Radiation sterilization of anthracycline antibiotics in solid state.
Anthracycline antibiotics belong to the group of anticancer drugs. They were originally isolated from cultures of Streptomyces. Anthracyclines are widely used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases such as leukemia, breast cancer, and AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. They also demonstrate activity against tumors of the ovaries, lung, testes, prostate, cervix, bladder, and Ewing's sarcoma [1-3]. The most widely used anthracyclines are doxorubicin (DOX), daunorubicin (DAU), and epidoxorubicin (EPI) [4-6] (Figure 1). Their low bioavailability necessitates parenteral administration [7, 8], which requires sterility  obtained mainly by filtration. Given the considerable exposure of medical personnel to anthracycline antibiotics and their adsorption to most surfaces, especially those of sterilization filters, there is a need to find new sterilization methods that do not rely on filtration. Although radiation sterilization is an effective alternative, the structure of drugs may alter as a consequence of exposure to irradiation. The aglycone attached to the aminosugar with a glycoside bond may be prone to cleavage resulting from electron transfer within the molecule. Stability studies demonstrated degradation of anthracycline antibiotics in solutions, under the influence of increased temperature and when exposed to light in the solid state as well as a consequence of combining chemotherapy with radiotherapy [10-15]. Regarding the effects of radiation sterilization on anthracycline antibiotics, only DOX was studied in that respect with a focus on the impact of a standard dose of 25 kGy on its stability . As DAU and EPI are widely used in anticancer pharmacotherapy, those antibiotics also require analysis of their vulnerability to ionizing radiation.
The aim of this work was to assess the possibility of applying radiation sterilization to DOX, DAU, and EPI as active substances or conversion-induced impurities.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Samples. DOX, DAU, and EPI were synthesized at the Institute of Biotechnology and Antibiotics, Department of Modified Antibiotics, Warsaw, Poland. They were reddish powders, freely soluble in water and methanol. Sodium lauryl sulfate, phosphoric acid, and all other chemicals were obtained from Merck KGaA (Germany) and were of analytical or high-performance liquid chromatographic grade.
2.2. Irradiation. 0.025 g samples of each substance were placed in 3mL colorless glass vials that were closed with plastic stoppers. The samples in the vials were exposed to beta irradiation in a linear electron accelerator LAE 13/9 (9.96 MeV electron beam and 6.2 [micro]A current intensity) until they absorbed doses of 25, 50,100, 200, and 400 kGy.
2.3. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Spectroscopy. Detection of free radicals and determination of their concentration were carried out using a Bruker ELEXSYS 500 spectrometer (X-band) at 297 K. EPR spectra were recorded as a first derivative of the absorption signal. The number of free radicals was calculated using the integration procedure described elsewhere .
2.4. UV-Vis Spectroscopy. Chemical changes in nonirradiated and irradiated samples were analyzed by using a UV-Vis Varian Carry 100 spectrophotometer. 2 mg of each sample was dissolved in 20.0 mL of methanol. 1.0 mL of the so-obtained solution was diluted to 10.0 mL with methanol. The final concentration of the solutions was 0.01mg/mL. Absorption spectra of the so-prepared solutions were recorded in the wavelength range 190-900 nm.
2.5. IR Spectroscopy. IR spectra of nonirradiated and irradiated anthracyclines were taken with the use of a Thermo Scientific Nicolet iS10 spectrophotometer with the Omnic software. The infrared transmittance spectra of the crystalline samples were recorded after a time necessary to achieve plateaus in EPR study, in the frequency range from 400 to 7500 cm-1, at room temperature.
2.6. HPLC Analysis. An HPLC Waters Alliance e2695 system was used for chromatographic separation of the degradation products of nonirradiated and irradiated DOX, DAU and EPI samples. All the samples (1mg/mL) were dissolved in the mobile phase. A Symmetry C18 (250 x 4.6 mm, 5 [micro]m) analytical column was employed as a stationary phase. The mobile phase consisted of solution A (acetonitrile) and solution B (2.88 g of sodium lauryl sulfate and 2.25 g of phosphoric acid(V) 85% in 1000 mL) (50:50, v:v). UV detection was performed at 254 nm. The flow rate was 1.0mL/min. The injected volume was 5 [micro]L.
2.7. Theoretical Analysis. All the calculations were made by using the Gaussian 03 package . In order to interpret the experimental results of IR absorption scattering, quantum chemical calculations were performed based on a density functional theory (DFT) method with the B3LYP hybrid functional and 6-31G(d,p) basis set.
