Raddeanin A, a triterpenoid saponin isolated from Anemone raddeana, suppresses the angiogenesis and growth of human colorectal tumor by inhibiting VEGFR2 signaling.
Raddeanin A (RA) is an active triterpenoid saponin from a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, Anemone raddeana Regel. it was previously reported that RA possessed attractive antitumor activity through inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis of multiple cancer cells. However, whether RA can inhibit angiogenesis, an essential step in cancer development, remains unknown, in this study, we found that RA could significantly inhibit human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation, motility, migration, and tube formation. RA also dramatically reduced angiogenesis in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), restrained the trunk angiogenesis in zebrafish, and suppressed angiogenesis and growth of human HCT-15 colorectal cancer xenograft in mice. Western blot assay showed that RA suppressed VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and its downstream protein kinases including PLC[gamma]1, JAK2, FAK, Src, and Akt. Molecular docking simulation indicated that RA formed hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions within the ATP binding pocket of VEGFR2 kinase domain. Our study firstly provides the evidence that RA has high antiangiogenic potency and explores its molecular basis, demonstrating that RA is a potential agent or lead candidate for antiangiogenic cancer therapy.
Raddeanin A (RA) (Fig. 1a) is an oleanane-type triterpenoid saponin extracted from the root of Anemone raddeana Regel, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb (Luan et al. 2013). Previous study showed that RA exerted antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. RA inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of various human gastric cancer cell lines BGC-823, SGC-7901, MKN-28 and human non-small cell lung cancer H460 cells (Gao et al. 2010; Xue et al. 2013). Furthermore, RA exhibited antitumor efficacy in S180, H22 and U14 tumor xenograft in mice (Wang et al. 2008). However, it remains unknown whether RA can suppress angiogenesis, a crucial step in tumor development.
Angiogenesis, which involves multiple cells and soluble factors for the formation of new blood vessels from the preexisting ones, plays a pivotal role in the process of tumor growth and metastasis (Grothey and Galanis 2009). Blocking angiogenesis is a validated effective therapeutic approach against cancer, and several antiangiogenic agents (Avastin, Sutent, Nexavar, Votrient, Inlyta, Zaltrap, Stivarga, etc.) (Meadows and Hurwitz 2012; Mullard 2013) have been successfully translated into cancer clinic. Besides the approved monoclonal antibody and small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), natural products from medical herb are currently attracting a growing amount of researchers to excavate their antiangiogenic activity (Song et al. 2012; Wang et al. 2013; Xu et al. 2013; Li et al. 2014).
The present study reveals the antiangiogenic potency of RA using human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) (a classical in vitro cell model mimicking tumor vascular endothelial cells), chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model, and transgenic zebrafish angiogenesis model. The tumor antiangiogenic efficacy of RA was evaluated in the subcutaneous HCT-15 xenograft mice model. Moreover, the antiangiogenic molecular mechanism of RA was explored by western blot and molecular docking assay.
Materials and methods
Materials, cell lines and animals
RA was purchased from Pure-one Bio Technology Company (Shanghai, China). Recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor ([VEGF.sub.165]) was obtained from ProSpec-Tany Technogene Ltd. (Ness Ziona, Israel). Antibodies for western blotting were purchased from Cell Signaling Technology (Danvers, MA).
Primary human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC) were obtained from Lifeline Cell Technology and cultured in completed endothelial cell medium (Lifeline Cell Technology, Frederick, MD). Human colorectal tumor cell line HCT-15 was obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA) and cultured in RPMI 1640 medium (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) and antibiotics (100 mg/ml of streptomycin and 100 U/ml of penicillin). Both HUVEC and HCT-15 were cultured at 37[degrees]C in a humidified atmosphere containing 5% C[O.sub.2].
Zebrafishes (fli1a:EGFP transgenic line) were raised and maintained under standard conditions (Westerfield 1995). Embryos were staged according to the previous protocol (Kimmel et al. 1995). BALB/c nude mice were provided by Shanghai Laboratory Animal Center (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China) and housed in an environmentally controlled quarters (20-25[degrees]C, relative humidity 55-65%, 12 h light/12 h dark cycle) for 5 days before experiment. The food and water were available all the time. The animal experiment designed in this study was approved by the ethical committee of Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine.
