ROLE OF LEADERSHIP IN ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT: A STUDY OF BANK ALFALAH LIMITED, PAKISTAN.
Keywords: Transactional Leadership; Transformational leadership; Organizational Profitability; Organizational Performance; Bank Alfalah Limited.
The entrepreneurial ventures around the world have been focusing on leadership because it is one of the most significant factors for organizational success. This is due to the fact that effective leadership might lead to the accomplishment of an organization's strategic goals and objectives. Leadership also plays an important role in the banking sector due to the high-level dependence of these organizations on the leadership style of a leader. The effective communication of the vision and mission has been proposed by leaders to the other units of the organizations to bring all the business entities on a common ground to gain high-level profit margin and organizational development. The term organizational development is referred to the body of practice and knowledge which results in individual development and performance of the organization.
This research has been intended to study leadership and its role in organizational development. The case study of Bank Alfalah has been chosen for having a strong understanding of leadership role in the organizational development in banking sector.
In a highly competitive business world, leadership plays a crucial role in organizational development which must be aligned with the technological advancements and change (Crane and Matten, 2016). With this aspect, effective leadership plays an imperative role in mitigating the risks of business losses, to obtain high-profit margins, and achieving advancements in organizational development. This study has the main aim to explore leadership and its role in organizational development particularly in Bank Alfalah, Pakistan.
It is a challenging task for the leaders to analyze the pertaining issues particularly in situations where power and control belong to one business entity i.e. the leader. To achieve organizational development, the banks must establish systems and hierarchy based on talents, experience, and work, parallelly countering the limitations of energy and resources required for business tasks (Cummings and Worley, 2014). This purports a great deal of strategic allocation of existing resources to gain marginal benefits however the leaders in banks face many difficulties due to the challenging economic and financial conditions in the banking sector, and same implies with the leaders in Bank Alfalah. In other words, for organizational development, the leaders are required to obtain an array of knowledge and skills which cover the demands of the business as well the customers, and ability to foresee the emerging demands in terms of changing market and customer trends.
The issue of effective leadership has been the most discussed phenomenon for the banking sector (Wictor, Andersson, and Mullern, 2013). This is because leadership is the pre-requisite for the achievement of the organization's goals and objectives. The major issue with the banking sector is that the leaders are not usually democratic in their decision-making process and actions. For this matter, the leader in these companies profess the authoritative leadership style and dictate their decisions on the organization's management and employees. This research will thus assess how leadership can affect Bank Alfalah's organizational development.
Another issue with banks regarding leadership is the issue of competence. For instance, in some cases the leaders lack in merit (Salvato and Corbetta, 2013). It has been identified that in some situations the managers of Bank Alfalah profess nepotism due to the political pressure. This has been the reason that the chairperson of the bank solely makes majority of the decisions. The effective leadership where the employees are satisfied can bring fruitful results for an organization's success and profitability. Tannenbaum, Weschler and Massarik (2013), explained that the leader would also be required to maintain a high-performance culture within the organization for obtaining employee job satisfaction and customer retention which would ultimately lead towards the high revenue and lucrative gains as well organizational development. This research was intended to assess the same notion regarding the role of leadership in organizational development particularly in Bank Alfalah.
The main aim of the study is to study leadership and its role in organizational development for which the case study of Bank Alfalah has been undertaken. The aim of the study has been divided into the following objectives.
* To explicate the role of leadership in the organizational development of Bank Alfalah Limited.
* To define the antecedents of organizational development.
* To find out the measures/performance criteria of the leadership and their application in the organizational development of Bank Alfalah Limited.
Fiedler (1978), reported that over the time it has been identified that for effective organizational development, organizations need effective leadership. Additionally, they also explicate that effectiveness in work performance of the employee is also associated with the effectiveness of leadership, thus leadership is an essential part of employee performance, technological advancement, and organizational development.
According to various studies, effective leadership attitude assists in the accomplishment of the employee as well as organizational goals (Fiedler, 1978; Maritz, 1995; Madanchian, Hussein, Noordin, and Taherdoost, 2016). Similarly, Cummings and Schwab (1973) identified in their study that leadership is found to be the most influencing variable on the enhancement of employee performance and technological development via customer-driven strategies. A large body of experiential evidence has established that the leadership behaviors influence organizational performance; strong leaders outperform weak leaders; and transformational leadership generates higher performance than transactional leadership (Burns, 1978; Bass and Stogdill, 1990; Howell and Avolio, 1993). Kirkpatrick and Locke (1996), recognized over 35 studies reporting confident associations between leadership and performance. Oreg and Berson (2019), stressed that leadership shapes organizational changes and influences its beneficiaries.
Lowe and Kroeck (1996), reported in a meta-analysis study that transformational style of leadership is positively influential in the enrichment of employee performance. Similarly, recent researchers elucidated that there is a positive association between leadership and organizational development (Dumdum, Lowe, and Avolio, 2013; Dvir, Eden, Avolio, and Shamir, 2002; Howell, Neufeld, and Avolio, 2005; Cameron, Quinn, DeGraff, and Thakor, 2014).
Profitability is propelled by being efficient in attaining an organization's goals and objectives. It is also seen that guidance is needed by employees to be efficient in their performance because the employees that cannot perform well or efficiently, can lead to waste organizational resources, and result in non-profitability to the organization. It is, however, important to impact the effectiveness of leadership in a way that will lead to organizational profitability rather than modern leadership programs which do not focus on the behaviors that matter the most for the success of the organization (Glenn and Laura, 2010).
Pradeep and Prabhu (2011), studied the relationship between leadership and employee performance. They emphasized that transactional (leaders promote compliance by followers through both rewards and punishments), and transformational (leadership approach that causes a change in individuals and social systems through inspiration with the end goal of developing followers into leaders), styles of leadership have a significant impact on employee performance and overall effectiveness of the organization. Levin and Riffel (1997), studied that transformational leaders are associated with technology adoption, implementation, organizational change, and innovation. Glenn and Laura (2010), measured leadership through employee effectiveness and their impacts on organizational profitability. Church, Melanie, David, Oliver, and Carol (2002), studied the role of technology on organizational development. Thus, this research primarily focused on the use of technology as an integral part of organizational development.
Glenn and Laura (2010), measured leadership through employee effectiveness and their effects on organizational profitability, and the relationships were found significantly positive and strong.
Based on the above literature, the following hypotheses have been generated for this study:
H1: Transactional leadership style of has a significant and positive impact on leadership.
H2: Transformational leadership style of has a significant and positive impact on leadership.
H3: Leadership is significantly and positively correlated with Employee Performance.
H4: Leadership is significantly and positively correlated with technological development.
H5: Leadership is significantly and positively correlated with Organizational Profitability.
H6: Effectiveness of Employee Performance has a significant and positive impact on Organizational Development.
H7: Technological Development has significant and positive impact on Organizational Development.
H8: Organizational Profitability has a significant and positive impact on Organizational Development.
This study operationalized its constructs with certain adopted items developed by different researchers, although some amendments were made to utilize the adopted items in the context of this research. Items were altered with considerations of objectives, problems statement and specifications of this research. Two broad elements were measured i.e. leadership and organizational performance which were further divided into constructs i.e. transactional and transformational leadership styles; technological development; employee performance; and organizational profitability, respectively. To address these variables via the research questionnaire, a five-point Likert scale has been used ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree.
For the transactional leadership, five items were adopted and modified from the study of Bass and Stogdill (1990), to operationalize the association of transactional leadership with different job-related aspects of the employees working in bank Alfalah, where transactional leadership style was represented as leadership variable.
To operationalize the transformational leadership construct, five items were adopted and modified by the study of Bass and Stogdill (1990), to explicate how transformational leadership style contributes within bank Alfalah, symbolizing leadership variable. For employee performance, five items were used to measure observations of employees working in bank Alfalah regarding the association of leadership with their work performance and how they relate their performance contribution in organizational development. Items were adopted and modified from the study of Pradeep and Prabhu (2011).
Moreover, for technological development, five questions were adopted and modified from the study of Church et al. (2002), and Levin and Riffel (1997), to address the linkages among leadership and technological development with the overall impact on organizational development. Items will also explain how leadership can contribute to organizational development with the assistance of technological development.
Organizational profitability was measured through five items which were adopted and modified from the study of Glenn and Laura (2010). Items are developed in accordance with the relationship between leadership impact on profit maximization of organization and explaining perceptions of respondents about organizational profitability and development.
Lastly, to address the organizational development construct five items were adopted and modified in line with the research objectives in order to investigate the perceptions of employees working in Bank Alfalah regarding organizational development. These items were however originally developed by Karamat (2013).
Sample and Procedure
This research is focused to explicate relationship of leadership on overall organizational development in the context of the findings at Bank Alfalah. Due to certain research-oriented constraints, it was not viable to target the entire population belonging to bank, consequently, multistage sampling techniques were used relating to probability sampling technique. Initially, the entire population was classified using stratified sampling techniques and then randomly respondents were targeted from each stratum. To determine the sample size, the table of the sample size formula given by Krejcie and Morgan (1970) was used and at a population size of 800, the sample size was calculated to be 260. Due to certain constraints, only 226 respondents were targeted and after data screening test 200 responses were considered for the final analysis.
Data Analysis and Results
Majority of the respondents in the survey were male with a frequency of 158, ageing from 33 to 39 years. Approximately 49 percent of the participants had experience of 3 to 6 years. Table 1 expressing the initial score of the measures was used in this study. Initially, the scale was piloted and for all constructs, the Cronbach's alpha was well above 0.7 indicating stronger internal consistency. Hence, a full-scale study was undertaken and in the same table mean and the standard deviation is also presented which is considered adequate and is taken for further PLS-SEM analysis.
Table 1. Descriptive Statistics and Cronbach's Alpha
Table 2 depicts the discriminant validity of latent variables. Hair, Black, Babin, and Anderson (2010), described discriminant validity as a test to explicate margin to which various conceptually identified concepts are dissimilar and additionally it has been reported that it confirms variances of latent variables in their own blocks much stronger as compared to other latent variables. Discriminant validity test analysis of this study explores that covariance on the diagonal of table 2. is stronger than other latent variables, as latent variable EP depicts a discriminant value of 0.795 which is stronger than other covariables. Similarly, Leadership, OD, OP, TD, TFL and TSL also show considerable variance values of 0.716, 0.714, 0.787, 0.785, 0.771 and 0.867, respectively.
Table 2. Discriminant Validity Test
Discriminant Validity test
Table 2 is based on various covariance-based analyses i.e. Average Variance Extraction, also called convergent validity, composite reliability, and R-Square. Fornell and Larcker (1981), reported in their study that convergent validity is an analysis of two similar concepts which are in fact correlated. They further explained that average variance extracted value is good if the value is 0.5 or greater, and consequently in perspective of this research AVE value of all latent variables are good enough and significant as per required value, such as EP having AVE value of 0.632 and similarly Leadership, OD, OP, TD, TFL and TSL having adequate values of 0.513, 0.509, 0.62, 0.617, 0.595 and 0.752 respectively. Bagozzi and Yi (1988), reported that the composite reliability of latent variables should be 0.7 or greater in the context of explanatory research.
Thus, findings of composite reliability test of this research are very much considerable and above 0.7 such as Employee Performance having CR value of 0.772, CR value of latent variable Leadership is also strong i.e. 0.84 and correspondingly remaining latent variables OD, OP, TD, TFL and TSL also depict considerable significance values i.e. 0.753, 0.83, 0.828, 0.815 and 858.
According to the researches of Tabachnick and Fidell (2007); and Hair et al. (2010), R square is a kind of analysis which explains the outcome effect of indented latent variables on dependent latent variables. The R square value of all latent variables is satisfactory, as given below in table 3.
Table 3. Overview of Covariance among Constructs
Latent Variable###AVE###Composite reliability###R Square
According to the famous book of research methods in business by Kothari (2004), factor analysis test explains how closely indicators of latent variables are associated with each other. In other words, it is a kind of test which explains factor-variable correlation along with their particular internal consistency reliability in their constructs. Bagozzi and Yi (1988), described that significance value of outer loading is 0.7. Corresponding to the findings of outer loading analysis which is given below in table 3, outer loading values of all significant indicators of the entire scale are mentioned, although some indicators were not loaded significantly in the model, as their values were below the significant level therefore those indicators were excluded from the model for further analysis.
Table 4. Factor Analysis/ Outer Loadings of each Indicator
Hypotheses Testing Analysis.
Table 5 shows the Path coefficient effect, Total effects, Beta and T-statistic for the entire items in the dimension model with high loadings for nearly all the measures.
Table 5. Path Coefficient Test
Hypotheses###Beta test (Original Sample Size)###t-test (Bootstrapping)
TFL -> Leadership###0.614###11.211
TSL -> Leadership###0.518###10.754
Leadership -> EP###0.448###5.46
Leadership -> TD###0.439###3.881
Leadership -> OP###0.369###2.98
EP -> OD###0.232###1.926
TD -> OD###0.145###0.995
OP -> OD###0.398###3.28
According to Hair, et al. (2010), the path coefficient analysis is based on two types of hypothesis testing. The initial test is based on original sample size, called as Beta test at the default significance level of 0.05 and secondary test is T-Statistics test which is based on bootstrapping sample size of 5000, the significance level of T-Statistics is 1.96.
Coordinating to the first hypothesis transactional leadership is positively associated with leadership. Figure 2. depicts that this hypothesis is supported and validated statistically with the Beta value of 0.614 and T value of 11.211 at a significance level of 0.05 and 1.96. Similarly, the second hypothesis i.e. Transformational leadership is positively related to leadership is also significant at 0.05 and 1.96 level with the beta and T value of 0.518 and 10.754. The third hypothesis which focuses on leadership association with Employee performance is also significant with the Beta and T values of 0.448 and 5.46 and remaining hypotheses i.e. leadership association with TD and OP, EP, TD and OP with OD portray sufficient values of 0.439 and 3.881, 0.369 and 2.98, 0.232 and 1.926, 0.145 and 0.995 and lastly 0.398 and 3.28 respectively.
Discussion and Research Findings
The first objective of the study was statistical in nature which focused towards the investigation of the role of leadership in the organizational development of Bank Alfalah. The objective was successfully achieved through statistical review in the SPSS software. It was identified through the results that there is a significant role of leadership in the development of the organization particularly in the case of Bank Alfalah.
The results of the study can be triangulated from the study of Abbas and Yaqoob (2009), which states that the employee perception and the performance can be enhanced by good leadership practices which should be taken into consideration for the high performance of employees and encouraging them towards performing a particular task within the organization. From the test results, it was clearly observed that leadership plays a vital role in the development of the company. Within the context of leadership, the employees of the organization can maintain their performance which is highly significant for the development of the company. Therefore, leadership plays a significant role in the development of Bank Alfalah.
The second objective of the study was theoretical in nature, which was directed towards determining the antecedents of organizational development. The objective was successfully achieved by reviewing different articles, theories, and journals focused on the role of leadership in organizational development. From the theories presented in the favor of antecedents of the organizational development, it was found from the study conducted by Jago (1982), that profitability is regarded as the main antecedent which helps in developing the organization.
However, empowered, and strong leadership can influence a smooth transition in the company which is also favorable for the transformation of the business. In this essence, it is required that the leaders should possess a set of qualities which can inspire, communicate, and encourage the employees within the company and help in smooth transformation and development of the organization. From the study conducted by Abbas and Yaqoob (2009), leadership was also found as the main antecedent which can be used for the development of the organization and brings profitability and sustainable competitive advantage to the company.
The third objective determined towards the measures of the leadership and their application in the development of the organization. The objective was also successfully achieved by the researcher through both theoretical and statistical methods and identified that the performance criteria include culture understanding of the organization which is crucial for the role of leadership and engagement of employees (Roberts, McNulty, and Stiles, 2005). The factors are discussed in an in-depth manner in the light of different theories and perspectives from different authors.
From the discussions demonstrated above, it can be concluded that there is a significant role of leadership on the organizational development in Bank Alfalah. Moreover, it can be asserted that the development of the organization is based on the vision of a leader and is followed by an effective leadership approach. The results portrayed a strong and close relationship with the performance of the organization which also leads to possible innovation. Though the study was limited to one organization, it was beneficial to the researcher in understanding the concept and role of leadership in the development of the organization. Yet the result of the present study is sufficiently helpful in comprehending how the leader can envision the development of the organization. Moreover, the study also reflects that the leaders in the company can influence and empower the employees which contribute towards the development of the organization.
The results also reflected a direct association between the independent and dependent variables i.e. transactional and transformational leadership and development of the organization respectively revealing that there is a growing significance of leadership.
It should be ascertained by the managers of the organization that an effective leadership program is implemented in the company for the betterment of the employees and the development of the organization. However, it is a challenging situation for the company to design an effective leadership program as it leads to the sustainability of the competitive advantage for the company which is beneficial for the organization in the long run. In addition, the effective role of leadership in the bank should be directed towards the betterment of the company as well as the employees. Furthermore, the ultimate effect will be placed on the organization itself along with the employees.
This research also provides some managerial implications which include the recognition of the benefits for the employees within a diverse workforce and hence focus on hiring best employees for the company. Moreover, workplace diversity offers an organization with numerous advantages and to counter the challenges along with creating a cohesive environment. The implications can also include the development of policies which is an essential element of an organization in order to experience growth within the diversity that exists in the employees of the company.
In addition, improved focus on empowering the employees of the company, should be stressed, by increasing the leadership practices and diversity in the workplace which helps the company in countering the challenges associated with low performance of the employees and managing diversity. For this purpose, managers should plan different training programs directed towards the enhancement of the employee's skills and empowerment.
Recommendations for Future Research
The findings of this study have contributed towards an understanding of the nature of managerial and leadership work within an organization along with a link between formal organizational processes and the style of managers. The quantitative nature of the study has depicted an in-depth understanding of the role of leadership on the organizational development of Bank Alfalah Pakistan. This research will help the future researchers in increasing the knowledge about the role and significance of the leadership for the development of the organization which will also be significant in practical situations. However, this research can be carried out in different perspectives such as employing a qualitative technique which would enhance the rationale and authenticity of the research.
In addition to the above statement, the qualitative technique will help in employing diverse responses of the branch managers on the notion of leadership which is significant for the organizational development. Further, this research can also consider multiple studies such as the overall banking industry in which the researcher can take insights from the respondents belonging to different banks. Furthermore, a contrasting study can also be considered which includes the comparison of a bank with another developing bank in Pakistan.
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|Publication:||Journal of Business Strategies (Karachi)|
|Date:||Jun 30, 2019|
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