ROLE OF HERBAL POLYSACCHARIDES AS GROWTH PROMOTERS IN BROILERS.
ABSTRACT: Compared to the birds in vaccinated groups that were kept without feeding Livol , the sera of the IBD(Hot), IBD(Intermediate) and NDV vaccinated birds kept on Livol had higher antibody titers on day 42. Amongst various treatment groups the highest haemagluttination inhibtion titers was recorded in IBD (Hot) feed with Livol treated birds as compared to the other groups. Treatment related changes in body weight, organ body weight ratio of thymus, spleen and Bursa of fabricius were also observed amongst the various groups. The addition of Livol (Herbal Polysaccarides to feed diminished the adverse/immunosuppressive effects of different vaccine on antibody titres against Newcastle and most relative organ weights. These findings suggested that Livol (Herbal Polysaccaride) can effectively stimulate/enhance the body weight gain, immunity in broiler chicks and Livol (Herbal polysaccarides) can be potential ameliorator against various vaccines and its adverse/suppressive effects in broiler chicks.
Key words: herbal polysaccharides, growth promoters, broilers
Herbs have been used as food and for medicinal purposes for centuries. The World Health Organization estimated that 80% of the earth's inhabitants rely on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs, and most of this therapy involves the use of plant extracts or their active components. Those plants and their components are perceived as "natural" and "safe" by consumers. Such compounds are already established as flavorings in human and animal feeds; however, we now understand that certain materials also have added technical benefits that may be exploited to maintain animal performance. In different herbs, a wide variety of active phytochemicals, including the flavonoids, terpenoids, lignans, sulfides, polyphenolics, carotenoids, coumarins, saponins, plant sterols, curcumins, and phthalides have been identified .
In limited research, some aromatic plants and their components on the performance, the addition of these substances to the feeds and water improved feed intake, feed conversion ratio and carcass yield [2,3,4]. As an aromatic plant, anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) is an annual herb indigenous to Iran, India, Turkey and many other warm regions in the world. Anise oil has anothole (85 %) as active ingredient and also it has contained eugenol, methylchavicol, anisaldehyde and estragole. As a medicinal plant, anise has been used as a stimulating effect of digestion and antiparasitic .
Stress is responsible for suboptimal growth and production performances. When a bird is exposed to any external/internal upset, certain body changes are brought about resulting in shock or any event that may threaten the biological integrity of the bird or any undesirable or harmful condition resulting from a situation where the body of the bird is unable to perform his normal functions. Heat stress adversely affects the growth and production performances of birds. The domestic fowl is a homoeothermic which can live comfortably only in a relative narrow zone of thermo neutrality extending from 14.50C -25.50C. Any deviation in the higher side depresses the survival and production of the bird. It is generally agreed that heat stress not only depresses the growth rate, egg production, feed efficiency, shell thickness and egg weight but also increases death losses in birds [6,7,8,9,10].
The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effect of Herbal Polysaccharides (Livol) on the growth of broiler chicks as determined by livealibility and FCR.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Experimental broiler chicks: A total of 150 day-old-chicks were reared in the experimental poultry shed, Department of Microbiology University of Veterinary Sciences Lahore under optimal managemental conditions. The chicks were reared until 42 days of age in experimental broiler houses. Birds in all the groups i.e. (A, B and C) were vaccinated against NDV Lasota on days 6 (by eye droppings) and 21(through drinking water). Group A were kept as untreated control and were further subdivided into two groups having 25 birds each i.e. Group A1 Not challenged and Group A2 Challenged with virulent ND virus10 4 EID50, 0.1 ml/chick. Group B Birds were fed with herbal Polysaccharides with the dose rate of 1ml/litter in drinking water through out the experiment till day 42nd. This group was further subdivided into two groups having 25 birds each i.e.Group B1 not challenged and group B2 Challenged against Virulent ND virus 10 4 EID50, 0.1 ml/chick.
Group C Birds were fed with 2ml/litter concentrations of herbal Polysaccharides in drinking water throughout the experiment. This group was further subdivided into two groups having 25 birds each i.e.Group C1 not challenged and group C2 Challenged against Virulent ND virus10 4 EID50, 0.1 ml/chick.
Feed intake: Feed intake was calculated for treated and un-treated birds as well as for herbal birds. The feed used contained no antibiotics, no vitamin and no coccidiostat.
Herbal polysaccharides (LIVOL): Group A was kept as control and no herbal polysaccharides (Livol) were fed. They were further subdivided into two groups i.e. A1 and A2. The birds in group B were also subdivided into two subgroups B1 and B2. both groups were fed with the concentration of 1ml/litter of herbal polysaccharides through drinking water throughout the experiment similarly the birds of group C were fed 2ml/litter concentration of herbal poly herbal polysaccharides and were further subdivided into two groups i.e. C1 and C2.
Weight gain: Starting from day 1st of the experiment up to the 42nd day of age, birds in all the groups were weighed on weekly basis, so that any differences in the body weight gain of chicks in various treatment groups could be determined. Weights of the bursa of Fabricius, thymus, and spleen of randomly selected birds in various treatment sub-groups were recorded after slaughtering the birds of group 14th, 21st and 28th day respectively of their age. These organs were removed and made clean of all debris before weighing.
Feed conversion ratio: The effects of herbal polysaccharides on growth performance of broiler chickens were evaluated. Mean body weight (MBW) and feed consumption of chicken were measured on weekly basis throughout the experiment. Feed conversation ratio (feed consume / weight gain) were calculated by totaling the amount of feed consumed divided by the body weight gain of the birds.
FCR = -----------------
Statistical Analysis: Data for all response variables were subjected to Complete Randamized Block Design analysis .
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
This study was conducted to evaluate whether Livol (Herbal Polysaccharide) had any effect on the growth performance, FCR, and weight gain of broiler chickens raised in stress at different vaccines.
Average weight gain (gm) per bird on weekly basis After starting the treatment at 1st day of age, the groups, which were offered Livol with the feed, showed high weight gain compared with the rest of the groups at (P less than 0.05). Additionally, this increased weight gain was consistently present through out the monitoring period in this group. The weight gain of all other groups fed without Livol were almost the less as compared to the group fed with Livol. These results indicated that Livol have a good affect on the birds and resulted in higher weight gain as shown in (Figure 1). There was significant increase in "relative organ body weights ratio" of spleen, thymus and bursa of Fabricius weights for the chicken fed Livol (Herbal polysaccharides) (figure 3). These changes in relative organ body weights were consistent with previous reports by Kubena et al.  who also documented similar changes as of this study.
However, the "relative organ body weights ratio" of the chicks untreated with Livol (Herbal polysaccharides) were significantly less as compared to the previous one, which indicated that the addition of Livol (Herbal polysaccharides) to the feed had protective/stimulating effects against the stress produced by vaccination in broiler chickens.
Body weight gain: There was significant increase in weights for the chicken fed Livol (Herbal polysaccharides) (figure 1). The results of present study justify the findings of El-Deek et al. (2001), who treated broilers with (pimpinella anisum) and observed significantly higher body weight gain. These results are in agreement with the findings of Wheeler , who fed herbal drugs to broiler chicks and reported an increase in the body weight gain in broiler chicks. However, the body weights of the chicks untreated with Livol (Herbal polysaccharides) were significantly less as compared to the treated chicks, which indicated that the addition of Livol (Herbal polysaccharides) to the feed had growth stimulating effects against the stress produced by vaccination in broiler chickens.
Feed conversion ratio (FCR): There was a significant increase in the feed conversion ratio for the chicken fed Livol (Herbal polysaccharides) (figure 2). Results of present study is justified by the result of Chand et al. , who fed 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% Berberis lyceum, to broilers and observed best feed efficiency. Present study are also in agreement with the result of Wheeler (2006), who fed herbal drugs to broiler chicks and found better FCR values at the end of the experiment.. However, the body weights of the chicks untreated with Livol (Herbal polysaccharides) were significantly less as compared to the treated chicks, which indicated that the addition of Livol (Herbal polysaccharides) to the feed had growth stimulating effects against the stress produced by vaccination in broiler chickens.
"Feed conversion ratio" on weekly basis: After dividing the birds into their respective groups according to experimental design given in the materials and methods, the groups that were offered Livol (Herbal Polysaccarides) alone in the feed showed significantly high FCR value compared with the rest of the groups at (p less than 0.05). Additionally, this high FCR was consistently present throughout the monitoring period in this group. Interestingly, the FCR of all other groups were almost the same (figure 2). These results indicated that Livol (Herbal Polysaccarides) severely affected the bird's health performance and resulted in high FCR. Moreover, the uses
In conclusion, use of commercially available Heptoprotective, growth stimulant and immunity enhancer Livol (Herbal Polysaccharide) is beneficial for poultry farming. Economic gains (body weight) not only outweigh the cost of use of such product (Livol), the very use of Livol can also result in production of better quality chicken meat for human consumption.
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Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore - Pakistan University College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, The Islamia University Of Bahawalpur-Pakistan Corresponding author email: firstname.lastname@example.org
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|Author:||Zafar, M.; Anjum, A.A.; Qamar, M.F.; Najeeb, M.I.; Maqbool, A.|
|Date:||Jun 30, 2011|
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