Cell viability assay
Cell viability was determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 (Dojindo Laboratories, Kumamoto, Japan). HUVEC or HCT-15 (5 x [10.sup.3] cells/well) were seeded in 96-well culture plates and incubated overnight. RA of various concentrations (0.1-10 [micro]M) was added into the wells for 48 h incubation. Then, CCK-8 solution (10 [micro]l) was added and the cells were incubated for additional 2 h. Absorbance was measured at 450 nm using a microplate reader. The percentage of cell viability was calculated against control.
Endothelial cell motility assay
HUVEC motility assay was performed using Cellomics Cell Motility Kit (Thermo Scientific, Rockford, IL), which could quantify cell motility by measuring the size of tracks generated by migrating cells. Briefly, collagen-I coated 96-well plates were prepared, and then the blue fluorescent microsphere solution was added to each well for 1 h incubation in the dark. After washing plate five times, HUVEC (500 cells/well) suspended in 100 [micro]1 completed medium containing various concentrations of RA (0.1-10 [micro]M) were added to the plate and incubated for 20 h at 37[degrees]C. Then, 200 [micro]l of 5.5% warmed fixation solution were added to each well and incubated in fume hood at room temperature for 1 h. The plate was then washed three times and added with permeabilization buffer and rhodamine-phalloidin staining solution successively. Then, the cell motility was assayed on the Thermo Scientific ArrayScan XT1 High Content Analysis Reader (Rhodamine Conjugates, Ex: 542 nm, Em: 565 nm; Blue Fluorescent Beads, Ex: 365 nm, Em: 415 nm).
Endothelial cell wound healing assay
HUVEC were seeded in 12-well plate and allowed to grow to confluence. After scratched with pipette tips, HUVEC were treated with different concentrations of RA (0.1-10 [micro]M) for 24 h. After another 48 h, microphotographs were taken with EVOS microscope (Life Technologies, Grand Island, NY) for quantifying endothelial cell migration.
Endothelial cell transwell migration assay
HUVEC migration assay was performed in 24-well Transwell Boyden chambers with polycarbonate filter of 8 mm pore size (Corning, Tewksbury, MA). Briefly, the bottom chambers were filled with 600 [micro]l completed endothelial cell medium supplemented with 20 ng/ml [VEGF.sub.165]. HUVEC (2 x [10.sup.4] cells/well) suspended in 100 [micro]l completed medium plus various concentrations of RA (0.1-10 [micro]M) were seeded in the top chambers. Cells were allowed to migrate for 8 h. The non-migrated cells on the top surface of the membrane were removed with cotton swab, and the migrated cells were fixed with cold 1% glutaraldehyde and stained with 0.1% crystal violet. Images were taken using an inverted microscope (Carl Zeiss), and migrated cells were quantified by Image-Pro Plus 6.0 software (Media Cybernetics, Bethesda, MD).
Endothelial cell tube formation assay
Matrigel (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA) was pipetted into prechilled 96-well plates (50 [micro]l per well) and polymerized for at least 30 min. HUVEC (1 x [10.sup.4] cells/well) suspended in 100 [micro]l completed medium plus various concentrations of RA (0.1-10 [micro]M) were placed onto the layer of Matrigel. Cells were allowed to form tubes for 10 h and then photographed using an EVOS microscope, the tube length were quantified by Image-Pro Plus 6.0 software.
Chick embryo CAM assay
The chick embryonic eggs were incubated in 38[degrees]C with the relative humidity at 65-70%. Six days later, a 2 cm diameter window was opened and the shell membrane was removed to expose the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Six millimeter diameter Whatman filter disk as drug carrier that absorbed RA with different concentrations (0.1-10 [micro]M) was put on the CAM. Vehicle (Saline) alone was the control group. Then the window was sealed with sterile parafilm and the eggs were incubated for another 48 h. The CAM was observed and photographed with digital camera, and the neovascularization was quantified by Image-Pro Plus 6.0 software.
Zebrafish angiogenesis study
To evaluate blood vessels formation in zebrafish embryos, 18 hpf embryos were distributed into 12-well plates (30 embryos per well) for a treatment period of 30 h. RA was diluted in 0.1 % dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at a concentration of 0.4 [micro]M. The positive control for this assay was 5 [micro]M PTK787, a VEGFR antagonist (Chan et al. 2002; Bayliss et al. 2006), and the negative control was 0.1 % DMSO. After treatment, embryos were anesthetized with 0.016% MS-222 (tricaine methanesulfonate, Sigma- Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) and the number of complete intersegmental vessels (ISVs), i.e. the number of ISVs that connect the dorsal aorta (DA) to the dorsal longitudinal anastomotic vessel (DLAV) was counted. Embryos and larvae were analyzed with Nikon SMZ 1500 Fluorescence microscope and subsequently photographed with digital cameras. Quantitative image analyses were performed using image based morphometric analysis (NIS-Elements D3.1 .Japan). A subset of images was adjusted for levels, brightness, contrast, hue and saturation with Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software (Adobe, San Jose, California) to optimally visualize the expression patterns. The inhibition rate was calculated by following formula:
inhibition rate (%) = ([1 - [ISV.sub.amount of experimental group]]/[ISV.sub.amount of vehicle control]) x 100
Anticancer therapy of RA in subcutaneous HCT-15 xenograft in mice
HCT-15 cells were s.c. injected into the 5-week-old female BALB/c nude mice (1 x [10.sup.6] cells/mouse) to establish xenograft tumor model. After tumors grew to about 100 [mm.sup.3], mice were randomly divided into two groups (6 mice per group) and then treated i.p. with or without RA (5 mg/kg) once every 2 days. The tumor volume and body weight were recorded every other day. The tumor sizes were measured using calipers and were calculated using the formula: volume ([mm.sup.3]) = (length x [width.sup.2])/2.
To further investigate the antiangiogenic effect of RA in vivo, on 22 day, mice were sacrificed and the resected tumor tissues were prepared for paraffin sections and performed histological assay. The tumor vessels were stained using rabbit anti-mouse CD31 antibody (1:200, Abeam, Hong Kong): the tumor cell apoptosis was identified using ApopTag Peroxidase In Situ Apoptosis Detection Kit (Merck Millipore, Billerica, MA); and H&E staining was performed for tumor necrosis statistical analysis. All the slices were photographed by Leica DFC 320 photomicroscope. The slices were analyzed for tumor necrosis area, microvessel density (MVD), and TUNEL-positive cells using Image-Pro Plus 6.0 software.
Western blot assay
To determine the effect of RA on VEGF-dependent angiogenesis signaling cascade, western blot was performed. Briefly, HUVEC were seeded in 6-well plates (1 x [10.sup.5] cells/well) and incubated overnight. After starvation in serum-free medium for 6 h, HUVEC were pretreated with or without various concentrations of RA for 30 min followed by stimulation with 100 ng/ml of VEGF for 4 min. The whole cell extracts were sampled with RIPA Lysis Buffer supplemented with PMSF (Beyotime, Shanghai, China) and PhosSTOP Phosphatase Inhibitor Cocktail (Roche, Rotkreuz, Switzerland). Protein concentration was determined using BCA Protein Assay Kit (Thermo Scientific, Rockford, IL) and equalized before loading. Forty micrograms of membrane protein from each sample was applied to 8-10% SDS-polyacrylamide gel and probed with specific antibodies followed by exposure to a horseradish peroxidase-conjugated goat anti-rabbit antibody (Cell Signaling Technology, Danvers, MA).
By using MOE 2011.10 (Molecular Operating Environment), computational docking was performed to explore molecular interactions between VEGFR2 and RA. X-ray crystal structures (PDB ID: 3VHE) of VEGFR2 kinase domain and its ligand were obtained from Protein Data Bank (http://www.rcsb.org). Water molecules and other heteroatom were manually removed out from the protein structures, and 3D hydrogen coordinates were given through protonate 3D module under MMFF94x. The 3D structure of RA was generated through energy minimization in MOE. With Site Finder module, the potential binding sites were searched for VEGFR2 kinase domain. The sites containing key residues, such as Leu840, Glu885, Leul 035 and Aspl 046, responsible for other VEGFR2 kinase inhibitor were kept as the target sites. Then, RA was docked into these sites, and the molecular interactions were analyzed and visualized by Ligand Interaction module and PyMOL.
All data are presented as mean [+ or -] SD. Statistical analysis and graphical representation of the data were performed using GraphPad Prism 6.0 (GraphPad Software, San Diego, CA). Differences between groups were examined using Student's t-test or ANOVA with Bonferroni's multiple comparison tests. Differences were considered significant if p value was less than 0.05.
RA inhibited HUVEC proliferation at concentrations not affecting HCT-15
RA can dose-dependently inhibit HUVEC proliferation as shown in decreased cell viability (Fig. 1b). The proliferation of HUVEC was almost completely prohibited at RA concentration of 10 [micro]M. In contrast, HCT-15 cells were not affected at all tested concentrations. These results suggest that RA can selectively kill tumor endothelial cells relative to tumor cells.
RA suppressed HUVEC motility, migration, and tube formation
Angiogenesis requires directed cell motility for efficient migration (Vitorino and Meyer 2008), thus we used Cellomics Cell Motility Kit to quantify the motion track area of HUVEC treated with RA. It was shown that RA dose-dependently restrained HUVEC movement and RA at the concentration higher than 3 [micro]M completely inhibited the motion of HUVEC (Fig. 1c).
Two migration assay methods were used to evaluate the influence of RA on EC migration. It was shown that RA significantly inhibited HUVEC horizontal migration to the wound area in the wound healing assay (Fig. 1d). In the transwell assay, even at the lowest tested concentration (0.1 [micro]M), RA could block nearly 40% EC migration (Fig. 1e). RA also significantly inhibited HUVEC tube formation at the concentration above 0.3 [micro]M (Fig. 1f). It is noted that RA could suppress HUVEC motility, migration, and tube formation in non-toxic concentrations (Fig. 1c-f).
RA restrained the angiogenesis in chick embryo CAM
To further evaluate the antiangiogenic effect of RA on vascular development in vivo, we applied the chick embryo CAM model to examine the inhibitory effect of RA on angiogenesis. After 48 h, the formation of new blood vessels was significantly blocked in RA-treated CAM comparing to that in control, and the inhibitory effect of RA was dose-dependent (Fig. 2).
RA inhibited angiogenic vessel growth in zebrafish
The potential antiangiogenic effect of RA was further translated and verified using a zebrafish model. In the vehicle control, complete ISVs formation was clearly visible in the embryo (Fig. 3A, D, H). In contrast, average less than 10 ISVs were observed, corresponding to nearly 68% ISVs inhibition, in the embryos treated with 0.4 [micro]M RA (Fig. 3B, E, I, K, L). The positive control at the concentration of 12.5-fold higher than RA resulted in 100% inhibition of ISVs (Fig. 3C, F, J, K).
RA inhibited HCT-15 xenograft tumor growth through antiangiogenic effect
To investigate the effect of RA on tumor growth of human colorectal cancer, nude mice bearing subcutaneous HCT-15 xenograft were treated with 5 mg/kg RA every other day for total 11 i.p. injections. It showed that RA significantly inhibited HCT-15 tumor growth and decreased the tumor size. The tumor volume in RA-treated group was 765.3 [+ or -] 156.6 [mm.sup.3], much smaller than that of control group (1919.0 [+ or -] 670.6 [mm.sup.3]) (Fig. 4a, c). The average tumor weight of control group was 2.2 [+ or -] 0.5 g, whereas that of RA-treated group was only 1.2 [+ or -] 0.3 g (Fig. 4b). The mice weight loss after RA treatment was not significant, suggesting that RA did not cause obvious toxicity to the mice at curative dose (Fig. 4d). Immunohistochemical and pathological examinations showed that RA treatment significantly decreased intratumoral MVD, elevated TUNEL-positive cells, and led to increased tumor necrotic area compared with control group (Fig. 4e-g). These results indicated that the antitumor effect of RA was related to its antiangiogenic activity.
RA down-regulated the activation of VEGFR2 and its downstream proteins
To investigate the underlying molecular mechanism of RA-mediated antiangiogenesis, we performed western blot assay to elucidate whether RA could inhibit VEGFR2 phosphorylation, and prohibit the activation of its downstream signaling pathway, which closely related to the survival, migration and proliferation of EC. RA strongly inhibited VEGF-induced VEGFR2 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner (Fig. 5a). Furthermore, the activation of downstream signaling of VEGFR2, including PLC[gamma]l, JAK2, FAK, Src, and Akt, was also decreased when treated with different concentration of RA (Fig. 5a).
RA docked into the ATP binding pocket of VEGFR2 kinase domain
As RA down-regulated the phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and its downstream signaling molecules, it was hypothesized that RA may interact with VEGFR2 kinase domain. Then, molecular docking simulation was performed to investigate the possible binding pattern between RA and VEGFR2 kinase domain. It was shown that RA was well docked into the ATP binding pocket of VEGFR2 kinase domain (Fig. 5b). The pentacyclic triterpene moiety of RA was trapped in the hydrophobic pocket, which was composed of Leu840, Leul035, and Phel047 (Fig. 5b, c). There were also hydrogen bonds between the saccharide moiety of RA and the key residues of ATP binding pocket, including Lys868, G!u885, and Aspl046 (Fig. 5b, c). In addition, RA also moderately interacted with other amino acid residues, including Gly922, Val848, Val916, Val899, Ala881, Leu1049 and Arg1027 through the hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonds (Fig. 5c).
Antiangiogenic intervention mediated by natural products is a promising research area that provides an effective anticancer strategy. Many natural compounds have been proved to possess antiangiogenic activity in vitro and in vivo. Previous studies showed that RA exerted antitumor activity on several kinds of cancer in vitro and in vivo by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting invasion, migration and adhesion of tumor cells (Wang et al. 2008; Gao et al. 2010; Xue et al. 2013). However, there has been no report regarding the antiangiogenic activity of RA so far. In this study, we firstly found that RA possessed remarkable antiangiogenic effect both in vitro and in vivo. RA interrupted a series of orchestrated processes of angiogenesis, including EC proliferation, motility, migration and capillary-like tube formation in a dose-dependent manner (Fig. 1b-f), and inhibited in vivo chick CAM angiogenesis (Fig. 2).
Transgenic zebrafish was also adopted to further evaluate the antiangiogenic activity of RA. The quantification of the number of complete intersegmental vessels (ISVs) is one of the reliable parameter to evaluate angiogenesis in vivo (Vasil et al. 2009; Murphy et al. 2010). RA could inhibit the ISVs formation of zebrafish in a non-lethal dose. As shown in Fig. 3, 0.4 [micro]M RA effectively disrupted the completion of ISVs and only occasional sprouts of dorsal aorta were observed. Both PTK787 (positive control) and RA significantly blocked blood vessel formation, which may be responsible for the observed pericardial edema (Chan et al. 2002). It is also noted that the morphology of zebrafishes treated with RA deformed and curved to some extent. Prompted by the robust antiangiogenic activity of RA, we applied HCT-15 human colorectal tumor xenograft in mice to investigate whether RA could exert antitumor effect through its high antiangiogenic potency. RA significantly suppressed tumor growth and tumor weight, induced tumor cell apoptosis, and increased tumor necrosis without obvious adverse effects such as body weight loss (Fig. 4a, b, c, d, f, g). The antitumor efficacy of RA was found to be closely related to the antiangiogenic activity, which was shown in remarkably decreased MVD in tumor treated by RA (Fig. 4e).
The phosphorylation of VEGFR2 is critical for angiogenesis, which mediates several effects of EC function, including EC survival, proliferation, and migration. Western blot assay showed that RA could decrease the VEGF induced VEGFR2 phosphorylation and its downstream signals, including PLC[gamma] 1, JAK2, FAK, Src, and Akt, in a dose-dependent manner (Fig. 5a). RA of 3 [micro]M almost totally inhibited the phosphorylation of VEGFR2, while the total protein of VEGFR2 remained unaffected, suggesting that RA can be a potent VEGFR2 inhibitor. The down-regulation of PLC[gamma]1 is related to the inhibition of EC proliferation (Sase et al. 2009). The inactivation of FAK and Src can suppress EC migration. JAK2 can mediate the phosphorylation of STAT3, a potent transcription activator in tumor angiogenesis (Zhang et al. 2011). Akt plays a key role in several cellular functions including cell survival, proliferation, migration, and protein synthesis. The suppression of Akt and JAK2 phosphorylation can affect EC function in various aspects. Taken together, these results indicated that RA modulated VEGF-mediated angiogenesis by blocking the phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and its multiple downstream protein kinases as summarized in Fig. 5d. It is noted that some other triterpenoid natural products and their derivatives also have antiangiogenic activity by influencing various signaling pathway, including VEGF/VEGFR2 pathway (Pang et al. 2010b; Mu et al. 2012; Kim and Kim 2014), bFGF/FGFRl pathway (Kim and Kim 2014), mTOR/S6K pathway (Pang et al. 2010b), etc. Moreover, many other saponins, such as deltonin (Tong et al. 2011), terrestrosin D (Wei et al. 2014) and ASC (Zeng et al. 2014), also possessed antitumor and antiangiogenic activity. The phosphorylation of VEGFR2 is an ATP consuming process. Molecular docking test indicated that RA could stably locate at the ATP-binding pocket of VEGFR2 kinase domain (Fig. 5b). Six amino acids (Leu840, Leul035, Phe1047, Lys868, Glu885 and Asp1046) at the ATP binding pocket were essential for the stable conformation of VEGFR2-RA complex (Fig. 5b, c). Some other amino acid residues of ATP binding pocket also have moderate interaction with RA (Fig. 5c). Such bioinformatics of the binding pattern of RA and VEGFR2 can help us better understand the antiangiogenic effect of RA. It appears that the interactions between the sapogenin (but not the saccharide chains of RA) to VEGFR2 contribute more to the stable conformation VEGFR2RA complex. Consistent to our speculation, some non-saponin triterpenoid compounds such pristimerin (Mu et al. 2012) and celastrol (Pang et al. 2010a) also possess potent antiangiogenic activity by inhibiting VEGFR2 activation. However, the saccharide moiety of RA may help improve the hydrophility of the compound and facilitate in vivo distribution.
In summary, our findings demonstrated for the first time that RA possessed potent antiangiogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo as a VEGFR2 inhibitor, and it may be a potential drug candidate or lead compound for antiangiogenic cancer therapy.
Article history: Received 10 July 2014
Revised 27 August 2014
Accepted 15 November 2014
This work was supported by National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2010CB529806), National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81272569), Shanghai Pujiang Program (No. 12PJD023), Innovation Program of Shanghai Municipal Education Commission (Nos. 12ZZ200,13ZZ087), and Shanghai Municipal Science and Technology Commission (No. 14JC1491900).
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Ying-Yun Guan (a), (1), Hai-Jun Liu (a), (1), Xin Luan (a), Jian-Rong Xu (a), Qin Lu (a), Ya-Rong Liu (a), Yun-Ge Gao (a), Mei Zhaob (b), *, Hong-Zhuan Chen (a), *, Chao Fang (a), *
(a) Hongqiao International Institute of Medicine, Shanghai Tongren Hospital and Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), Shanghai 200025, China
(b) Department of Pharmacy, Shanghai Institute of Health Sciences and Health School Attached to SJTU-SM, 279 Zhouzhu Road, Shanghai 201318, China
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +86 21 64674721.
E-mail addresses: firstname.lastname@example.org (M. Zhao), email@example.com (H.-Z. Chen), fangchaolOO@hotmail.com (C. Fang).
(1) These authors contributed equally.
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Author:||Guan, Ying-Yun; Liu, Hai-Jun; Luan, Xin; Xu, Jian-Rong; Lu, Qin; Liu, Ya-Rong; Gao, Yun-Ge; Zhao, Me|
|Publication:||Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy & Phytopharmacology|
|Date:||Jan 15, 2015|
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