3. Results and Discussions
The first EPR analysis was performed 1 day after irradiation for samples exposed to a dose of 25 kGy. DOX, DAU, and EPI irradiated at 25 kGy contained about 3.94 x [10.sup.15] spins/g, 1.37 x [10.sup.15] spins/g, and 2.44 x [10.sup.15] spins/g, respectively. Exponential decay of unstable free radical was observed with the half-time of 4 days in DAU and DOX and 7 days in EPI after irradiation. The EPR signals of the sterilized anthracycline antibiotics were very weak. The plateaus of free radical concentrations versus time for DOX and DAU appeared after about 10 days, whereas for EPI after 20 days. EPR spectra after these periods consisted approximately of only stable free radicals.
The analytical study was conducted during a period when only stable free radicals were detected by EPR. The impact of an irradiation dose size on the structure of DAU, dOx, and EPI was studied at 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 kGy without the presence of unstable free radical in EPR spectra. By using UV-Vis spectroscopy the location and the intensity of the absorption maximum were determined, whereas IR spectroscopy was employed to establish the intensity, location, and type of characteristic vibrations. For the DAU, DOX, and EPI samples no significant changes in the location (~289 nm, ~233 nm, and 221 nm) or intensity of the absorption maximum were recorded (Figures 2,3, and 4). The spectra of their nonirradiated and irradiated samples did not show any essential differences in the value of absorbance. All samples exhibited two absorption maxima, at 233 nm and 251 nm. The IR spectra of DOX, DAU, and EPI were compared with the theoretical spectra based on the density functional theory. The main characteristic vibrations obtained from the IR spectra are collected in Table 1. The conformation between the calculated and experimental spectra is quite good. The most significant is the region between 700 and 1800 cm-1, where intense and characteristic bands related to intramolecular vibrations of the molecules are observed, including the deformation of rings as well as stretching of various C-C bonds (Figures 5, 6, and 7). Vibrational spectra of the nonirradiated and irradiated samples of the three samples are very similar. We did not observe any change in the position and shape of the bands. This suggests that the radiation sterilization does not influence the stability of the DOX, DAU, and EPI. Similar results were received by comparing SEM images of the nonirradiated and irradiated samples. Taking into account the biological activity of the most important impurities specified by Ph. Eur. , changes in the concentration of the main substances in the presence of those impurities were analyzed (Figures 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13). By separating the compounds to be examined from the impurities, it was possible to assess changes in their content before and after irradiation at 25 kGy. It was found that exposure to such a dose of radiation did not produce any changes in the concentrations of the main substances or the impurities. Slight alterations were registered when the samples of DAU, DOX, and EPI were exposed to greater doses of radiation. Under such conditions, EPI demonstrated the greatest content change, and the presence of unstable free radicals was noted for the longest period of time. It was also proved, by observing the mass balance, that the main substances did not convert into unknown impurities. Similar studies of some tetracycline analogs showed that the aglycon was stable when irradiated at 25 kGy and that changes occurred when greater radiation doses were applied . It may therefore be proposed that not only a modification of the aglycon structure but also its ability to bind with a sugar moiety of specific stereoisomerism are the factors that stabilize the structures of analogs of anthracycline antibiotics.
The current study of the impact of radiation sterilization on the stability of DAU, DOX, and EPI demonstrates that this kind of sterilization may be an alternative to filtration recommended for sterilizing analogs of anthracycline antibiotics. The effect of radiation sterilization on the stability of DAU, DOX, and EPI depends on the structure of a particular compound. With regard to those analogs, it is important to assay the postirradiation content of the main substance in the presence of all possible related substances in order to determine whether other degradation products or postirradiation conversion occur.
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A. Kaczmarek, (1) J. Cielecka-Piontek, (2) P. Garbacki, (2) K. Lewandowska, (3) W. Bednarski, (3) B. Barszcz, (3) P. Zalewski, (2) W. Kycler, (4) I. Oszczapowicz, (5) and A. Jelinska (2)
