Printer Friendly

RISK ASSESSMENT OF DRINKING WATER FROM PUBLIC WELLS/PROCENA RIZIKA ISPRAVNOSTI VODE ZA PICE IZ JAVNIH BUNARA.

Introduction

Water is essential to sustain life of all living beings [1]. Adequate amount of safe and easily accessible water must be available to all, as a basic human right [2]. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) [1], safe drinking-water does not represent any significant risk to health over a lifetime of consumption, including different sensitivities (infants, young children, chronically ill and immunocompromised people, the elderly) that may occur during one's lifespan. The WHO recommends that the safety of drinking water should be considered in the context of managing the hazard risks that may compromise it.
Abbreviations

WHO      - World Health Organization
WSP      - Water Safety Plan
E. coli  - Escherichia coli
HPC      - heterotrophic plate count
IOS      - International Organization for Standardization
SMEWW    - Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and
           Wastewater
APV      - Autonomous Province of Vojvodina


Hazards (any biological, chemical or physical agent that has the potential to cause harm) [1] may occur or be introduced throughout the water system, from catchment to consumer. Therefore, effective risk management requires identification of all potential hazards, their sources, possible hazardous events, and assessment of the risks they may occur [1]. Mainly, for organized drinking water systems, these activities are defined by the Water Safety Plan (WSP), but for public wells, WSP is usually not sufficient. In the Republic of Serbia, there is a National Bylaw which defines the microbiological, chemical and physical parameters and guidelines, as well as frequency and minimal number of controls of the drinking water safety [3], but it is not based on risk management approach.

If routine analysis of drinking water in the Republic of Serbia is concerned [3] (so called "A" volume for analysis according to national legislations), the biological and chemical hazards are represented as the thermotolerant coliforms, especially Escherichia coli (E. coli), Enterococci (genus Streptococcus), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus species and excessive concentrations of nitrates/nitrites.

Thermotolerant coliforms, with predominant genus of Escherichia, but also with some types of Citrobacter, Klebsiella and Enterobacter, are coliform bacteria that ferment lactose at 44-45 [degrees]C. E. coli is present in human and animal feces and thus it is most commonly used as an indicator of fecal contamination. E. coli or, alternatively, thermotolerant coliforms, is the first organism of choice in monitoring programs for verification of drinking water safety. These organisms are also used as disinfection indicators [1, 4-6].

Intestinal enterococci are a subgroup of the fecal streptococci, which comprise species of the genus Streptococcus. They are typically excreted in the feces of humans and other warm-blooded animals. Intestinal enterococci tend to survive longer in water environments than E. coli or thermotolerant coliforms; they are more resistant to chlorine, so they are used as an indicator of fecal pollution, especially genus Streptococcus. Intestinal enterococci are also used as the indicator of water quality after repairs to distribution systems or after new mains have been laid [1, 7].

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a member of the family Pseudomonaceae (aerobic, Gram-negative rods), is a common environmental organism and it can be found in feces, soil, water and sewage. It multiplies in water environments and also on the surface of suitable organic materials in contact with water. It has been isolated from a range of moist environments such as sinks, water baths, hot water systems, showers and spa pools. Pseudomonas aeruginosa in drinking water can be considered as an indicator of secondary fecal pollution of water distribution systems caused by lack of disinfection after new mains have been laid, inadequate water flow, old and damaged pipes and taps where the precipitation of organic matter is high and tends to form biofilms. The main route of infection among humans is by exposure of susceptible tissue, notably wounds and mucous membranes, to contaminated water, instruments and other surfaces. Ingestion of drinking water is not an important source of infection [1, 8-11].

The genus Proteus includes Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, heterotrophic, and proteolytic rods being human opportunistic pathogens. Human and animal feces are probably an important source of these rods in natural environments. The presence of Proteus spp. bacteria in water and soil may indicate a fecal pollution of the environment, being a threat of poisoning if the contaminated water is consumed. The health risk may also be connected with drug resistant strains sourcing from intestines. Proteus spp. strains are able to adapt to different environmental conditions, such as high concentrations of heavy metals or toxic substances, which may be exploited as sources of energy and nutrition by the bacteria and could be used in bioremediation and environmental protection [12].

Heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria represent a wide spectrum of heterotrophic microorganisms among which are some sensitive to disinfection processes (coliform bacteria), some are resistant to disinfection (spore formers) and some rapidly proliferate in treated water in the absence of residual disinfectants. The HPC can be a useful tool in monitoring, treatment and as a disinfectant indicator, with the objective to keep numbers as low as possible. The HPC tests can also be used in assessing the cleanliness and integrity of distribution systems and the presence of biofilms. The HPC can include potentially "opportunistic" pathogens such as Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Flavobacterium, Klebsiella, Moraxella, Serratia, Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas, for which there is no evidence of an association with gastrointestinal infection through ingestion of drinking-water in the general population [1, 4, 8].

The chemicals of greatest health concern in some natural waters are usually found in excessive amounts of natural nitrates/nitrites. Nitrates and nitrites are frequently present in drinking water due to sewage contamination or agricultural runoff, so they can be defined as chemical indicators of fecal water contamination. The great concentration of nitrates are typical for untreated and non disinfected underground waters, while the nitrites, which are more toxic, are present in non treated, but disinfected waters. Excessive nitrate/nitrite exposure of infants up to approximately 3-6 months of age represents a risk factor for methaemoglobinaemia. Nitrite can react with nitrosatable compounds, primarily secondary amines, in the body to form N-nitroso compounds. A number of these are considered to be carcinogenic to humans. The formation of N-nitroso compounds is greatest among individuals who are achlorhydric (have very low levels of hydrochloric acid in the stomach) [1, 13].

An incident or situation that can lead to a hazard is defined as a hazardous event [1]. It can be caused by natural (drought, flood, earthquake, fires and emergency situations) or anthropogenic factors (contamination of drinking water sources by outflow of untreated waste water, by animals in catchment, by ammonia from uncontrolled use of fertilizers in agriculture; construction defects of wells and pipes causing microbiological, chemical and physical contamination from the soil and surroundings; lack of disinfections).

