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ROLES AND PROBLEMS OF AGED PEOPLE IN DECISION MAKING WITHIN FAMILIES IN DISTRICT FAISALABAD.

Byline: Muhammad Furqan Ashraf, Ayesha Ghazanfar, Ejaz Ashraf, Muhammad Qavi Irshad and Younis Afzal

ABSTRACT: The study was conducted to investigate the roles and problems of aged people within family in city area of district Faisalabad. Aging has become very core issue in recent times especially in urban areas. The huge segment of experienced population is neglecting by family due to decreasing family structure. Technology, advancement and busiest life style of family members are affecting aged people. The study has realized its objectives as the socio economic profile of respondents and behavior of family members towards them and how it is affected the role of aged people in decision making within families. The average male life expectancy in Pakistan is near about 60 years now. So it is decided to add the aged people of 50 years old or above. Pakistani society is a patriarchal or male dominant so that's why only male respondents were selected. Quantitative research method was used for above study.

It has shown significant association between education and decision making, X2 = 281.70, Gamma = .925, (P<0.05). It was concluded that aged in our urban areas are facing problems in decision making, facing bad attitude from the family members made them unsecured, less involved in family decisions, less satisfying with their current living conditions. Most of the aged people were belonged to nuclear family structure that had arisen their financial problems.

Key words: Aging, decision making, Socio-economic, Attitude.

INTRODUCTION

The Greek word Gerontology is derived from Geron, which means an old person whereas logy means study, so gerontology stands as the study of old persons [2]. Due to changing family structure from extended to nuclear family effects the aged people in families. They are facing many problems within family i.e. decision making, bad attitude, less involvement in family matters, financial problem and lack of space for living. The universal share of aged people (aged 60 years or over) improved from 9.2 % in 1990 to 11.7 % in 2013 and will continue to grow as a proportion of the world population, reaching 21.1 % by 2050 [5]. The aged population is estimated to be around 605 million at present.

This aging population is facing severe challenges in both developed and under developed countries. Pakistan is a developing country also among countries that gathered an overabundance of aged persons and which are also conjectured to be multiplied in impending years. Pakistani Society is known as traditionally recognized by aged appreciated society. It has also undergone extensive changes in its societal structure throughout the path of the broader transformation process. This has altered the overall status and role of the aged people inside the sphere of social relationships [1]. Aged people have to create numerous momentous decisions. Choices in the area of wellbeing or economic decisions are only two examples of aged people's day by day life situations in which they necessitate to determine carefully [3]. Amongst 15 countries with more than 10 million older persons, seven are developing countries including Pakistan.

This major shift in population structures will have far-reacting implication, especially for the developing countries. Further, it is expected that South Asia will experience a dramatic increase in its elderly population by nearly nine times between 2010 and 2025, when life expectancy will increase to 75 years for men and 82 years for women [4]. People generally begin to live longer, not just because of improved health care, but also due to some supplementary factors such as, better nutrition and sanitation facilities, education and income. However ageing also presents a range of socio-economic challenges for individual, families and societies at large.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The present study was conducted on the aged people living in city area of Faisalabad. A sample of 210 respondents was selected through multistage sampling technique. The researcher selected the respondents aged 50 and above in order to fulfil the requirements of the study. Survey method has been used to collect the data. For this purpose a well constructed interview schedule has been used as a data collection tool. Researcher has spent many days for collecting the data and conducted face to face interviews to the respondents. Before collecting actual data, pretesting has been conducted in order to know the effectiveness and flaws of interview schedule. After collecting the data it was processed, analyzed and tabulated through statistical method (i.e. SPSS). Inferential statistic was used to analyze socio economic profile of the respondents. Descriptive statistics was also used to check the association between particular variables.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Descriptive statistics such frequency distribution and percentages were computed to describe the data.

Table 1: Frequency distribution of the respondents regarding to their Age (N=210)

Age###Frequency###Percentage

50-60###91###43.3

61-70###75###35.7

71 and above###44###21.0

Total###210###100.0

Above table shows that age categories of the respondents consisted of years. Data indicated that at the time of survey 43% of the respondents were belonged to the age group of 50-60, whereas 35.7% were belonged to the age group of 61-70 and 21% were belonged the age group of 71or above.

Table 2: Frequency distribution of the respondents regarding to their educational status (N=210)

Educational status###Frequency###Percentage

Illiterate###83###39.5

Primary - Matric###78###37.1

Intermediate or above###49###23.3

Total###210###100.0

Above table shows the educational status of the respondents. It indicated that 39.5% were illiterate, whereas 37.1% were in the group of primary-matric and only 23.3% were in the group of intermediate or above.

Table 3: Frequency distribution of the respondents regarding to their Family type (N=210)

Family type###Frequency###Percentage

Nuclear###112###53.3

Joint###79###37.6

Extended###19###9.0

Total###210###100.0

Above table shows the type of family of the respondents. Table indicated that most of the respondents 53.3% were belonged to nuclear family, whereas 37.6% were belonged to joint family systems and only 9% were belonged to extended type of family system.

Table 4: Frequency distribution of the respondents regarding to their family size (N=210)

Family size###Frequency###Percentage

1-4 members###84###40.0

5-8 members###79###37.6

9 and above###47###22.4

Total###210###100.0

Above table shows the family size of the respondents. It revealed that most of the respondents' families 40% were belonged to family size group of 1-4, where as 37% were belonged to 5-8 family size group and only 22.4% were belonged to family size group as 9 or above.

Table 5: Frequency distribution of the respondents regarding to monthly income (N=210)

Income###Frequency###Percentage

1000-5000###84###40.0

5001-10000###78###37.1

10000 and above###48###22.9

Total###210###100.0

Above table shows the monthly income of the respondents.

Table examined that most of the respondents 40% were belonged to 1000-5000 income group, whereas 37.1% were belonged to income group 5001-10000 and 22.9% were belonged to income group 10000 or above.

Table 6: Frequency distribution of the respondents regarding to their source of income (N=210)

Source###Frequency###Percentage

Pension or other###77###36.7

Self earning/saving or property###48###22.9

Dependent on children###85###40.5

Total###210###100.0

Above table shows the source of income of the family. Table revealed that most of the respondents 40% were dependent on their children for income matter, wherever 36.7% had pension or other sources of income and only 22.9% had been self earning or savings.

Table 7: Frequency distribution of the respondents regarding to source of income of the family (N=210)

Source###Frequency###Percentage

Business or agriculture###91###43.3

Laboring-employed (private or

public)###74###35.2

Pension###45###21.4

Total###210###100.0

Above table shows the source of monthly income of respondents' family. Table indicated that 43.3% had source of business or agriculture, whereas 35.2% employed in private or public sector and 21.4% had the source of pension for monthly income.

Table 8: Frequency distribution of the respondents regarding to their satisfaction level with current living standard (N=210)

Satisfaction###Frequency###Percentage

Not satisfied###82###39.0

Moderately satisfied###78###37.1

Very much satisfied###50###23.8

Total###210###100.0

Above table shows satisfaction level of the respondents with their current living standard. It indicated that majority of the respondents 39% were not satisfied, whereas 37.1% were moderately satisfied and 23.8% of the respondents were very much satisfied.

Table 9: Frequency distribution of the respondents regarding to their purchasing problem (N=210)

Response###Frequency###Percentage

To great extent###92###43.8

To some extent###67###31.9

Not at all###51###24.3

Total###210###100.0

Above table shows the purchasing problem of the respondents. This table examined that majority of the respondents 43.8% had purchasing problem to great extent, whereas 31.9% respondents answered they had such problem to some extent and only 24.3% answered they had no purchasing problem.

Table 10: Frequency distribution of the respondents regarding their lower level of respect (N=210)

Response###Frequency###Percentage

To great extent###103###49.0

To some extent###71###33.8

Not at all###36###17.1

Total###210###100.0

Above table shows the level of respect given to the respondents by their family members. Table indicated that majority of the respondents 49% had faced lower level of respect to great extent, whereas 33.8% were answered they had faced lower level of respect to some extent and only 17.1% respond that they had not faced lower level of respect by their family members.

Table 11: Frequency distribution of the respondents regarding decision making problem (N=210)

Response###Frequency###Percentage

To great extent###71###33.8

To some extent###83###39.5

Not at all###56###26.7

Total###210###100.0

Above table shows the respondents problems in decision making. Table revealed that majority of the respondents 33.8% respond that they had faced problems in decisions making to great extent, whereas 39.5% told that they had faced problems in decision making to some extent and only 26.7% told that they had not faced any problem in decision making.

Hypothesis: "More the educational status of the respondents more the independence of decisions of the respondents in family; lesser the educational status of the respondents lesser the respondents independence in decision making"

Table 12: Cross tabulation between educational status * and decision making of the respondents

###Independence in decision making

Educational status

of the respondents###Not

###Yes###No###Total

###applicable

###5###8###36###49

Illiterate

###(2.4%)###(3.8%)###(3.8%)###(23.3%)

###7###69###1###78

Primary-matric

###(3.3%)###(32.9%)###(1.0%)###(37.1%)

Intermediate and###81###2###0###83

above###(38.6%)###(1.0%)###(0.0%)###(39.6%)

###93###78###37###210

Total

###(44.3%)###(37.1%)###(19.5%)###(100.0%)

Above cross table shows that there is significant association between education and independence of decision making within family (X2 = 281.70, p = .000). Gamma value (g = .925) also indicate that there is strong positive association between the both attributes. The table clearly confirms significant results. As we keep on increasing the educational level of the people then people will become more independent in decision making.

CONCLUSIONS

The results of the study have revealed that aged people are facing different kinds of problems in decision making. Their role is on declining state because of bad attitude of family members. They are economically dependent on their children they are treated as they regard. One of the major problems in our society is moving extended family structure to nuclear that has decreased the involvement of aged in family matters.

It is suggested that aged homes should be established at union council level. Govt and NGOs should establish seminars and counseling sessions for families. Aged should also given by the government monthly stipend to those who have unable to generate income.

REFERENCES

[1] Alam, H., Ali, F., Daraz, U., Ahmad, W., and Ibrahim "Socio-Economic Problems of Persons with old age in District Dir Lower Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan", Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 4(1) 93-100 (2013).

[2] Macionis, J.J. Sociology: A Global Introduction. Prentice Hall, New Jersey (2008).

[3] Mather, M. "A Review of Decision-Making Processes: Weighing the Risks and Benefits of Aging" in: Carstensen, L.L. and Hartel, C.R. (Eds.), Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 145-173 (2006).

[4] Rehmatullah. "Challenges for persons with old ages", daily dawn, p.30, October 4, (2011)

[5] United Nation. (2013). World Population Ageing 2013, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division ST/ESA/SER A/348 (2013).
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Publication:Science International
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Oct 31, 2016
Words:2402
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