(1) Biofarm Sp. z o.o., Walbrzyska 13, 60-198 Poznan, Poland
(2) Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznan, Poland
(3) Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznan, Poland
(4) Department of Oncological Surgery II, Great Poland Cancer Centre, Garbary 15, 61-866 Poznan, Poland
(5) Department of Modified Antibiotics, Institute of Biotechnology and Antibiotics, Staroscimka 5, 02-516 Warsaw, Poland
Correspondence should be addressed to P Garbacki; email@example.com
Received 23 August 2013; Accepted 19 September 2013
Academic Editors: J. McHowat and S. J. Rajput
Table 1: Main characteristic vibrational modes of daunorubicin (DAU), doxorubicin (DOX), and epidoxorubicin (EPI) observed in experimental and calculated spectra. Calculation ([cm.sup.-1]) DAU DOX EPI 723 736 736 752 754 749 776 773 774 931 930 935 959 957 951 984 -- -- 1010 1008 1006 1021 1029 1032 1079 1078 1065 1105 1104 1104 1123 1123 1122 1137 1139 1136 1157 1157 1156 1206 1205 1200 1226 1225 1221 -- 1239 1239 1278 1275 1275 1291 1290 1293 1317 1317 1318 1329 1329 1330 1367 1367 1366 1404 -- -- 1425 1427 1423 1476 1476 1478 1502 1502 1505 1524 1524 1527 1614 1615 1615 1640 1640 1642 1661 1663 1663 1688 1688 1688 1744 1744 1745 1791 1808 1807 2967-3237 3009 3010 2960 3488 3488 3485 3566 3566 3571 3630 3634 3639 3791 3788 3785 3809 3801 -- -- 3831 3831 Experimental ([cm.sup.-1]) DAU DOX EPI 764 761 761 795 795 795 816 804 805 940 939 939 955 949 949 986 990 989 1008 1005 1005 1070 1072 1072 1085 1089 1089 1109 1114 1114 1109 1114 1114 1153 1143 1143 1194 1201 1201 1205 1211 1211 1235 1235 1262 1263 1263 1289 1284 1285 1289 1284 1285 1317 1318 1318 1374 1374 1374 1404 1413 1413 1474 1471 1472 1506 1507 1507 1525 1524 1576 1582 1581 1576 1582 1581 1617 1616 1616 1617 1616 1616 1707 1717 1717 1716 1730 1730 2844-3108 2878 2896 2896 3161 3326 3329 3527 3527 3545 3545 Band assignment C-C-C b in a ring + def. aglycone group + breathing tetrahydropyran ring in aminosugar group + N[H.sub.2] w N[H.sub.2] w + C-C-C b in aminosugar group + C-H w at d ring and in aminosugar group C-C-C b in a ring + def. aglycone group + breathing tetrahydropyran ring in aminosugar group + C[H.sub.2] r at d ring C-O-H b at c ring + C-H w in aminosugar group C-C-C b in d ring + N[H.sub.2] w + CH w at d ring and aminosugar group C[H.sub.3] w in COC[H.sub.3] group Breathing aglycone group + C[H.sub.2] r + N[H.sub.2] r + C[H.sub.3] w in COC[H.sub.3] + C[H.sub.2] w in COC[H.sub.2]OH Breathing a ring + def. aglycone group + C-O s at a ring + C-O-H b at c ring + N[H.sub.2] w + C[H.sub.3] w in COC[H.sub.3] group C-O s between tetrahydropyran ring and O-H group in aminosugar group C-O s in metoxy group at a ring + C-C-C b in a ring + C[H.sub.2] r C-O s in tetrahydropyran ring + C-O s in glycosidic bond + C-C s in d ring + C-H w in C[H.sub.3] in aminosugar group C-C s in d ring and in tetrahydropyran ring in aminosugar group + C-H b at d ring and in tetrahydropyran ring in aminosugar group + C[H.sub.3] w in COC[H.sub.3] group + C-O s in COC[H.sub.2]OH group C-O s in glycosidic bond + C-O s between tetrahydropyran ring and O-H group in aminosugar group + C-H r in C[H.sub.3] in aminosugar group + def. d ring C-O s in glycosidic bond + C-C s Id ring + C-H b at d ring and aminosugar group C[H.sub.2] t at d ring + breathing a ring + C-O-H b at c ring C-O-H b in COC[H.sub.2]OH group C-O-H b at c ring + C-C s in aglycone group + C[H.sub.2] t in COC[H.sub.2]OH group C-O-H b at c ring + breathing a and c ring Breathing c ring + C-O s at c ring + C-O s at a ring + C[H.sub.2] w at a ring +C-H w at d ring C-O s at a ring + breathing a and c ring C-C-C b in d ring + C-C s in a and b ring + C-O s at c ring + C-O-b at c ring C[H.sub.3] sc in COC[H.sub.3] group O-C-H b + N-C-H b C-O s at c ring + def. c ring + C[H.sub.3] umbrella mode at a ring + C-O-H b at c ring C-O-H b at c ring + C[H.sub.3] sc at a ring + C-C s in aglycone group C-O-H b at c ring + C[H.sub.3] sc at a ring + C-C s in aglycone group C-C s in c ring + C-O-H b at c ring + C=O s at b ring + C-C s in a ring C-C s in a ring + C-O-H b at c ring + C[H.sub.3] w at a ring N[H.sub.2] sc C=O s at b ring + C-O-H b at c ring C=O s at b ring C=O s at d ring C-H s O-H s at c ring N-H s symmetric N-H s antisymmetric O-H s O-H s O-H s O-H s in COC[H.sub.2]OH group Vibrational modes-s: stretching, b: bending, w: wagging, sc: scissoring, r: rocking, and t: twisting.
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|Title Annotation:||Research Article|
|Author:||Kaczmarek, A.; Cielecka-Piontek, J.; Garbacki, P.; Lewandowska, K.; Bednarski, W.; Barszcz, B.; Zale|
|Publication:||The Scientific World Journal|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2013|
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