A risk is the likelihood of harm by identified hazards in exposed populations in a specified time-frame, including the magnitude of that harm and/or the consequences [1]. The semi-quantitative approach, known as a simple scoring matrix, relies to a significant extent, on expert opinion, evaluating the likelihood and consequence/impact of identified hazard suitable for risk assessment and rating it as low, medium, high and very high. The results of risk rating can be further used for managing and ensuring the drinking water safety.

The objectives of the study were to identify microbiological, chemical and physical hazards in drinking water from public wells which may have an impact on human health, and to evaluate, for the first time, the results of routine analysis of drinking water safety from public wells using the risk management approach, not the national legislations.

Material and Methods

During 2016, 20 most frequently used public wells in South Backa District (Figure 1) were chosen for analysis. These are situated in Novi Sad (8), Petrovaradin (1), Bukovac (3), Sremska Kamenica (3), Stari Ledinci (4) and Ledinci (1).

Sampling and transport of 218 drinking water samples was done in line with International Organization for Standardization (IOS) standards described in 5667 series part 1, 3 and 5. The cold chain transport for drinking water samples from the sampling point to laboratory was ensured. The sanitary inspection data, which were recorded on site, were also gathered.

The "A" volume analysis was applied for all gathered drinking water samples, which are defined by microbiological, physical and chemical parameters, according to national regulations [3].

Among microbiological parameters, we analyzed the presence and number of HPC, coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms (especially E. coli), enterococci (genus Streptococcus), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus species, and Clostridium perfringens. Standard methods of analysis were applied. Membrane filter technique was used to estimate the number of suspected organisms present in 100 ml of water. An amount of 100 ml of water was filtered through nitrocellulose membrane of 0.45 [mu]m pore-size, the membrane was transferred onto Endo agar for coliforms and Proteus species, Slanetz-Bartley agar for enterococci, sulphite-polimixin agar for Clostridium perfringens, all incubated at 37[degrees]C for 24-48 hours. King A agar for Pseudomonas aeruginosa was incubated at 42[degrees]C for 24-48 hours, and MacConkey agar for thermotolerant coliforms (especially E. coli) was incubated at 44[degrees]C for 24-48 hours. The presence of typical colonies referred to a positive reaction. For aerobic plate count, 1 ml portion of water was mixed with 16 ml of nutrient agar medium (cooled to 44-46[degrees]C), sample of water was immediately mixed with agar medium thoroughly and uniformly, allowing agar to solidify and then incubated at 35-37[degrees]C for 48 hours. It was assumed that each visible colony was the result of multiplication of a single cell on the agar surface.

The physical parameters were analyzed by applying a standard methodology (SRPS EN IOS 7887:2013 method C, Standard methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (SMEWW) 20th Edition, 1998; 2150B and 2130B] examining the color, odor and turbidity.

The following chemical parameters were analyzed: pH value (by standard electrochemical IOS method number 10523), the consumption of potassium permanganate (by volumetric method based on IOS 8467), evaporation residue (by Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater - SMEWW 20th Edition: 2540B and 2540C), conductivity (by standard IOS method number 27888 using electrodes), the concentration of ammonia (by spectrophotometric method based on reaction with Nessler reagent), nitrates (by standard spectrophotometric method: SMEWW 20 (th) Edition; 4500-N[O.sub.3]B), nitrites (by standard spectrophotometric method: SMEWW 20th Edition; 4500-N[O.sub.2]B), chlorides (by standard volumetric method: SMEWW 20th Edition; 4500-Cl B), total iron and manganese (by standard atomic absorption spectrophotometric method: SMEWW 20th Edition; 3111B) and free residual chlorine (by spectrophotometric method with orthotolidine).

Risk assessment was performed according to WHO semi quantitative methodology [1], assessing whether there were microbiological, chemical or physical hazards which might cause harm (severity of consequences on human health) in exposed populations in a specified timeframe (likelihood), known as a risk (Table 1). Risk assessment was based both on likelihood and severity, and 4 categories of risk were low (< 6), medium (6-9), high (10-15) and very high (> 15).

Risk likelihood was defined for each controlled public well, specified by dynamic of sampling. Severity was set according to the type and scientifically defined impact on human health caused by microbiological and chemical hazards. For the purpose of risk rating among the analyzed microbiological parameters, known and defined microbiological hazards were taken into account, such as the presence and number of thermotolerant coliforms (especially E. coli), enterococci (genus Streptococcus), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus species. The concentrations of nitrates and nitrites above the national guideline values, according to WHO recommendations [1], were recognized as chemical hazards.

The microbiological, physical and chemical parameters which exceeded the guideline values, but are not categorized as hazards according to the scientific knowledge (exceeding the guideline values for HPC, iron, manganese, ammonia, organic meter, changes in odor, turbidity and color), were also used for risk assessment.

Results

During 2016, considering national legislation, of 218 samples of drinking water from 20 public wells, microbiological, physical and chemical analysis showed that the drinking water was safe for use only in 23 (10.55%) controlled samples and none (0%) of the controlled public wells, [1]. Results of each controlled public wells are presented in Table 2.

Microbiological hazards were found in 13 (65%) public wells (Table 2), 2 located in Novi Sad (at the Fishing Island, near the restaurant, and in Jozefa Marcoka Street), 1 in Petrovaradin ("Snezna Marija"), 3 in Bukovac ("Kumpula" (in the forest), in Izvorska Street and "Vilina vodica" (in the forest)), 3 in Sremska Kamenica (in Kneza Mihaila Street, "Ruzin venac" and under the "Sloboda" bridge), 4 in Stari Ledinci (near the Local Community, in front of the Church, in Lukijana Musickog Street and "Zvecan"). The microbiological hazards were thermotolerant coliforms (E. coli especially, as Citrobacter and Klebsiella), enterococci (genus Streptococcus), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus spp.

Chemical hazards (exceeding the national guidelines levels for nitrates) were found in 4 (20%) public wells (Table 2), located in Petrovaradin ("Snezna Marija"), Bukovac (in Izvorska Street), Sremska Kamenica (under the bridge "Sloboda") and Ledinci ("Sveta Petka").

The analyzed sanitary inspection data showed that causes of hazardous events due to microbiological hazards with high or moderate likelihood of severe morbidity from consuming water were: untreated sewage, close septic systems, animals in catchment, uncontrolled human access, lack of disinfection, construction defects of wells and pipes and area surrounding the well tap, and entry of contaminated water.

Hazardous events associated with chemical hazards, also according to the analysis of the sanitary inspection data with moderate and major likelihood of severe morbidity from consuming water, rating the risks as high or medium were: untreated waste waters, close septic systems, uncontrolled use of ammonia fertilizers in agriculture, uncontrolled human access, and natural characteristics of the soil where the water sources are located.

The likelihood of moderate health risk for each controlled public well was scored--3. The severity qualified by the presence of microbiological hazards impacting the public health was defined as major and scored--4, as were the exceeding levels of nitrates impacting the sensitive population. The microbiological, physical and chemical parameters which exceeded the guideline levels, but according to scientific knowledge were not rated as hazards, were qualified as moderate hazards, scored--3, having impact on humans, but not causing population morbidity.

By combining the likelihood and severity levels for each controlled public well, based on one year analysis, the final risk scoring (Table 3) shows that using drinking water from public wells in Petrovaradin ("Snezna Marija"), Bukovac ("Kumpula" and "Vilina vodica" in the forest and in Izvorska Street), Sremska Kamenica (in Kneza Mihaila Street, "Ruzin venac" and under the bridge "Sloboda"), Stari Ledinci (Near to the Local Community, in front of the Church, in Lukijana Musickog Street and "Zvecan"), Ledinci ("Sveta Petka") and in 2 objects in Novi Sad (at "The Fishing Island", near to restaurant and in Jozefa Marcoka Street) represents a high public health risk, scored--12, while drinking water from other 6 controlled public wells located in Novi Sad, represents a medium public health risk, scored--9.

Discussion

Risk assessment showed that drinking water from all controlled public wells located in Petrovaradin, Sremska Kamenica, Bukovac, Stari Ledinci and Ledinci presents a high risk for the population and may cause illness, especially among sensitive population. Furthermore, among controlled public wells in Novi Sad, there are 2 wells which represent a high health risk, one of them situated near the river Danube and the other in the city center. In about 1/3 of controlled public wells, mainly situated in Novi Sad, the health risk is medium, causing people to change their source of drinking water due to water odor, color, or turbidity. Presented results are well known among specialist who are managing the drinking water safety in public health institutes, but without their knowledge and ability to explain whether the drinking water from public wells is or is not safe for consumption, the information is not useful to the population. That is why risk assessments represent easy to understand and complete information concerning whether it is safe to use drinking water from certain public wells.

Analyses have shown that coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, enterococci (genus Streptococcus), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus species were also found in drinking water from controlled public wells in other parts of Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (APV), as in 2015 and years before, just like in the South Backa District in the previous period [14-16]. Unfortunately, the lack of unique method of sampling, analysis and evaluation, disables risk assessment of all controlled public wells in APV. Rapid assessment of drinking water quality in rural areas of the Republic of Serbia performed in 2016 showed that E. coli was present in 32% of 182 controlled individual supplies and represented a high risk in 33.5% and a very high risk in 7.1% individual drinking water supplies, concerning the amount of E. coli and results of sanitary inspection [17]. Data from the Republic of Serbia do not differentiate E. coli strains, like in 1989 in Missouri, United States, in 1991 in Grampian, Scotland, United Kingdom, in 1993 in South Africa, in 1994 in Saitama, Japan, in 1995 in Ontario, Canada, in 1997 in Grampian, Scotland, United Kingdom and in Fuerteventura, Canary Islands, in 1999 and 2002 in Highland, Scotland, United Kingdom, E. coli strain O157, found in private and other unchlorinated drinking water sources caused drinking water-associated outbreaks [18].

When it comes to chemical parameters in the drinking water from public wells in APV, nitrates are above the guideline values and present a hazard mainly in South Backa District [14, 15]. In contrast, in Eastern and Western parts of Serbia, of 182 controlled individual supplies, in 21% nitrates were above the guideline levels [17]. Based on the European Environmental Agency data from 1989 to 2000, there was a rising trend of nitrate concentrations in the groundwater in Europe, but information are currently available mainly from France and Sweden [19]. It is assumed that agriculture is the main source of groundwater nitrate concentrations [19]. The results of studies performed in 2009 in the United States, including about 2.100 private wells, showed that nitrates were the most common inorganic contaminant that was found at concentrations higher than the Federal Drinking Water Standard for Public Water Supplies (45 mg/L) in USA [20].

Risk assessment is not mandatory, but in many European countries and in the United States, specialists in public health sector and managers in drinking water supply systems, use it, and it is almost incorporated in WSP [1, 21, 22]. It provides identification of hazards, evaluation of hazard sources, hazardous events, and impact on human health and, with respect to the results, taking adequate measures, preventive or interventional. It is known that WSP with risk analysis approach for managing the drinking water supply and distribution system is similar to Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point procedures or IOS 9001 in food production or management [1, 21], so it is advisable to adopt risk analysis approach in national policy.

The risk analysis considers hazard identification and risk assessment, which are mainly done by researchers and experts in drinking water systems; a multidisciplinary approach for risk management and risk communication [23], should engage drinking water producers, technicians, in health and environment sector, politicians and population for managing risks in a systematic way.

Conclusion

This study showed that microbiological and chemical hazards were found in the drinking water from public wells in the South Backa District. After rating the likelihood and severity of health risks, 2/3 of controlled public wells showed high risk levels of multiple contaminants with an impact on the morbidity of sensitive population. It also showed that the proposed risk assessment methodology provides information that are easy to understand and clearly rates the risks caused by drinking water from public wells. The greatest challenge in managing the drinking water safety is to prioritize risk assessment in the Republic of Serbia systematically.

References

(1.) World Health Organization. Guidelines for drinking-water quality: fourth edition incorporating the first addendum. Geneva: WHO; 2017.

(2.) United Nations. General Assembly. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly Resolution 64/292. The human right to water and sanitation. 2010 [cited 2017 Sep 5]. Available from: https://s3.amazonaws.com/berkley-center/100308UNARES64292.pdf

(3.) Rulebook on hygienic correctness of drinking-water quality. Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia. 1998;(42);1998;(44). Serbian.

(4.) Ashbolt NJ, Grabow WOK, Snozzi M. Indicators of microbial water quality. In: Fewtrell L, Bartram J, editors. Water quality - Guidelines, standards and health: Assessment of risk and risk management for water-related infectious disease. London: IWA Publishing: 2001. p. 289-315.

(5.) Grabow WOK. Waterborne diseases: update on water quality assessment and control. Water SA. 1996;22(2):193-202.

(6.) Sueiro RA, Araujo M, Santos CJ, Gomez MJ, Garrido MJ. Evaluation of Coli-ID and MUG Plus media for recovering Escherichia coli and other coliform bacteria from groundwater samples. Water Sci Technol. 2001;43(12):213-6.

(7.) Pinto B, Pierotti R, Canale G, Reali D. Characterization of "faecal streptococci" as indicators of faecal pollution and distribution in the environment. Lett Appl Microbiol. 1999;29(4):258-63.

(8.) Bartram J, Cotruvo JA, Exner M, Fricker C, Glasmacher A, World Health Organization Water sanitation and health team. Heterotrophic plate counts and drinking-water safety: the significance of HPCs for water quality and human health. Geneva: WHO; 2003.

(9.) De Victorica J, Galvan M. Pseudomonas aeruginosa as an indicator of health risk in water for human consumption. Water Sci Technol. 2001;43(12):49-52.

(10.) Hardalo C, Edberg SC. Pseudomonas aeruginosa: assessment of risk from drinking-water. Crit Rev Microbiol. 1997;23(1):47-75.

(11.) Gusman V. Biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from drinking water. [disertation]. Novi Sad: University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Medicine; 2013.

(12.) Drzewiecka D. Significance and roles of Proteus spp. bacteria in natural environments. Microb Ecol. 2016;72(4):741-58.

(13.) World Health Organization. Nitrate and nitrite in drinking-water. Background document for development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality. Geneva: WHO; 2011.

(14.) Arsic M, Ac Nikolic E, Balac D, Bijelovic S, Bjelanovic J, Velicki R, et al. Health condition of the population in AP Vojvodina 2015. Novi Sad: Institute of Public Health of Vojvodina; 2016. Serbian.

(15.) Arsic M, Ac Nikolic E, Balac D, Bijelovic S, Bjelanovic J, Velicki R, et al. Health condition of the population in AP Vojvodina 2014. Novi Sad: Institute of Public Health of Vojvodina; 2015. Serbian.

(16.) Bijelovic S, Zivadinovic E, Dragic N, Gusman V. Microbiological hazards in drinking water from public wells. In: Papers (CD--ROM). 14th DKMT Euroregional Conference on Environment and Health; 2012 May 18-19, Szeged, Hungary.

(17.) Jovanovic D, Paunovic K, Schmoll O, Shinee E, Rancic M, Ristanovic-Ponjavic I, et al. Rapid assessment of drinking-water quality in rural areas of Serbia: overcoming the knowledge gaps and identifying the prevailing challenges. Public Health Panorama. 2017;3(2):175-85.

(18.) Artz RR, Killham K. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in private drinking water wells: influences of protozoan grazing and elevated copper concentrations. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2002;216(1):117-22.

(19.) Scheidleder A. Indicator Fact Sheet (WEU01). Nitrate in groundwater. European Environment Agency [cited 2017 Aug 18]. Available from: https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/nitrate-in-groundwater/nitrate-in-groundwater.

(20.) Water Quality Association. Nitrate/nitrite fact sheets. Lisle: Water Quality Association, International Headquarters & Laboratory; c2013 [cited 2017 Aug 18]. Available from: https://www.wqa.org/Portals/0/Technical/Technical%20Fact%20Sheets/2014_NitrateNitrite.pdf.

(21.) World Health Organization International Water Association. A practical guide to auditing water safety plans. Geneva: WHO; 2015.

(22.) World Health Organization. Water Safety Plans. Managing drinking-water quality from catchment to consumer. Geneva: WHO; 2005.

(23.) Noren V, Hedelin B, Bishop K. Drinking water risk assessment in practice: the case of Swedish drinking water producers at risk from floods. Environ Syst Decis. 2016;36(3):239-52.

Sanja V. BIJELOVC, Marija JEVTIC, Natasa DRAGIC, Emil ZIVADINOVIC, Danijela LUKIC and Deana MEDIC

Institute of Public Health of Vojvodina, Novi Sad, Republic of Serbia

Corresponding Author: Dr Sanja V. Bijelovic, Institut za javno zdravlje Vojvodine, 21000 Novi Sad, Futoska 121, E-mail: sanja.bijelovic@mf.uns.ac.rs

Rad je primljen 19. VI 2017.

Recenziran 19. VI 2017.

Prihvacen za stampu 26. IX 2017.

BIBLID.0025-8105:(2017):LXX:9-10:297-306.

UDK 614.777(497.113)

https://doi.org/10.2298/MPNS1710297B
Table 1. Risk scoring matrix for risk rating
Tabela 1. Matrica za rangiranje rizika

                             Severity of consequences and hazard
Likelihood with         scoring/Posledice po zdravlje ljudi sa ocenom
scores/Verovatnoca      Insignificant (no  Minor (*) (compliance
sa ocenom               impact), score--1    impact), score
                           Bez znacaja     - 2/Minimalan (nije
                         (nema uticaja),    dokazan negativan
                             ocena 1        uticaj), ocena 2


Almost certain (once
per day), score 5/Sko-          5                  10
ro sigurno (jednom/
dnevno) ocena 5
Likely (once per
week), score 4/Verov-           4                   8
atno (jednom
nedeljno), ocena 4
Moderately likely
(once per month),
score 3/Moguce                  3                   6
verovatno (jednom
mesecno), ocena 3
Unlikely (once per
year), score 2/Malo             2                   4
verovatno (jednom
godisnje), ocena 2
Rare (once in a 5
years), score 1/Retko           1                   2
(jednom u 5 godina),
ocena 1

                             Severity of consequences and hazard
Likelihood with         scoring/Posledice po zdravlje ljudi sa ocenom
scores/Verovatnoca        Moderate (**)     Major (***) impact,
sa ocenom               impact, score--3     rating, score--4
                        Umeren (senzorne      Velike (preko
                         promene), ocena       propisanih
                                3          vrednosti), ocena 4


Almost certain (once
per day), score 5/Sko-         15                  20
ro sigurno (jednom/
dnevno) ocena 5
Likely (once per
week), score 4/Verov-          12                  16
atno (jednom
nedeljno), ocena 4
Moderately likely
(once per month),
score 3/Moguce                  9                  12
verovatno (jednom
mesecno), ocena 3
Unlikely (once per
year), score 2/Malo             6                   8
verovatno (jednom
godisnje), ocena 2
Rare (once in a 5
years), score 1/Retko           3                   4
(jednom u 5 godina),
ocena 1

                              Severity of consequences and hazard
Likelihood with          scoring/Posledice po zdravlje ljudi sa ocenom
scores/Verovatnoca                   Catastrophic[section]
sa ocenom                               (public health
                                       impact), score--5
                                         Katastrofalan
                                      (uticaj na zdravlje
                                         ljudi), ocena 5

Almost certain (once
per day), score 5/Sko-                        25
ro sigurno (jednom/
dnevno) ocena 5
Likely (once per
week), score 4/Verov-                         20
atno (jednom
nedeljno), ocena 4
Moderately likely
(once per month),
score 3/Moguce                                15
verovatno (jednom
mesecno), ocena 3
Unlikely (once per
year), score 2/Malo                           10
verovatno (jednom
godisnje), ocena 2
Rare (once in a 5
years), score 1/Retko                          5
(jednom u 5 godina),
ocena 1

(*) Minor: Minor impact (color, odor...) causing dissatisfaction, but
not likely leading to the use of alternative water source; (**)
Moderate: Moderate impact (color, odor...) possibly resulting in the
use of alternative water source; (***) Major: Morbidity expected from
consuming water; [section] Catastrophic: Mortality expected from
consuming water
(*) Bez znacaja: Beznacajne senzorne izmene koji mogu usloviti
nezadovoljstvo korisnika, ali ne i potrebu nalazenja drugog
alternativnog izvora vode za pice; (**) Minimalan: Izmenjene senzorne
osobine vode koje ce usloviti potrebu nalazenja drugog alternativnog
izvora vodosnabdevanja; (***) Velike: Promene u morbiditetu uzrokovane
konzummiranjem vode; [section] Katastrofalan: Izmene mortaliteta zbog
upotrebe kontaminirane vode

Table 2. The number of controlled drinking water samples from public
wells in South Backa District in 2016 with microbiological, physical
and chemical test results and hazard scoring
Tabela 2. Broj kontrolisanih uzoraka vode za pice iz javnih bunara na
teritoriji Juznobackog upravnog okruga tokom 2016. sa rezultatima
mikrobioloskih, fizickih i hemijskih analiza i prisustvom opasnosti

No.  Drinking water          Number     Microbiological analyses
R.b. source/Izvor vode     of control-   Mikrobioloske analize
     za pice                led sam-        Number and % (*)
                            ples/year      of samples which
                            Broj kon-     were not safe/Broj
                           trolisanih      i % neispravnih
                             uzoraka        mikrobioloskih
                            godisnje           uzoraka




     Novi Sad, in 1300
     kaplara Street/ u
1.                            12             0 (0.00%)
     Ulici 1300 kaplara

     Novi Sad, at the
     corner of Narodnog
     fronta and Sekspir       12             0 (0.00%)
2.   Street / na uglu
     Narodnog fronta i
     Sekspirove ulice

     Novi Sad, near to
     SPENS" (Sport
3.   and Recreate             11             0 (0.00%)
     Center)/u blizini
     SPENS-a

     Novi Sad, at "The
     Fishing Island",
     near to restaurant /
4.   na Ribarskom os-          4            3 (75.00%)
     trvu, u blizini
     restorana

     Novi Sad, at "The
     Fishing Island", in
     front of the Fisher-
5.   men's Association /      12             0 (0.00%)
     na Ribarskom os-
     trvu, ispred
     Udruzenja ribolo-
     vaca

     Novi Sad, in Alberta
6.   Tome Street / u          10             0 (0.00%)
     Ulici Alberta Tome

     Novi Sad, in Jozefa
7.   Marcoka Street/u
     Ulici Jozefa             12             1 (8.33%)
     Marcoka

     Novi Sad, in Balza-
8.   kova Street/u Bal-       12             0 (0.00%)
     zakovoj ulici

     Petrovaradin,
9.   "Snezna Marija"          12            8 (66.67%)

     Bukovac, "Kumpu-          7            2 (28.57%)
10.  la" (in forest)/ (u
     sumi)

     Bukovac, in Izvors-
11.  ka Street/u Izvor-       12            9 (75.00%)
     skoj ulici

     Bukovac, "Vilina
12.  vodica" (in forest)/      7            6 (85.71%)
     (u sumi)

     Sremska Kamenica,
     in Kneza Mihaila         12            7 (58.33%)
13.  Street/u Ulici kneza
     Mihaila

14.  Sremska Kamenica,        12            7 (58.33%)
     "Ruzin venac"

     Sremska Kamenica,
15.  under the bridge         11           10 (90.91%)
     "Sloboda"/ispod
     mosta Sloboda

     Stari Ledinci, near
     to the Local
16.  Community/u              12          12 (100.00%)
     blizini Mesne zajed-
     nice

     Stari Ledinci, in
17.  front of the Church      12          12 (100.00%)
     / ispred crkve

     Stari Ledinci, in
18.  Lukij ana Musickog
     Street/u Ulici Luki-     12          12 (100.00%)
     jana Musickog

     Stari Ledinci,
19.  Zvecan                   12            4 (33.33%)

20.  Ledinci, Sveta Pet-      12             0 (0.00%)
     ka

No.  Drinking water            Microbiological analyses
R.b. source/Izvor vode           Mikrobioloske analize
     za pice                     Reasons of microbio-
                                  logical unsafety of
                                drinking water quality-
                                  number and % (**) /
                                 Uzroci mikrobioloske
                                neispravnosti--broj i %

     Novi Sad, in 1300
     kaplara Street/ u
1.                                        - (#)
     Ulici 1300 kaplara

     Novi Sad, at the
     corner of Narodnog
     fronta and Sekspir                    -
2.   Street / na uglu
     Narodnog fronta i
     Sekspirove ulice

     Novi Sad, near to
     SPENS" (Sport
3.   and Recreate                          -
     Center)/u blizini
     SPENS-a

                           TC ([double dagger]) in 2 (66.67%);
     Novi Sad, at "The       FC ([section]) (Citrobacter fre-
     Fishing Island",             undii, Citrobacter
     near to restaurant /       spp., Klebsiella pneu-
4.   na Ribarskom os-            monia) in 2 (66.67%);
     trvu, u blizini        Ent. ([paragraph]) in 1 (33.33%);
     restorana                     Proteus spp. in 1
                                       (33.33%)
     Novi Sad, at "The
     Fishing Island", in
     front of the Fisher-
5.   men's Association /                   -
     na Ribarskom os-
     trvu, ispred
     Udruzenja ribolo-
     vaca

     Novi Sad, in Alber-
6.   ta Tome Street / u                    -
     Ulici Alberta Tome

                                  TC in 1 (100.00%);
     Novi Sad, in Jozefa          FC (Klebsiella oxy-
7.   Marcoka Street/u              toca, Klebsiella
     Ulici Jozefa                   pneumonia) in 1
     Marcoka                          (100.00%);
                                  Ent.in 1 (100.00%)

     Novi Sad, in Balza-
8.   kova Street/u Bal-                    -
     zakovoj ulici

                                  TC in 8 (100.00%);
                                 FC (Citrobacter fre-
                                  undii, Citrobacter
     Petrovaradin,              spp., Klebsiella pneu-
9.   "Snezna Marija"                  monia) in 8
                                  (100.00%); Proteus
                                  spp. in 2 (25.00%);
                                  Pseudomonas aerugi-
                                  nosa in 2 (25.00%)
                                   TC in 1 (50.00%);
     Bukovac, "Kumpu-           FC (E.coli, Citrobacter
10.  la" (in forest)/ (u       freundii) in 1 (50.00%);
     sumi)                        Ent. in 1 (50.00%)
                                 FC (Citrobacter fre-
                                   undii, Klebsiella
                                  pneumonia, E.coli,
     Bukovac, in Izvors-        Citrobacter spp.) in 8
11.  ka Street/u Izvor-            (88.89%); TC in 6
     skoj ulici            (66 67%)- HPC ([double dagger]) in 3
                                  (33.33%); Ent.in 2
                                   (22.22%); Proteus
                                  spp. in 1 (11.11%)
                                   TC in 3 (50.00%);
                                 FC (Citrobacter fre-
     Bukovac, "Vilina              undii, Klebsiella
12.  vodica" (in forest)/           pneumonia) in 3
     (u sumi)                     (50.00%); Ent. in 2
                                   (33.33%); Proteus
                                  spp. in 1 (16.67%)
                                   TC in 6 (85.71%);
                                  FC (E.coli, Citro-
     Sremska Kamenica,           bacter freundii, Cit-
     in Kneza Mihaila            robacter spp., Kleb-
13.  Street/u Ulici kneza        siella pneumonia) in
     Mihaila                     6 (85.71%); Ent. in 3
                                       (42.86%)
                                  TC in 7 (100.00%);
                                 FC (Citrobacter fre-
                                   undii, Klebsiella
14.  Sremska Kamenica,           pneumonia, E.coli) in
     "Ruzin venac"                 6 (85.71%); Pseu-
                                  domonas aeruginosa
                                in 3 (42.86%); Ent. in
                                  1 (14.29%); Proteus
                                  spp. in 1 (14.29%)
                                   TC in 9 (90.00%);
                                  FC (E.coli, Citro-
     Sremska Kamenica,             bacter freundii,
15.  under the bridge             Klebsiella pneumo-
     "Sloboda"/ispod              nia) in 9 (90.00%);
     mosta Sloboda                 Ent.in 5 (50.00%)
                                   HPC in 3 (30.00%)

                                   FC (E.coli, Kleb-
                                  seialla pneumonia,
                                 Citrobacter freundii,
                                      Citrobacter
     Stari Ledinci, near        spp., Klebsiela oxytoca,
     to the Local               Klebseilla spp.) in 12
16.  Community/u                  (100.00%); TC in 11
     blizini Mesne zajed-         (91.67%); Ent.in 11
     nice                         (91.67%); HPC in 6
                                    (50.00%); Pseu-
                                  domonas aeruginosa
                                     in 3 (25.00%)
                                 FC (E.coli, Klebseil-
                                 la pneumonia, Citro-
                                   bacter freundii,
                                  Klebseilla oxytoca)
     Stari Ledinci, in             in 12 (100.00%);
17.  front of the Church         Ent. in 12 (100.00%);
     / ispred crkve               TC in 11 (91.67%);
                                  HPC in 7 (58.33%);
                                  Pseudomonas aerugi-
                                  nosa in 3 (25.00%)
                                  TC in 12 (100.00%);
                                FC (E.coli, Klebsiella
                                   pneumonia, Citro-
     Stari Ledinci, in             bacter freundii,
18.  Lukij ana Musickog           Klebsiella oxytoca)
     Street/u Ulici Luki-          in 12 (100.00%);
     jana Musickog               Ent. in 11 (91.67%);
                                  HPC in 7 (58.33%);
                                  Pseudomonas aerugi-
                                  nosa in 3 (25.00%)
                                  TC in 4 (100.00%);
                                  FC (E.coli, Citro-
                                 bacter freundii, Cit-
     Stari Ledinci,              robacter spp., Kleb-
19.  Zvecan                      seilla pneumonia) in
                                 3 (75.00%); HPC in 3
                                  (75.00%); Ent. in 3
                                       (75.00%)

20.  Ledinci, Sveta Pet-                   -
     ka

No.  Drinking water        Physical/chemical analyses
R.b. source/Izvor vode      Fizicko-hemijske analize
     za pice                 Number and % of sam-
                            ples which were unsafe
                           for physical and chemi-
                             cal reasons/Broj i %
                            fizicko-hemijski neis-
                               pravnih uzoraka

     Novi Sad, in 1300
     kaplara Street/ u
1.                               12 (100.00%)
     Ulici 1300 kaplara

     Novi Sad, at the
     corner of Narodnog
     fronta and Sekspir          12 (100.00%)
2.   Street / na uglu
     Narodnog fronta i
     Sekspirove ulice

     Novi Sad, near to
     SPENS" (Sport
3.   and Recreate                11 (100.00%)
     Center)/u blizini
     SPENS-a

     Novi Sad, at "The
     Fishing Island",
     near to restaurant /
4.   na Ribarskom os-             4 (100.00%)
     trvu, u blizini
     restorana

     Novi Sad, at "The
     Fishing Island", in
     front of the Fisher-
5.   men's Association /         12 (100.00%)
     na Ribarskom os-
     trvu, ispred
     Udruzenja ribolo-
     vaca

     Novi Sad, in Alber-
6.   ta Tome Street / u          10 (100.00%)
     Ulici Alberta Tome

     Novi Sad, in Jozefa
7.   Marcoka Street/u
     Ulici Jozefa                12 (100.00%)
     Marcoka

     Novi Sad, in Balza-
8.   kova Street/u Bal-          12 (100.00%)
     zakovoj ulici

     Petrovaradin,
9.   "Snezna Marija"               9 (75.00%)

     Bukovac, "Kumpu-
10.  la" (in forest)/ (u            0 (0.00%)
     sumi)

     Bukovac, in Izvors-
11.  ka Street/u Izvor-           11 (91.67%)
     skoj ulici

     Bukovac, "Vilina
12.  vodica" (in forest)/           0 (0.00%)
     (u sumi)

     Sremska Kamenica,
     in Kneza Mihaila               1 (8.33%)
13.  Street/u Ulici kneza
     Mihaila

14.  Sremska Kamenica,              1 (8.33%)
     "Ruzin venac"

     Sremska Kamenica,
15.  under the bridge              5 (45.45%)
     "Sloboda"/ispod
     mosta Sloboda

     Stari Ledinci, near
     to the Local
16.  Community/u                    0 (0.00%)
     blizini Mesne zajed-
     nice

     Stari Ledinci, in
17.  front of the Church            0 (0.00%)
     / ispred crkve

     Stari Ledinci, in
18.  Lukij ana Musickog
     Street/u Ulici Luki-           0 (0.00%)
     jana Musickog

     Stari Ledinci,
19.  Zvecan                         0 (0.00%)

20.  Ledinci, Sveta Pet-          11 (91.67%)
     ka

No.  Drinking water         Physical/chemical analyses
R.b. source/Izvor vode       Fizicko-hemijske analize
     za pice                   Reasons of physical/
                               chemical unsafety of
                             drinking water quality-
                            number and % (**) / Uzroci
                              fizicko-hemijske neis-
                               pravnosti--broj i %

                               Turbidity/Zamucenost
                           >GV ([dagger]) in 12 (100.00%);
                                Total iron/Ukupno
     Novi Sad, in 1300           gvozde >GV in 12
     kaplara Street/ u              (100.00%)
1.                               Manganese/Mangan
     Ulici 1300 kaplara        >GV in 12 (100.00%)
                               OdourMiris >GV in 8
                               (66.67%); Color/Boja
                                >GV in 3 (25.00%)
                                Total iron/ Ukupno
                                 gvozde >GV in 12
     Novi Sad, at the               (100.00%);
     corner of Narodnog          Manganese/Mangan
     fronta and Sekspir        >GV in 12 100.00%);
2.   Street / na uglu          Turbidity/Zamucenost
     Narodnog fronta i         >GV in 11 (91.67%);
     Sekspirove ulice          Odour/Miris >GV in 8
                               (66.67%); Color/Boja
                                >GV in 4 (33.33%)
                                Total iron/ Ukupno
                                 gvozde >GV in 11
                                    (100.00%);
     Novi Sad, near to           Manganese/Mangan
     SPENS" (Sport             >GV in 11 100.00%);
3.   and Recreate              Turbidity/Zamucenost
     Center)/u blizini         >GV in 10 (90.91%);
     SPENS-a                   Odour/Miris >GV in 4
                               (36.36%); Color/Boja
                               >GV in 1 (9.09%)
                                 Manganese/Mangan
     Novi Sad, at "The         >GV in 4 (100.00%);
     Fishing Island",          Turbidity/Zamucenost
     near to restaurant /       >GV in 1 (25.00%);
4.   na Ribarskom os-           Total iron/ Ukupno
     trvu, u blizini             gvozde >GV in 1
     restorana                       (25.00%)
                                 Manganese/Mangan
     Novi Sad, at "The         >GV in 12 (100.00%);
     Fishing Island", in        Total iron/ Ukupno
     front of the Fisher-        gvozde >GV in 11
5.   men's Association /       (91.67%); Turbidity/
     na Ribarskom os-          Zamucenost >GV in 9
     trvu, ispred              (75.00%); Color/Boja
     Udruzenja ribolo-          >GV in 3 (25.00%);
     vaca                      Odour/Miris >GV in 2
                                     (16.67%)
                            Total iron/ Ukupno gvozde
                               >GV in 10 (100.00%);
     Novi Sad, in Alber-       Manganese/Mangan >GV
6.   ta Tome Street / u     in 10 100.00%); Turbidity/
     Ulici Alberta Tome        Zamucenost >GV in 9
                               (90.00%); Color/Boja
                            >GV in 6 (60.00%); Color/
                              Boja >GV in 2 (20.00%)
                               Turbidity/Zamucenost
                               >GV in 12 (100.00%);
     Novi Sad, in Jozefa    Conductivity/Provodjivost
7.   Marcoka Street/u        >GV in 12 (100.00%); To-
     Ulici Jozefa             tal iron/Ukupno gvozde
     Marcoka                   >GV in 12 (100.00%);
                               Ammonia/Amonjak >GV
                                  in 10 (83.33%)
                             Total iron/Ukupno gvozde
                               >GV in 12 (100.00%);
                              Manganese/Mangan > GV
     Novi Sad, in Balza-    in 11 (91.67%): Turbidity/
8.   kova Street/u Bal-        Zamucenost >GV in 10
     zakovoj ulici            (83.33%); Color /Boja
                                >GV in 2 (16.67%);
                               Odour/Miris >GV in 2
                                     (16.67%)

                             Nitrates/Nitrati >GV in
     Petrovaradin,                 9 (100.00%);
9.   "Snezna Marija"              Conductivity/
                              Provodjivost >GV in 2
                                     (22.22%)

     Bukovac, "Kumpu-
10.  la" (in forest)/ (u                -
     sumi)

     Bukovac, in Izvors-     Nitrates/Nitrati >GV in
11.  ka Street/u Izvor-           11 (100.00%);
     skoj ulici                Turbidity/Zamucenost
                                 >GV in 1 (9.09%)

     Bukovac, "Vilina
12.  vodica" (in forest)/               -
     (u sumi)

     Sremska Kamenica,            Conductivity/
     in Kneza Mihaila         Provodljivost >GV in 1
13.  Street/u Ulici kneza           (100.00%)
     Mihaila

14.  Sremska Kamenica,         Turbidity/Zamucenost
     "Ruzin venac"              >GV in 1 (100.00%)

     Sremska Kamenica,         Turbidity/Zamucenost
15.  under the bridge          >GV in 5 (100.00%);
     "Sloboda"/ispod         Nitrates/Nitrati >GV in
     mosta Sloboda                 1 (20.00%);

     Stari Ledinci, near
     to the Local
16.  Community/u                        -
     blizini Mesne zajed-
     nice

     Stari Ledinci, in
17.  front of the Church                -
     / ispred crkve

     Stari Ledinci, in
18.  Lukij ana Musickog
     Street/u Ulici Luki-               -
     jana Musickog

     Stari Ledinci,
19.  Zvecan                             -

                             Nitrates/Nitrati >GV in
                                   11(100.00%);
20.  Ledinci, Sveta Pet-          Conductivity/
     ka                       Provodljivost >GV in 1
                                     (9.09%)

Legend: (*) % - percent; (**) - number and % are defined according to
total number of controlled samples either for microbiological or for
physical and chemical analyses; (#) - Unsafety was not defined;
([dagger]) GV - guideline value; ([double dagger]) TC - Total
Coliforms; ([section]) FC - Fecal Coliforms; ([paragraph]) Ent.
- Enterococcus (genus Streptococcus); ([dagger][dagger]) HPC
- Heterotrophic Plate Count
Legenda:  (*) % - procenat; (**) - broj i % je odreden u odnosu na
ukupan broj neispravnih mikrobioloskih i/ili fizicko-hemijskih analiza;
(#) -Neispravnost nije utvrdena; ([dagger]) GV - granicna vrednost;
([double dagger]) TC - ukupan broj koliformnih mikroorganizama;
([section]) FC - fekalni koliformni mikroorganizmi; ([paragraph]) Ent.
- Enterokoke (genus Streptococcus); ([dagger][dagger]) HPC - Aerobni
mezofilni mikroorganizmi

Table 3. Public health risks caused by drinking water from public wells
in South Backa District
Tabela 3. Rizik po zdravlje ljudi uzrokovan vodom za pice poreklom iz
javnih bunara na teritoriji Juznobackog upravnog okruga

Public well/Javni bunar          Risk Assessment (Likelihood/Severity)
                                 /Rangiranje rizika (Verovatnoca/Uticaj
                                           na zdravlje)
                                 Low/Nizak <6  Medium/Srednji 6-9


Novi Sad (*)                          -                9
Novi Sad (**)                         -                -
Petrovaradin, Snezna Marija           -                -
Bukovac (***)                         -                -
Sremska Kamem'ca ([dagger])           -                -
Stari Ledinci ([double dagger])       -                -
Ledinci, Sveta Petka                  -                -

Public well/Javni bunar          Risk Assessment (Likelihood/Severity)
                                 /Rangiranje rizika (Verovatnoca/Uticaj
                                            na zdravlje)
                                 High/Visok 10-15  Very high/Veoma
                                                      visok >15

Novi Sad (*)
Novi Sad (**)                            12               -
Petrovaradin, Snezna Marija              12               -
Bukovac (***)                            12               -
Sremska Kamem'ca ([dagger])              12               -
Stari Ledinci ([double dagger])          12               -
Ledinci, Sveta Petka                     12               -

Legend: (*) In 1300 Kaplara Street, at the corner of Narodnog fronta
and Shakespeare Street, near the "SPENS" (Sport and Recreate Center),
at "The Fishing Island" in front of the monument of the Fishermen's
Association and Public Health Institute, in Alberta Tome Street, in
Balzakova Street; (**) At "The Fishing Island", near to restaurant and
in Jozefa Marcoka Street; (***) In Izvorska Street, "Vilina vodica" (in
forest), "Kumpula" (in forest); ([degrees]) In Kneza Mihaila Street,
"Ruzin venac" and under the bridge "Sloboda"; J Near to the Local
Community, in front of the Church, in Lukijana Musickog Street and
"Zvecan".
Legenda: (*) Ulica 1300 Kaplara, ugao Narodnog fronta i Sekspirove
ulice, u blizini "SPENS"-a, na Ribarskom ostrvu ispred spomenika
"Udruzenja ribolovaca i Higijenskog Zavoda", u Ulici Alberta Tome i u
Balzakovoj ulici; (**) Na Ribarskom ostrvu blizu restorana i u Ulici
Jozefa Marcoka; (***) U Izvorskoj ulici, "Vilina vodica" (u sumi),
"Kumpula" ((u sumi); ([degrees]) U Ulici kneza Mihaila, "Ruzin venac" i
ispod mosta "Sloboda"; ([double dagger]) U blizini Mesne zajednice,
ispred crkve, u Ulici Lukijana Musickog i "Zvecan".
COPYRIGHT 2017 Drustvo Lekara Vojvodine
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2017 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:Original study/Originalni naucni rad
Author:Bijelovc, Sanja V.; Jevtic, Marija; Dragic, Natasa; Zivadinovic, Emil; Lukic, Danijela; Medic, Deana
Publication:Medicinski Pregled
Article Type:Report
Date:Sep 1, 2017
Words:6791
Previous Article:KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES AND PRACTICES AMONG THE YOUTH IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA RELEVANT FOR REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH/ZNANJE, STAVOVI I PRAKSA MLADIH U BOSNI...
Next Article:VISION RELATED PROBLEMS AFTER CATARACT SURGERY/VIDNA FUNKCIJA NAKON HIRURSKOG LECENJA KATARAKTE.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2021 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters |