297:226-31.
Lees, Brian G 1992 'Geomorphological evidence for late Holocene climatic change in northern Australia', Australian Geographer 23(1):1-10.
Lees, Brian G and Annemarie Clements 1987 'Climatic implications of chenier dates in northern Australia', Radiocarbon 25:311-17.
Lees, Brian G, Lu Yanchou and John Head 1990 'Reconnaissance thermoluminescence dating of northern Australian coastal dunefields', Quaternary Research 34:169-85.
Lees, Brian G, Lu Yanchou and David M Price 1992 'Thermoluminescence dating of dunes at Cape Lampert, East Kimberley, northwestern Australia', Marine Geology 106:131-9.
Lees, Brian G, John Stanner, David M Price and Lu Yanchou 1995 'Thermoluminescence dating of dune podzols at Cape Arnhem, northern Australia', Marine Geology 129 (1-2): 63-75.
McGlone, Matt S, A Peter Kershaw and Vera Markgraf 1992 'El Nino/Southern Oscillation climatic variability in Australasian and South American paleoenvironmental records' in V Markgraf (ed.), El Nino: Historical and palaeoclimatic aspects of the Southern Oscillation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp.435-62.
MacKnight, Campbell C 1976 The Voyage to Marege: Macassan trepangers in Northern Australia, Melbourne University Press.
McPhail, Michael K and Geoff Hope 1985 'Late Holocene mire development in montane southeastern Australia: A sensitive climatic indicator', Search 15:344-9.
Markgraf, Vera, John R Dodson, A Peter Kershaw, Matt S McGlone and Neville Nicholls 1992 'Evolution of late Pleistocene and Holocene climates in the circum-South Pacific land areas', Climate Dynamics 6:193-211.
Meehan, Betty, Sally Brockwell, Jim Allen and Rhys Jones 1985 'The wetlands sites' in R Jones (ed.), Archaeological Research in Kakadu National Park, Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, Canberra (Special Publication 13), pp.103-53.
Mitchell, Scott 1994 Culture contact and Indigenous economies on the Coburg Peninsula, northwestern Arnhem Land, unpublished doctoral thesis, Northern Territory University.
--1996 'Dugongs and dugouts, sharptacks and shellbacks: Macassan contact and Aboriginal marine hunting on the Cobourg Peninsula, north western Arnhem Land' in I Glover and P Bellwood (eds), Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 15 (Chiang Mai Papers, vol. 2), pp.181-91.
--2005 'A poor man's show: Historic archaeology of the Bynoe Harbour Chinese community' in P Bourke, S Brockwell and C Fredericksen (eds), Darwin Archaeology: Aboriginal, Asian and European heritage of Australia's Top End, Charles Darwin University Press, Darwin, pp.49-58.
Mowat, Fiona 1995 Variability in western Arnhem Land shell midden deposits, unpublished master's thesis, Department of Anthropology, Northern Territory University.
Mulvaney, D John 1975 The Prehistory of Australia, Penguin, Harmondsworth.
Nott, J & D Price. 1999 'Waterfalls, floods and climate change: Evidence from tropical Australia', Earth and Planetary Science Letters 171:267-76.
Nott, Jonathon, Edward Bryant and David Price 1999 'Early Holocene aridity in tropical northern Australia', The Holocene 9(2):231-6.
Prebble, Matiu, Robin Sim, Jan Finn and David Fink 2005 'A Holocene pollen and diatom record from Vanderlin Island, Gulf of Carpentaria, lowland tropical Australia', Quaternary Research 64:357-71.
Przywolnik, Kathryn 2002 'Coastal sites and severe weather in Cape Range Peninsula, northwest Australia', Archaeology in Oceania 37:137-52.
Roberts, Andrew 1991 An analysis of mound formation at Milingimbi, Northern Territory, unpublished master's thesis, Department of Archaeology and Palaeoanthropology, University of New England.
--1994 'Cultural land marks: The Milingimbi mounds' in M Sullivan, S Brockwell and A Webb (eds), Archaeology in the North: Proceedings of the 1993 Australian Archaeological Association Conference, North Australia Research Unit, The Australian National University, pp.176-87.
Rowland, Michael J 1989 'Population increase, intensification or a result of preservation? Explaining site distribution patterns on the coast of Queensland', Australian Aboriginal Studies 2:32-41.
Schrire, Carmel 1972 'Ethno-archaeological models and subsistence behaviour in Arnhem Land' in DL Clarke (ed.), Models in Archaeology, Methuen, London, pp.653-70.
--1982 Alligator Rivers Prehistory: Prehistory and ecology in Western Arnhem Land, Department of Prehistory, Research School of Pacific Studies, The Australian National University (Terra Australis 7).
Shulmeister, James 1999 'Australasian evidence for mid-Holocene climate change implies precessional control of Walker Circulation in the Pacific', Quaternary International 57/58: 81-91.
--and Brian G Lees 1995 'Pollen evidence from tropical Australia for the onset of an ENSO-dominated climate at c. 4000 BP', The Holocene 5(1):10-18.
Sim, Robin and Lynley A Wallis 2008 'Northern Australian offshore island use during the Holocene', Australian Archaeology 67:95-106.
Singh, Gurdip and John Luly 1991 'Changes in vegetation and seasonal climates since the last full glacial at Lake Frome, South Australia', Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 84:75-86.
Smith, Michael A 1995 'Radiocarbon dates for bifacial points at Scotch Creek I', Australian Archaeology 41:40-1.
Ulm, Sean 2006 Coastal Themes: An archaeology of the Southern Curtis Coast, Queensland, ANU E Press, Canberra (Terra Australis 24).
Ward, Ingrid 2004 'Comparative records of occupation in the Keep River region of the eastern Kimberly, northwestern Australia', Australian Archaeology 59:1-9.
Woodroffe, Colin D 1988 'Changing mangrove and wetland habitats over the last 8000 years, northern Australia and Southeast Asia' in D Wade-Marshall and P Loveday (eds), Floodplains Research, Northern Australia: Progress and prospects, North Australia Research Unit, The Australian National University (vol. 2), pp.1-23.
--1995 'Response of tide-dominated mangrove shorelines in northern Australia to anticipated sea-level rise', Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 20:65-85.
--John MA Chappell, Brian G Thorn and Ed Wallensky 1986 'Geomorphology of the South Alligator tidal river and plains, Northern Territory' in K Bardsley, JDS Davie and CD Woodroffe (eds), Coasts and Tidal Wetlands of the Australian Monsoon Region, North Australia Research Unit, The Australian National University (Mangrove Monograph 1), pp.3-15.
--John MA Chappell and Brian G Thorn 1988 'Shell middens in the context of estuarine development, South Alligator River, Northern Territory', Archaeology in Oceania 23:95-103.
--Brian G Thom and John MA Chappell 1985 'Development of widespread mangrove swamps in mid-Holocene times in northern Australia', Nature 317:711-13.
The Australian National University
The University of Queensland
Heritage Branch, Northern Territory Government
The University of Sydney
Charles Darwin University
The Australian National University
The Australian National University
The Australian National University
Sally Brockwell <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Patrick Faulkner <email@example.com>
Patricia Bourke <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Anne Clarke <email@example.com>
Christine Crassweller <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Daryl Guse <email@example.com>
Betty Meehan <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Robin Sire <email@example.com>
Table 1: Summary of sites and references for relevant studies per region listed for chronological periods as discussed in the text West coast Darwin region West Arnhem Land region EARLY Djagorda Ngarradj Warde HOLOCENE 2, Reynolds Jobkeng (NWJ), -- River Malakanunja II, Transgressive Kapalga P, Phase (~ Nawamoyn, 10000-6000 Malangangerr BP) (Malang), Alligator Rivers MID Werat 1, HD1, Adelaide Kapalga H2, HOLOCENE Majar, River Field Island 1 & --End "Big Reynolds R 2, Malakanunja Swamp Phase" (Malak) II, NWJ, (~ 6000-4000 Malang, BP) Alligator Rs MID TO LATE Walker MA 1, Darwin Paribari, NWJ, HOLOCENE Creek 6, Harbour; HI83, Kapalga N, D, F --Transition Werat 14, HI81, Hope and K, Alligator Phase (4000- Reynolds R Inlet; HD1, Rs 2000 BP) MP2, Scotch Creek, Adelaide River LATE Pandyal 2, MP2, MPS, Malang, Field HOLOCENE: Djingur 2, MP6, Adelaide Island 3, 4, Early Reynolds R River; Site 40, NWJ, Kapalga C, Freshwater Mary River; G, J, Alligator Phase (~ 2000- HI80, 81, 83, Rs; Site V12, V6 500 BP) 97, 66, Hope Vashon Head, Inlet; MA1, 7, Site 14 Black 52a, 10, 21, Mt Pt, Site 19 Port Dum, MA16-A, Bremer, B, MA22-A, B, Stoneline 3, C, D, MA24-A, Coburg Peninsula B, C, MA25-A, B, C, MA26- A, B C, MA28 TP1-A, B, C, MA28 TP2-A, B C, MA46-A, B, C, D, MA51 TP1-A, B C, MA51 TP2-A, B C, MA54-A, B, C, MA19-A, B, HRS, 14, 15, 17, BH3, Darwin Harbour LATE Djingur 1, MA52b, Malakanunja II, HOLOCENE: Reynolds R WIN10, Darwin Kina (FW), Late Harbour; NP20, Kapalga A, B, E, Freshwater Adelaide River; L, M1 and M2, Phase (Post- Site 38, Mary Alligator Rs; 500 BP) River Site V1 Vashon Head, Coburg Peninsula Central Arnhem East Arnhem Land References Land EARLY Muyu-ajirrapa, Wobuya Shelter Guse 2005, Guse HOLOCENE Blyth River (WS), Mushroom & Majar 2000 / -- Rock (VB17), Allen & Barton Transgressive Edward Pellews 1982, Allen Phase (~ (EP) 1980; Kamminga & 10000-6000 Allen 1973; BP) Woodroffe et al. 1988; Schrire 1972. 1982; / Brockwell et al. 2005; Sim and Wallis 2008 / This volume MID Borngolo Guse 2005, Guse HOLOCENE Shelter, Port & Majar 2000; / --End "Big Bradshaw Brockwell 2001, Swamp Phase" 2006; / (~ 6000-4000 Woodroffe et al. BP) 1988; Mowat 1995; Allen & Barton 1982, Allen 1980; Kamminga & Allen 1973; / Schrire 1972, 1982 MID TO LATE Mari-Maramay 1, Gaynada midden, Guse 2005, Guse HOLOCENE Croker Island; Cape Arnhem; & Majar 2000; / --Transition Macassar Well BMB/029, /082, Bourke 2000, Phase (4000- (MW) Milingimbi; /093, /018, 2004; Bourke & 2000 BP) Maganbal, Blyth /033, /067, Crassweller R Blue Mud Bay; 2006; Brockwell Angwurrkburna, 2001, 2006; Malmudinga, Crassweller Groote Eylandt 1996; Smith (GE), EP 1995; / Schrire 1972, 1982, Allen & Barton 1982, Allen 1980; Kamminga & Allen 1973; Woodroffe et al. 1988; / Mitchell 1994a; Mulvaney 1975; Roberts 1991, 1994; Brockwell et al. 2005; / Bourke 2001; Faulkner 2006, 2008; Faulkner & Clarke 2004; Clarke 1994; Sim and Wallis 2008 LATE Gulukula, Gaynada midden, Guse 2005, Guse HOLOCENE: Gupanga Diama Cape Arnhem; and Majar 2000; Early Dreaming, Borngolo / Brockwell Freshwater Muyu-ajirrapa, Shelter, Port 2001, 2006; Phase (~ 2000- Ngalijibama, Bradshaw; Baker 1981; 500 BP) Jilan-gajerra, BMB/036, Bourke 2000, Ji-bena 1, 045, 052, 071, 2004, 2005a; Aningarra, 101, 116, 003, Bourke and Larrakun- 017, 061, 067, Crassweller ajirripa 084, Blue Mud 2006; West, Blyth R; Bay (BMB); Crassweller Garki, Garki Angwurrkburna, 2002, 2006; 18, Wallaby Ararrkba, Hiscock and Mound (M96) Dadirringka, Hughes 2001; Madanangum Marngkala Cave, Hiscock 1997; / 96, , Gadjaw Aburrkbumanja, Schrire 1972, 116, MW, Rulku, Dirrangmurumanja, 1982; Allen and Balma 83, Malmudinga, Ge; Barton 1982, Milingimbi Boinmarnda Allen 1980; (Johnnie's Kamminga and Shelter), East Allen 1973; Neck Shelter Mowat 1995; (EN1), Woodroffe et al. Komandarri- 1988; Mitchell naboya (KN), 1994a; / Scissibar Creek Brockwell et al. (SC), Turtle 2005; Mulvaney Shelter, Babangi 1975; Roberts (Victoria Bay 1), 1991, 1994; / Walala III, WS, Bourke 2001; Barbara Cove Schrire 1972, Mound, EP 1982; Faulkner 2006, 2008; Faulkner and Clarke 2004; Clarke 1991; Sim and Wallis 2008; This volume LATE Ngalijibama, BMB/116, 015, Guse 2005, Guse HOLOCENE: Yuluk-adjirrapa, 016, 022, 084, and Majar 2000; Late Aningarra, Guna- BMB; / Bourke 2005a; Freshwater jengga, Jilan- Angwurrkburna, Brockwell 2001, Phase (Post- gajerra, Blyth R Dadirringka, 2006; Baker 500 BP) Lerrumungumanja 1981; / Allen Rockshelter, and Barton 1982, Marngkala Cave, Allen 1980; Mungwujirra, Kamminga and Aburrkbumanja, Allen 1973; Arumumanja, Jones and Makbumanja, Johnson 1985; Malmudinga, Woodroffe et al. Mamiyarrka, 1988; Meehan et Milyipilyumanja, al. 1985; Murnerriburna, Mitchell 1994; / Murrumurrirra- Brockwell et al. binilangwa, Old 2005; / Faulkner People' 2006, 2008; Waterhole, Faulkner and Yingilalyumanja, Clarke 1994, GE; East Neck 2004; Sim and Saddle (ENII), Wallis 2008; Kedge Pt (BB), This volume EP
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Author:||Brockwell, Sally; Faulkner, Patrick; Bourke, Patricia; Clarke, Anne; Crassweller, Christine; Guse, D|
|Publication:||Australian Aboriginal Studies|
|Date:||Mar 22, 2009|
|Previous Article:||Finding your voice: placing and sourcing an Aboriginal health organisation's published and grey literature.|
|Next Article:||Ladjiladji language area: a reconstruction.|