Printer Friendly

RESPONSE OF WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L.) TO DIFFERENT MICRONUTRIENTS AND THEIR APPLICATION METHODS.

Byline: M. A. Nadim, I. U. Awan, M. S. Baloch, E. A. Khan, K. Naveed and M. A. Khan

ABSTRACT

Growth and yield response of wheat variety Gomal-8 was evaluated using micronutrients and their application methods. The trial was laid out in a randomized complete block design with split-plot arrangements. Five different micronutrients were placed in main plot while their three application methods were assigned to sub-plots. Results revealed that application of boron @ 2 kg ha-1 produced higher crop growth rate (23.58 g m-2 day-1), net assimilation rate (2.82 mg m-2 day-1), number of tillers (234.5 m-2), number of grains (52.92 spike-1) and grain yield (3.14 t ha-1). The use of iron @ 12 kg ha-1 also showed encouraging results similar to boron. Among various application methods, side dressing at 4 weeks after sowing (WAS) showed the best results as compared to soil application and foliar spray. Higher leaf area index and crop growth rate was obtained with the application of zinc @ 10 kg ha-1.

Also, different micronutrients had significant interaction with application methods for physiological and agronomic traits including number of tillers, leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR), net assimilation rate (NAR) and grain yield. Side dressing best interacted with boron for producing higher number of tillers, grains per spike, net assimilation rate and grain yield. This method showed better combination with iron for higher number of tillers, LAI and grain yield.

Key words: Wheat, micronutrients, application methods, growth, LAI.

INTRODUCTION

Wheat is the major source of plant based human nutrition and a part of daily dietary need in one form or the other. A conservative estimate illustrates two and half times low yield in Pakistan than other wheat producing countries of the world including China, India, USA, Russia and France (Khan et al., 2000). Low quality seed, salinity, water logging, inadequate use of fertilizers, lack of irrigation water, high input prices, low farmers' education and no use of micronutrients and organic fertilizers are the major reasons for low wheat production (Khan et al., 1999). Micronutrients play a pivotal role in the yield improvement (Rehm and Sims, 2006). They are needed in trace amounts but their adequate supply improves nutrients availability and positively affects the cell physiology that is reflected in yield as well (Taiwo et al., 2001; Adediran et al., 2004).

Micronutrients deficiency is widespread in many Asian countries due to the calcareous nature of soils, high pH, low organic matter, salt stress, prolonged drought, high bicarbonate contents in irrigation water and imbalanced application of NPK fertilizers (Ahmadikhah et al., 2010). Induced stress in plants including low crop yield and quality, imperfect plant morphological structure (such as fewer xylem vessels of small size), widespread infestation of various diseases and pests and lower fertilizer use efficiency are some of the adverse effects of micronutrient deficiency (Malakouti, 2008). Their lack greatly influences both the quantity and the quality of plant products (Ahmadikhah et al., 2010). Kumar et al. (2009) depicted that Cu fluxes and its interactions with other micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn) affects the growth and yield of wheat plants while Cu excess may induce the deficiency of other micronutrients and adversely affect the yield.

Micronutrient deficiency has become a major constraint for crop productivity that may either be primary, due to their low total contents or secondary, caused by soil factors that reduce their availability to plants (Sharma and Chaudhary, 2007). The use of micronutrients is also important because of increasing economic and environmental concerns (Siddiqui et al., 2009). Khan et al. (2006) reported that Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn contents of leaf, straw and grain of wheat increased with the application of mineral fertilizers. Soleimani (2006) found that integrated application of Zn through soil and foliar spray affected the Mn and Cu contents of wheat grains. More to the point, application methods for trace elements also affect the crop growth and yield. Arif et al. (2006) advocated foliar sprays of nutrient solution at tillering, jointing and boot stages along with half of the recommended doses of N and P to increase yield and yield components of wheat.

Kinaci and Gulmezoglu (2007) revealed that foliar treatments had positive effect on the yield attributes. With this in view, a research trial was conducted to utilize these rich sources of plant food in different ways as no attempts have ever been made to evaluate this issue under the agro-climatic conditions of the area.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The present study was carried out at the Agricultural Research Institute, Dera Ismail Khan during the year 2009-10. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with split-plot arrangements and replicated 4 times. Micronutrients viz. Zinc (10 kg ha-1), Copper (8 kg ha-1), Iron (12 kg ha-1), Manganese (12 kg ha-1) and Boron (2 kg ha-1) were assigned to main plot and applied in the form of ZnSO4, CuSO4, FeSO4, MnSO4 and Borax. The application methods viz. side dressing (4 WAS), foliar application (4 WAS) and soil application (at sowing) were assigned to sub-plot. Basel fertilizer dose @ 150-120-90 kg NPK ha-1 in the form of Urea, Di-Ammonium Phosphate and Potassium Sulphate, respectively were applied to all treatments. Half dose of nitrogen and full doses of P2O5 and K2O were applied at the time of sowing while remaining half nitrogen was applied with first irrigation. Sowing was done by hand drill with plant to plant and row to row distance of 10 and 30 cm, respectively.

The net plot size was 1.8 x 5 m2. A seed rate of 100 kg ha-1 of wheat variety "Gomal-8" was used. Geographical coordinates of the experimental site was 31deg north, 70deg east having clay-loam soil of pH 7.6 and 0.68% organic matter. Soil fertility status showed 0.042% nitrogen, 10.11 ppm phosphorus and 400 ppm exchangeable potassium. The weather condition of the experimental site is given in Table-1.

All other cultural practices were followed according to standard recommendations for the locality. Data on leaf area index (49 and 98 DAS), leaf area duration (49 and 98 DAS), crop growth rate (g m-2 day-1), relative growth rate (g g-1 day-1), net assimilation rate (mg m-2 day-1), number of tillers (m-2), grains (spike-1), 1000- seed weight (g) and grain yield (t ha-1) were recorded and analyzed statistically using analysis of variance techniques (Steel and Torrie, 1984) and means were separated by Duncan's new multiple range test (Gomez and Gomez, 1976). Data were analyzed using MSTAT-C computer software program.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Leaf area index (LAI) at 49 and 98 days after sowing: LAI is the ratio of total leaf area to ground cover and typically increases to a maximum after crop emergence. The data revealed that different micronutrients and their application methods did not affect leaf area index significantly at 49 days after sowing (Table-2). However, the maximum LAI of 0.16 was recorded in B and Cu treated plots. Application methods as well as their interaction with different micronutrients were non- significant statistically. The use of trace elements, however, significantly affected the leaf area index at 98 days after sowing (Table-3). It is evident from the results that leaf area index increased linearly from one growth phase to another. The maximum leaf area index (2.85) was observed in Zn application which was statistically at par with 2.68 and 2.52 recorded in B and Fe application, respectively.

Availability of sufficient nutrients resulted in higher leaf area, which in turn boosted the photosynthetic activity and ultimately higher dry matter accumulation. These findings are supported by Nataraja et al. (2006) who observed significantly higher LAI by the combined application of P2O5 and ZnSO4 at 90 DAS. Among the application methods, placement of micro- elements aside the rows facilitated the plants to absorb efficiently while foliar application also showed instant intake of nutrients by the plants which resulted the maximum leaf area indices of 2.63 and 2.48 in side dressing and foliar spray as compared to LAI of 2.32 in soil application. The interaction between micronutrients and application methods was significant statistically.

Side dressing of Zn and Fe produced LAI of 3.29 and 3.16, respectively which was statistically at par with Zn (3.01 LAI) in soil application and B (2.98 LAI) in foliar spray. Ziaeian and Malakouti (2001) also showed that application of Zn and Fe significantly increased the oncentration and total uptake of these nutrients in grain, flag leaves grain protein contents as well.

Leaf area duration (LAD) at 49 and 98 days after sowing: Leaf area duration expresses the magnitude and persistence of leaf area or leafiness during the crop growth period. The data on LAD at 49 days after sowing showed that different micronutrients, application methods and their interaction was non-significant statistically (Table-4). Among micro-elements, the use of Cu, however, produced the maximum LAD (1.16) while 1.09

LAD was recorded in foliar spray. As far as the interaction is concerned, Cu in foliar spray and B in soil application produced the highest LAD (1.25 and 1.24). Leaf area duration provides a means for comparing treatments on the basis of leaf persistence which reflects the extent of light interception, higher the leaf area index more will be the LAD (Reddy, 2004). The data presented in Table-5 indicated that micronutrients and their application methods had significant effect on LAD at 98 days after sowing. Higher persistence of leaves and leaf area index by Zn application resulted into the maximum LAD (39.90) which was statistically at par with B (37.54), Fe (35.22) and Cu (33.08) application. Nataraja et al. (2006) also reported that combined application of P2O5 and ZnSO4 produced significantly higher LAD at 60-90 days after sowing. Similarly, side dressing produced 36.88 which was statistically at par with foliar spray (34.76 LAD).

The interaction between two factors was signiicant statistically. Side dressing of Zn and Fe showed the maximum LAD (46.03 and 44.28) that was statistically similar to soil application of Zn (42.12), foliar and soil application of B (41.72 and 39.91). The minimum leaf area duration (24.49) was observed in soil application of Cu.

Crop growth rate (g m-2 day-1): Crop growth rate refers to the dry matter production in a unit of time. Various factors including temperature, solar radiation, age of cultivar and water/nutrient supply affect the CGR. The data exhibited that application of micronutrients had non- significant effect on crop growth rate (Table-6). The higher CGR (23.58) was, however, recorded by the application of B followed by Zn application (20.59 g m-2 day-1) while the minimum CGR (19.47) was recorded in Cu treated plots. Among different application methods, side dressing after four weeks of sowing showed better results due to sufficient availability of nutrients at the time when plants required nutritional supplement which influenced the size and efficiency of leaf canopy and hence the ability of crop to convert solar energy into economic growth (Reddy, 2004).

Significantly higher CGR (22.15) was observed in side dressing while soil application and foliar spray had statistically similar (20.30 and 19.24 g m-2 day-1) crop growth rate. As far as the interaction is concerned, foliar spray of B had CGR (26.39) similar to the soil application of the same element (25.13) and side dressing of Zn (23.11 g m-2 day-1). Nataraja et al. (2006) recorded significantly higher CGR by the soil application of Zn at 60-90 days after sowing. It was also noticed that foliar application of Cu initially caused leaves burning which subsequently reduced the CGR. Toxicity of the same element (Cu) also affected the soil status thereby producing the lowest CGR (16.13) in soil application method.

Relative growth rate (g g-1 day-1): Growth parameters such as germination, leaf area index, relative growth rate and net assimilation rate are very important to assess the plant growth. Relative growth rate (RGR) expresses the dry weight increase in time interval in relation to the initial weight. Since crop growth rate is an absolute measure of growth, similar values could be expected for different initial weights (Reddy, 2004). The data regarding RGR was not significantly affected by micronutrients, application methods and their interaction (Table-7). However, the plants treated with boron and iron accumulated more dry matter as compared to other micro elements. The highest relative growth rate (0.082 and 0.081 g g-1 day-1) was obtained in B and Fe application. Similarly, side dressing and soil application had the same relative growth rate (0.081 g g-1 day-1).

The data further indicated that soil application of B and side dressing of Fe and Zn produced the highest relative growth rates of 0.086, 0.084 and 0.083 g g-1 day-1, respectively. The lowest relative growth rate (0.074 g g-1 day-1) was recorded in foliar application of Zn.

These results are supported by Shukla and Warsi (2000) who reported that application of B and Fe had no significant effect on the relative growth rate and dry matter accumulation of wheat.

Net assimilation rate (mg m-2 day-1): NAR expresses plant's capacity to increase dry weight in terms of the area of its assimilatory surface. The term, therefore, represents the photosynthetic efficiency in the overall sense and in connection with LAR and RGR (Reddy,2004). Different micronutrients and their application methods had significant effect on net assimilation rate (Table-8). Higher concentrations of B in the leaves and leaf tips resulted in increased photosynthesis and more chlorophyll formation. Among the micronutrients, B application accumulated the maximum (2.82) and statistically similar assimilates to Mn (2.62 mg m-2 day-1). These were followed by rest of three micronutrients i.e. Cu, Fe and Zn showing statistically similar NAR (2.40, 2.37 and 2.26 mg m-2 day-1). Among the application methods, side dressing and soil application of micro- elements resulted in the maximum NAR (2.62 and 2.59 mg m-2 day-1).

Micronutrients and their application methods significantly interacted with each other. Side dressing of B had significantly higher NAR (3.36) followed by soil application of the same element (2.77 mg m-2 day-1). Foliar spray of Zn showed the minimum net assimilation rate (2.06 mg m-2 day-1). These results are in line with Shukla and Warsi (2000) who reported that all the growth parameters including NAR were highest with the application of NPK along with micronutrients.

Number of tillers (m ): The number of tillers depends on the genotype, environment as well as the plant nutrition. The data presented in Table-9 revealed significant variations in micronutrients and their application methods. Among treatments, application of B produced the maximum tillers (234.5) which were statistically at par with 228.6 tillers m-2 recorded in Fe treatment. These treatments were significantly different from Zn (217.5) and Cu (211.8 tillers m-2) treated plots while the lowest number of tillers (201.3) was recorded by the use of Mn. The placement of micronutrients around the plants greatly influenced the crop status, particularly the way and time of application. Amongst different methods, side dressing produced significantly the highest tillers (237.1) as compared to 204.1 tillers m-2 recorded in soil application method.

As far as the interaction is concerned, side dressing was best interacted with B producing 291.3 tillers m-2 followed by the same method with Fe (259.8 tille s m-2). These results coincide with Uddin et al. (2008) who reported that application of boron significantly increased the number of tillers over control. Soil application had poor interaction with Fe producing 173.3 tillers m-2.

Number of grains (spike ): Generally the spikes per unit area and number of grains spike are the most important determinants of the yield which are affected by various factors including balanced nutrition. As shown in Table-10, different micronutrients significantly affected, however, their application methods had non-significant effect on number of grains spike-1. Among trace elements, the use of B produced the highest number of (52.92) followed by Fe application (46.17 grains spike -1 ). Boron is basically responsible for fruit setting and qualitative improvement which resulted in increased number of grains.

Plots receiving Cu produced 46.08 grains which were statistically at par with Mn (45.50 spike -1 ). Among different application methods, side dressing showed 47.20 grains spike -1 . Though non- significant statistically, the application of B produced the highest number of grains spike -1 in foliar spray (54.25), side dressing (53.75) and soil application (50.75), respectively. The highest number of grains recorded in B treated plots was because of the reason that this element is responsible for the grain formation and fruit setting in crop plants. The results are in line with Uddin et al. (2008) who obtained higher number of grains (spike -1 ) by the application of boron.

The present results are further supported by Tahir et al. (2009) who recorded significant increase in number of grains spik e -1 with the foliarapplication of boron.

Table 1. Average monthly and seasonal meteorological data during the year 2009-10.

###Temp. Cc) Relative Humidity Rainfall

Month###0800###1400###

###Max###Mm###Hrs.###Hrs.###(mm)

October###33###16###82###57###13

November###25###10###80###55###-

December###22###5###81###63###-

January###16###5###88###76###9.2

February###22###8###76###58###1.1

March###30###15###63###63###22

April###37###19###74###45

Table 2. Leaf area index (49 DAS) as affected by different micronutrients and their application methods in wheat.

###Application Methods

Micronutrients###Side###Foliar Soil###Means

###Dress###Spray###Appl.

Zinc(Zn)###0.15###0.15###0.14###0.15NS

Copper (Cu)###0.17###0.18###0.14###0.16

Iron (Fe)###0.17###0.14###0.14###0.15

Manganese(Mn)###0.15###0.15###0.14###0.15

Boron (B)###0.13###0.16###0.16###0.16

Table 3. Leaf area index (98 DAS) as affected by different micronutrients and their application methods in wheat.

###Application Methods

Micronutrients###Side###Foliar###Soil###Means

###Dress###Spray###Appl.

Zinc (Zn)###3.29a###2.26def###3.01ab###2.85a

Copper (Cu)###2.69bcd###2.65bcd###1.75f###2.36

Iron (Fe)###3.16ab###2.35cde###2.03###2.52a

Manganese (Mn)###1.82ef###2.17def###1.96ef###1.99b

Boron (B)###2.21def###2.98ab###2.85abc###2.68a

Means###2.63a###2.48ab###2.32b

Table 4: Leaf area duration (49 DAS) as affected by different micronutrients and their application methods in wheat.

###Application Methods

Micronutrients###Side###Foliar Soil###Means

###Dress###Spray###Appi.

Zinc(Zn)###1.04NS###1.07###1.00###1.04NS

Copper (Cu)###1.22###1.25###1.01###1.16

Iron (Fe)###1.17###0.98###0.99###1.05

Manganese (Mn)###1.03###1.02###0.99###1.01

Boron (B)###0.88###1.15###1.24###1.09

Means###1.07 INS 1.09###1.05

Table 5. Leaf area duration (98 DAS) as affected by different micronutrients and their application methods in wheat

###Application Methods

Micronutrients###Side###Foliar###Soil###Means

###Dress###Spray###Appl.

Zinc (Zn)###46.03a###31.57def###42.12ab###39.90a

Copper (Cu)###37.63bcd###37.11bcd###24.49f###33.08

Iron (Fe)###44.28ab###32.93cde###28.45ef###35.22a

Manganese (Mn)###25.49ef###30.49c1ef 27.52###27.83b

Boron (B)###30.98def###41.72ab###39.91###37.54a

Means###36.88a###34.76ab###32.50

Table 6. Crop growth rate (g m-2 day-1) as affected by different micronutrients and their application methods in wheat.

###Application Methods

Micronutrients###Side###Foliar###Soil###Means

###Dress###Spray###Appl.

Zinc (Zn)###23.11ab###15.97e###22.68###20.59 NS

Copper (Cu)###22.57bc###19.72cc1###16.1e###19.47

Iron (Fe)###23.14b###1652de###18.91de###19.53

Manganese(Mn)###22.70bc###1758c1e###18.67de###19.65

Boron (B)###19.22###26.39a###25.13ab###23.58

Means###22.15a###19.24###20.30

Table 7. Relative growth rate (g g -1 day -1 ) as affected by different micronutrients and their application methods in wheat.

###Application Methods

Micronutrients###Side###Foliar###Soil###Means

###Dress###Spray###Appl.

Zinc (Zn)###0.083 NS 0.074###0.081###0.079 NS

Copper (Cu)###0.077###0.078###0.077###0.078

Iron (Fe)###0.084###0.079###0.080###0.081

Manganese (Mn)###0.080###0.078###0.079###0.079

Boron (B)###0.078###0.081###0.086###0.082

Means###0.081###0.078###0.081

NS = Non significant

Table 8. Net assimilation rate (mg m2 day') as affected by different micronutrients and their application methods in wheat.

###Apptication Methods

Micronutrients###Side###Foliar###Soil###Means

###Dress###Spray###AppL

Zinc (Zn)###2.30###2.06e###2.41b-e###2.26b

Copper (Cu)###2.47###2.20cdc 2.52b-e###2.40b

Iron(Fe)###2.33###2.11###2.65bc###2.37

Manganese (Mn)###2.66###2.72###2.60bcd###2.62a

Boron (B)###3.36a###2.32###2.77b###2.82a

Means###2.62a###2.28b###2.59a

Table 9. Number of tillers (m -2 ) as affected by different micronutrients and their application methodsin wheat.

###Application Methods

Micronutrients###Side###Foliar###Soil###Means

###Dress###Spray###Appl.###s

Zinc (Zn)###217.0ef###2000fgh###234.5###217.5

Copper(Cu)###231.8de###191.5hi###212.0fg###211.8

Iron (Fe)###259.8b###173.3###228.6a###228.6a

Manganese (Mn)###185.5hi###181.0hi###181.0hi###201.3c

Boron (B)###291.3a###193.3ghi 219.0def 234.c

NS = Non significant

LSD 0.05 for micronutrients = 2.085

Table 10. Number of grains (spike -1 ) as affected by different micronutrients and their application methods in wheat.

###Application Methods

Micronutrients###Side###Foliar Soil###Means

###Dress###Spray###Appi.

Zinc (Zn)###44.50NS 38.75###48.50###43.92c

Copper (Cu)###45.75###47.00###45.50###46.08bc

Iron (Fe)###46.25###49.00###43.25###46.17

Manganese(Mn)###45.75###46.25###44.50###45.50bc

Boron (B)###53.75###54.25###50.75###52.92a

Means###47.20NS 47.05###46.50

Any two means in their respective group sharing no common letter(s) are significant (P less than 0.05).

LSD0.05 for micronutrients = 0.134

LSD0.05 for application methods = 0.055

LSD0.05 for micronutrients x application methods = 0.129

Any two means in their respective group sharing no common letter(s) are significant (P less than 0.05).

Conclusion: The present research revealed varying results in wheat production. Various micronutrients and their application methods had significant effect on plant growth and yield. Boron application boosted plant growth with higher crop growth rate, relative growth rate and net assimilation rate. Among yield contributing parameters, plots treated with same element showed the best results

while side dressing was the best application method. The said method also significantly interacted with boron application and combination gave the best results for number of tillers, number of grains (spike-1) and grain yield as well.

REFERENCES

Abbas, G., M. Q. Khan, M. J. Khan, F. Hussain and I. Hussain (2009). Effect of iron on the growth and yield contributing parameters of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). J. Anim. Plant Sci. 19(3): 135-139.

Adediran, J. A., L. B. Taiwo, M. O. Akande, O. J. Idowu and R. A. Sobulo (2004). Application of organic and inorganic fertilizer for sustainable yield of maize and cowpea in Nigeria. J. Plant Nut.27(7): 1163-1181.

Ahmadikhah, A., H. Narimani, M. M. Rahimi and B.Vaezi (2010). Study on the effects of foliar spray of micronutrient on yield and yield components of durum wheat. Arch. Appl. Sci. Res. 2(6): 168-176.

Arif, M., M. A. Chohan, S. Ali, R. Gul and S. Khan (2006). Response of wheat to foliar application of nutrients. J. Agric. Biol. Sci. 1(4): 30-34.

Chaudry, E. H., V. Timmer, A. S. Javed and M. T. Siddique (2007). Wheat response to micronutrients in rainfed areas of Punjab. Soil and Environ. 26(1): 97-101.

Curtin, D., R. J. Martin and C. L. Scott (2008). Wheat (Triticum aestivum) response to micronutrients (Mn, Cu, Zn, B) in Canterbury, New Zealand. New Zealand J. Crop Hort. Sci. 36: 169-181.

El-Ghamry, A. M., A. M. A. El-Hamid and A. A. Mosa (2009). Effect of FYM and foliar application of micronutrients on yield characteristics of wheat grown on salt affected soil. American-Eurasian J. Agric. Environ. Sci. 5(4): 460-465.

Gomez, K. A. and A. A. Gomez (1976). Statistical procedure for agricultural research with emphasis on rice. 2nd Ed., IRRI, Los Banos, Philippine.

Habib, M (2009). Effect of foliar application of Zn and Fe on wheat yield and quality. African J. Biotechnol. 8: 6795-6798.

Khan, Z. A., M. A. Khan and M. S. Baloch (1999). Effect of different manures on the yield of wheat. Scientific Khyber. 12(1): 41-46.

Khan, M. A., I. Hussain and M. S. Baloch (2000). Wheat yield potential - current status and future strategies. Pakistan J. Biol. Sci. 3(1): 82-86.

Khan, H., Z. U. Hassan and A. A. Maitlo (2006). Yield and micronutrients content of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under a multi-nutrient fertilizer Hal-Tonic. Intl. J. Agric. Biol. 8(3):366-370.

Kinaci, E. and N. Gulmezoglu (2007). Grain yield and yield components of triticale upon application of different foliar fertilizers. Interciencia. 32(9):624-628.

Kumar, R., N. K. Mehrotra, B. D. Nautiyal, P. Kumar and P. K. Singh (2009). Effect of copper on growth, yield and concentration of Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu in wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L.). J. Environ. Biol. 30(4): 485-488.

Malakouti, M. J (2008). The effect of micronutrients in ensuring efficient use of macronutrients. Turk. J. Agric. For. 32(3): 215-220.

Nataraja, T. H., A. S. Halepyati, B. T. Pujari and B. K. Desai (2006). Influence of phosphorus levels and micronutrients on the physiological parameters of wheat. Karnataka J. Agri. Sci.19(3): 685-687.

Reddy, S. R (2004). Principles of crop production - growth regulators and growth analysis. 2nd Ed. Kalyani Publishers, Ludhiana, India, pp. 47-54.

Rehm, G. and A. Sims (2006). Micro-nutrients and production of hard red spring wheat. Minnesota Crop News, Univ. of Minnesota.

Sharma, J. C. and S. K. Chaudhary (2007). Vertical distribution of micronutrient cat ions in relation to soil characteristics in lower shivaliks of Solan district in North-West Himalayas. J. Ind. Soc. Soil Sci. 55(1): 40-44.

Shukla, S. K. and A. S. Warsi (2000). Effect of sulphur and micronutrients on growth, nutrient content and yield of wheat. Indian J. Agri. Res. 34(3):203-205.

Siddiqui, M. H., F. C. Oad, M. K. Abbasi and A. W. Gandahi (2009). Effect of NPK, micronutrient and N-placement on the growth and yield of sunflower. Sarhad J. Agric. 25(1): 45-52.

Soleimani, R (2006). The effects of integrated application of micronutrient on wheat in low organic carbon conditions of alkaline soils of Western Iran. Proc. 18th World Congress of Soil Sci., July 9- 15, Philadelphia, USA.

Taiwo, L. B., J. A. Adediran, M. O. Akande, V. A. Banjoko and G. A. Oluwatosin (2001). Influence of legume fallow on soil properties and yield of maize in south-western Nigeria. J. Agric. Tropics and Subtrop. 102(2): 109-117.

Uddin, M. N., M. S. Islam and A. B. M. S. Islam (2008).Effect of boron on wheat at different boron application methods. J. Subtrop. Agric. Res. Dev. 6(2): 483-486.

Wroble, S (2009). Response of spring wheat to foliar fertilization with boron under reduced boron availability. J. Elementol. 14: 395-404.

Ziaeian, A. H. and M. J. Malakouti (2001). Effects of Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu fertilization on the yield and grain quality of wheat in the calcareous soils of Iran. Food Security and Sustainability of Agro- Ecosystems, pp. 840: 841.
COPYRIGHT 2012 Asianet-Pakistan
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2012 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Nadim, M. A.; Awan, I. U.; Baloch, M. S.; Khan, E. A.; Naveed, K.; Khan, M. A.
Publication:Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Mar 31, 2012
Words:4612
Previous Article:DIVERSIFICATION OF RICE-BASED CROPPING SYSTEMS TO IMPROVE SOIL FERTILITY, SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTIVITY AND ECONOMICS.
Next Article:DEVELOPMENT OF BARI-2011: A HIGH YIELDING, DROUGHT TOLERANT VARIETY OF GROUNDNUT (Arachis hypogaea L.) WITH 3-4 SEEDED PODS.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2020 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters